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East and West in the Grip of the Cold War 25. Collapse of the Grand Alliance  Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe  Soviet forces occupied all of Eastern.

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Presentation on theme: "East and West in the Grip of the Cold War 25. Collapse of the Grand Alliance  Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe  Soviet forces occupied all of Eastern."— Presentation transcript:

1 East and West in the Grip of the Cold War 25

2 Collapse of the Grand Alliance  Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe  Soviet forces occupied all of Eastern Europe and much of the Balkans  United States and other Allied forces occupied the western part  Between 1945 and 1947 Communist governments were entrenched in East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and Hungary  Czechoslovakia becomes Communist in 1948  Yugoslavia become an independent communist state

3 Descent of the Iron Curtain  British Prime Minister’s, Winston Churchill, “Iron curtain” speech  Divided Germany and Europe into two hostile camps  Stalin’s reply: call to war with the Soviet Union”  American people were in no mood for war

4 Eastern Europe in 1948

5 Truman Doctrine and The Marshall Plan  Winston Churchill, Westminster College  Truman Doctrine  Civil war in Greece and Turkey  Money to countries threatened by communist expansion  Marshall Plan, June 1947  $13 billion for the economic recovery of war-torn Europe  Soviet view, “capitalist imperialism”

6 Europe Divided  Split in Europe between East and West a fact of life  “containment” - George F. Kennan, Foreign Affairs, July 1947  The Berlin Airlift  Denazification  Partitioning of Germany (and Berlin) into 4 occupied zones  British and Americans: tried 2 million cases  Soviets and French went after major criminals and allowed lesser officials free  Soviet Union, suffered most from the war, took reparations in the form of booty  Merging of the British, French, and American zones  Blockade of Berlin,  German Federal Republic created, September 1949  German Democratic Republic created, October 1949

7 Berlin at the Start of the Cold War

8 A City Divided

9 Cold War in Europe  Cold War Alliances  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), April 1949  Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), 1949  Warsaw Pact, 1955  Who Started the Cold War?  Blame on Stalin – impose Soviet rule on Eastern Europe  Blame on the U.S. – policy of encircling the Soviet Union with client states

10 New European Alliance Systems During the Cold War

11 Cold War in Asia  Slower in Asia  Stalin entered Pacific War against Japan  Roosevelt promised Moscow “preeminent interests” in Manchuria and Soviet naval base at Port Arthur  Stalin signed an alliance with Republic of China not to support Chinese communists  Stalin did not like Mao Zedong and wanted a strategically vital economic and political presence in northern China  Allied agreements broke down  East Asia entered Cold War in late 1940s

12 The Chinese Civil War  Relations between U.S. and Chiang Kai-shek frayed  U.S. disillusioned by corruption of Chiang’s government and its unwillingness to fight the Japanese  Chiang wrestled with Japanese aggression and national development problems  Communists started to build strength in northern China  “mass line” policy - “from the masses to the masses”  Reduced rents, confiscated lands from wealthy landlords  By end of WWII, million Chinese under PLA and one million troops

13 The Chinese Civil War

14 The Communist Triumph  Communists occupied rural area in Manchuria  Reforms by the communists  Peasants attracted by promises of land and social justice  United States tried to find peaceful solution  Beijing encircled by PLA in 1948  Chiang and 2 million Nationalist followers flee to Taiwan  President Truman gives limited military support to Chiang Kai-shek Sends George Marshall Charges of “soft on communism” at home

15 The New China  Communist Government – 1949 with capital in Beijing  Goals:  Erase a century of humiliation at hands of imperialist powers  Restore traditional outer frontiers: territories of Manchu Empire (Manchuria, Taiwan, and Tibet) and Chinese influence in Korea and Vietnam  Soviet recognized Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria and Xinjiang  Chinese occupied Tibet in 1950  China provoked conflict with foreign powers over Korea and Taiwan  Taiwan was occupied by Chiang Kai-skek, which the U.S. supported

16 Korean War  China wanted to recover what had been part of Manchu Empire  China want to restore influence over Korea and Vietnam  After the defeat of Chiang Kai-shek’s Republic of China and flight to Taiwan, the island became part of U.S. defense strategy in the Pacific  U.S. and Soviet Union divide Korea at the 38th parallel, August 1945  North Koreans invaded the south, June 25, 1950  Chinese “volunteers” intervene when UN troops approach the Yalu River  Cease-fire, July, 1953

17 The Korean Peninsula

18 Conflict in Indochina  Vietminh Front led by Ho Chi Minh seize northern and central Vietnam  War breaks out in December, 1946  Geneva Conference temporarily divided Vietnam, 1954  Elections to be held in two years  Laos and Cambodia declared independent

19 From Confrontation to Coexistence  Soviet Union detonated first nuclear device in 1949  Nuclear holocaust averted with Stalin’s death in 1953 and successors Malenkov and Khrushchev desire to reduce tensions with West and improve living standards of Soviet people  Policy of peaceful coexistence with West  Ended postwar occupation of Austria  Reduced defense expenditures and size of army

20 Ferment in Eastern Europe  Warsaw Pact - “little Stalins” ruled Eastern European  Soviet-type 5-year plans  heavy industry rather than consumer goods  Collectivization of agriculture,  Nationalization of industry  Elimination of all non-Communist parties  Institutions of repression: secret police and military forces  Discontent in Hungary, Poland, and Romania  Major protests in Poland in 1956

