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East and West in the Grip of the Cold War

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Presentation on theme: "East and West in the Grip of the Cold War"— Presentation transcript:

1 East and West in the Grip of the Cold War
25 East and West in the Grip of the Cold War

2 Collapse of the Grand Alliance
Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe Soviet forces occupied all of Eastern Europe and much of the Balkans United States and other Allied forces occupied the western part Between 1945 and 1947 Communist governments were entrenched in East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and Hungary Czechoslovakia becomes Communist in 1948 Yugoslavia become an independent communist state

3 Descent of the Iron Curtain
British Prime Minister’s, Winston Churchill, “Iron curtain” speech Divided Germany and Europe into two hostile camps Stalin’s reply: call to war with the Soviet Union” American people were in no mood for war

4 Eastern Europe in 1948

5 Truman Doctrine and The Marshall Plan
Winston Churchill, Westminster College Truman Doctrine Civil war in Greece and Turkey Money to countries threatened by communist expansion Marshall Plan, June 1947 $13 billion for the economic recovery of war-torn Europe Soviet view, “capitalist imperialism”

6 Europe Divided Split in Europe between East and West a fact of life
“containment” - George F. Kennan, Foreign Affairs, July 1947 The Berlin Airlift Denazification Partitioning of Germany (and Berlin) into 4 occupied zones British and Americans: tried 2 million cases Soviets and French went after major criminals and allowed lesser officials free Soviet Union, suffered most from the war, took reparations in the form of booty Merging of the British, French, and American zones Blockade of Berlin, German Federal Republic created, September 1949 German Democratic Republic created, October 1949

7 Berlin at the Start of the Cold War

8 A City Divided

9 Cold War in Europe Who Started the Cold War? Cold War Alliances
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), April 1949 Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), 1949 Warsaw Pact, 1955 Who Started the Cold War? Blame on Stalin – impose Soviet rule on Eastern Europe Blame on the U.S. – policy of encircling the Soviet Union with client states

10 New European Alliance Systems During the Cold War

11 Cold War in Asia Slower in Asia
Stalin entered Pacific War against Japan Roosevelt promised Moscow “preeminent interests” in Manchuria and Soviet naval base at Port Arthur Stalin signed an alliance with Republic of China not to support Chinese communists Stalin did not like Mao Zedong and wanted a strategically vital economic and political presence in northern China Allied agreements broke down East Asia entered Cold War in late 1940s

12 The Chinese Civil War Relations between U.S. and Chiang Kai-shek frayed U.S. disillusioned by corruption of Chiang’s government and its unwillingness to fight the Japanese Chiang wrestled with Japanese aggression and national development problems Communists started to build strength in northern China “mass line” policy - “from the masses to the masses” Reduced rents, confiscated lands from wealthy landlords By end of WWII, million Chinese under PLA and one million troops

13 The Chinese Civil War

14 The Communist Triumph Communists occupied rural area in Manchuria
Reforms by the communists Peasants attracted by promises of land and social justice United States tried to find peaceful solution Beijing encircled by PLA in 1948 Chiang and 2 million Nationalist followers flee to Taiwan President Truman gives limited military support to Chiang Kai-shek Sends George Marshall Charges of “soft on communism” at home

15 The New China Communist Government – 1949 with capital in Beijing
Goals: Erase a century of humiliation at hands of imperialist powers Restore traditional outer frontiers: territories of Manchu Empire (Manchuria, Taiwan, and Tibet) and Chinese influence in Korea and Vietnam Soviet recognized Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria and Xinjiang Chinese occupied Tibet in 1950 China provoked conflict with foreign powers over Korea and Taiwan Taiwan was occupied by Chiang Kai-skek, which the U.S. supported

16 Korean War China wanted to recover what had been part of Manchu Empire
China want to restore influence over Korea and Vietnam After the defeat of Chiang Kai-shek’s Republic of China and flight to Taiwan, the island became part of U.S. defense strategy in the Pacific U.S. and Soviet Union divide Korea at the 38th parallel, August 1945 North Koreans invaded the south, June 25, 1950 Chinese “volunteers” intervene when UN troops approach the Yalu River Cease-fire, July, 1953

17 The Korean Peninsula

18 Conflict in Indochina Vietminh Front led by Ho Chi Minh seize northern and central Vietnam War breaks out in December, 1946 Geneva Conference temporarily divided Vietnam, 1954 Elections to be held in two years Laos and Cambodia declared independent

19 From Confrontation to Coexistence
Soviet Union detonated first nuclear device in 1949 Nuclear holocaust averted with Stalin’s death in 1953 and successors Malenkov and Khrushchev desire to reduce tensions with West and improve living standards of Soviet people Policy of peaceful coexistence with West Ended postwar occupation of Austria Reduced defense expenditures and size of army

20 Ferment in Eastern Europe
Warsaw Pact - “little Stalins” ruled Eastern European Soviet-type 5-year plans heavy industry rather than consumer goods Collectivization of agriculture, Nationalization of industry Elimination of all non-Communist parties Institutions of repression: secret police and military forces Discontent in Hungary, Poland, and Romania Major protests in Poland in 1956

21 The Hungarian Revolution
Brutal “little Stalin” Matyas Rakosi student-led riots spread from capital (Budapest) to towns and villages Rakosi replaced by Nagy who tried to satisfy popular demands without angering soviets Protest movement wanted political reforms and withdrawal of Hungary from Warsaw Pact Soviets sent in troops and replace Nagy with a pliant party leader Nagy arrested, convicted of treason, and executed

22 How the Mighty Have Fallen

23 Different Roads to Socialism
To quell discontent, Soviet leaders allowed satellites to adopt domestic policies appropriate to local conditions “different roads to socialism” Hungary – allowed a measure of capitalist incentive and freedom of expression Crisis over Berlin East-West cultural exchange Khruschev’s visit to US in 1958

24 Rivalry in the Third World
Competition between superpowers (Soviets and U.S.) for influence throughout the world Khrushchev established alliances with Indonesia, Egypt, India, Cuba Unnerved the U.S. by declaring Soviet support to national liberation movements around the world Rising fears in Washington

25 Cuban Missile Crisis Fidel Castro takes control of Cuba, 1959
Failed Bay of Pigs invasion, 1961 Discovery by U.S. of missile bases being built, 1962 President John F. Kennedy orders a blockade of Cuba Khrushchev agrees to turn back ships carrying missiles in return for Kennedy’s promise not to invade Cuba

26 The Sino-Soviet Dispute
Mao asserts with the death of Stalin, he should be the most authoritative voice in the socialist community Limited Soviet economic assistance Khrushchev rejected Chinese demands to help regain Taiwan China portrays itself as the leader of the “rural underdeveloped countries”

27 Second Indochina War United States opposed the division of Vietnam in the settlement of Geneva in 1954 Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam refuses to hold elections Ho Chi Minh returns to a policy of war in the south, 1959 Diem regime overthrown with the approval of the Kennedy administration, 1963 President Lyndon Johnson sends larger numbers of troops to Vietnam, 1965

28 Indochina After 1957

29 Role of China China concerned about the war; does not get directly involved Tet offensive by the communists, 1968 President Richard Nixon elected in 1969 vows to bring an honorable end and began withdrawing troops Improved relations with China which undercut Chinese support for the North Vietnamese war effort Henry Kissinger’s secret trip to China President Nixon visit to China in 1972 U.S. reassured China that it would withdraw from Indochina Two sides agreed to set aside differences over Taiwan

30 A Bridge Across the Cold War Divide

31 Fall of Saigon Peace treaty in 1973 called for withdrawal of U.S. troops from South Vietnam Communists were to halt military operations and negotiate with Saigon Negotiations broke down Communists resumed offensive in 1975 South Vietnamese surrendered in 1976 Vietnam unified under Communist rule

32 An Era of Equivalence The Brezhnev Doctrine Czechoslovakia
Leonid Brezhnev replaced Khrushchev in 1964 Czechoslovakia’s “socialism with a human face” during a period called “Prague Spring” was short-lived Soviet Red Army invaded in 1968 and crushed the reform movement Warning to other socialist states not to stray far from Marxist-Lenist orthodoxy East Germany Erected a wall separating East Berlin from West Berlin Rule under party hard-liner, Honecker, for 18 years

33 An Era of Détente New age of Soviet-American relations – détente
Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty called SALT I Two nations agreed to limit size of their ABM systems U.S. policy of ‘equivalence’ Belief that two sides with equal power was best way to avoid nuclear confrontation Nixon pursued a policy of “linkages” to increase trade and cultural contacts with Soviet Union Helsinki Agreement, 1975 Acknowledged the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe Recognize and protect human rights of signatories’ citizens

34 Renewed Tensions in the Third World
Soviet’s involvement in Africa: Somalia, Ethiopia, Angola Soviet troops to Afghanistan, 1979 U.S. thought the motivation was because of oil Soviets feared the spread of Islamic activism to its Muslim populations in Central Asia U.S. suspicions of the Soviet Union increased: Carter Doctrine Thought Soviet’s was seeking strategic superiority in nuclear weapons U.S. public support for détente waned led to failure of Congress to approve anew arms limitation agreement (SALT II)

35

36 Countering the Evil Empire
President Ronald Reagan (b. 1911) and the “Evil Empire” Nuclear-tipped cruise missiles and Strategic Defense Initiative U.S. activities in Nicaragua Sandinistas Contras U.S. military aid to insurgents in Afghanistan

37 The New World Order Early 1990s, Soviet Union disintegrated
Soviet satellites in Eastern Europe became independent Mao Zedong’s vision of a classless utopia was replaced by a market-based economy focused on wealth and power End to Cold War - hope for peaceful cooperation and global prosperity Civil war broke out in Balkans in mid-1990s Ethnic and religious disputes in Africa and Middle East 9/11 led the world into a new era “War on Terrorism” Environmental problems Threat of global warming Gap between rich and poor nations Migrations of peoples

38 Discussion Questions Why were the United States and the Soviet Union suspicious of each other after WW II, and what events between 1945 and 1949 heightened the tensions between the two nations? How and why did Mao Zedong and the Communists come to power in China, and what were the Cold War implications of their triumph? Why did the Cold War briefly flare up again in the 1980s, and why did it come to a definitive end at the end of the decade?


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