21 The Hungarian Revolution  Brutal “little Stalin” Matyas Rakosi  student-led riots spread from capital (Budapest) to towns and villages  Rakosi replaced by Nagy who tried to satisfy popular demands without angering soviets  Protest movement wanted political reforms and withdrawal of Hungary from Warsaw Pact  Soviets sent in troops and replace Nagy with a pliant party leader  Nagy arrested, convicted of treason, and executed

22 How the Mighty Have Fallen

23 Different Roads to Socialism  To quell discontent, Soviet leaders allowed satellites to adopt domestic policies appropriate to local conditions “different roads to socialism”  Hungary – allowed a measure of capitalist incentive and freedom of expression  Crisis over Berlin  East-West cultural exchange  Khruschev’s visit to US in 1958

24 Rivalry in the Third World  Competition between superpowers (Soviets and U.S.) for influence throughout the world  Khrushchev established alliances with Indonesia, Egypt, India, Cuba  Unnerved the U.S. by declaring Soviet support to national liberation movements around the world  Rising fears in Washington

25 Cuban Missile Crisis  Fidel Castro takes control of Cuba, 1959  Failed Bay of Pigs invasion, 1961  Discovery by U.S. of missile bases being built, 1962  President John F. Kennedy orders a blockade of Cuba  Khrushchev agrees to turn back ships carrying missiles in return for Kennedy’s promise not to invade Cuba

26 The Sino-Soviet Dispute  Mao asserts with the death of Stalin, he should be the most authoritative voice in the socialist community  Limited Soviet economic assistance  Khrushchev rejected Chinese demands to help regain Taiwan  China portrays itself as the leader of the “rural underdeveloped countries”

27 Second Indochina War  United States opposed the division of Vietnam in the settlement of Geneva in 1954  Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam refuses to hold elections  Ho Chi Minh returns to a policy of war in the south, 1959  Diem regime overthrown with the approval of the Kennedy administration, 1963  President Lyndon Johnson sends larger numbers of troops to Vietnam, 1965

28 Indochina After 1957

29 Role of China  China concerned about the war; does not get directly involved  Tet offensive by the communists, 1968  President Richard Nixon elected in 1969 vows to bring an honorable end and began withdrawing troops  Improved relations with China which undercut Chinese support for the North Vietnamese war effort  Henry Kissinger’s secret trip to China  President Nixon visit to China in 1972  U.S. reassured China that it would withdraw from Indochina  Two sides agreed to set aside differences over Taiwan

30 A Bridge Across the Cold War Divide

31 Fall of Saigon  Peace treaty in 1973 called for withdrawal of U.S. troops from South Vietnam  Communists were to halt military operations and negotiate with Saigon  Negotiations broke down  Communists resumed offensive in 1975  South Vietnamese surrendered in 1976  Vietnam unified under Communist rule

32 An Era of Equivalence  The Brezhnev Doctrine  Czechoslovakia  Leonid Brezhnev replaced Khrushchev in 1964  Czechoslovakia’s “socialism with a human face” during a period called “Prague Spring” was short-lived  Soviet Red Army invaded in 1968 and crushed the reform movement  Warning to other socialist states not to stray far from Marxist-Lenist orthodoxy  East Germany  Erected a wall separating East Berlin from West Berlin  Rule under party hard-liner, Honecker, for 18 years

33 An Era of Détente  New age of Soviet-American relations – détente  Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty called SALT I  Two nations agreed to limit size of their ABM systems  U.S. policy of ‘equivalence’  Belief that two sides with equal power was best way to avoid nuclear confrontation  Nixon pursued a policy of “linkages” to increase trade and cultural contacts with Soviet Union  Helsinki Agreement, 1975  Acknowledged the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe  Recognize and protect human rights of signatories’ citizens

34 Renewed Tensions in the Third World  Soviet’s involvement in Africa: Somalia, Ethiopia, Angola  Soviet troops to Afghanistan, 1979  U.S. thought the motivation was because of oil  Soviets feared the spread of Islamic activism to its Muslim populations in Central Asia  U.S. suspicions of the Soviet Union increased:  Carter Doctrine  Thought Soviet’s was seeking strategic superiority in nuclear weapons  U.S. public support for détente waned led to failure of Congress to approve anew arms limitation agreement (SALT II)

35

36 Countering the Evil Empire  President Ronald Reagan (b. 1911) and the “Evil Empire”  Nuclear-tipped cruise missiles and Strategic Defense Initiative  U.S. activities in Nicaragua  Sandinistas  Contras  U.S. military aid to insurgents in Afghanistan

37 The New World Order  Early 1990s, Soviet Union disintegrated  Soviet satellites in Eastern Europe became independent  Mao Zedong’s vision of a classless utopia was replaced by a market-based economy focused on wealth and power  End to Cold War - hope for peaceful cooperation and global prosperity  Civil war broke out in Balkans in mid-1990s  Ethnic and religious disputes in Africa and Middle East  9/11 led the world into a new era “War on Terrorism”  Environmental problems  Threat of global warming  Gap between rich and poor nations  Migrations of peoples

38 Discussion Questions  Why were the United States and the Soviet Union suspicious of each other after WW II, and what events between 1945 and 1949 heightened the tensions between the two nations?  How and why did Mao Zedong and the Communists come to power in China, and what were the Cold War implications of their triumph?  Why did the Cold War briefly flare up again in the 1980s, and why did it come to a definitive end at the end of the decade?


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