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Friday, February 15, 2008 and Monday, February 18, 2008 4 TSW: how did political accusations create fear and suspicion usher in the New Red Scare and McCarthyism?
1.3: McCarthy & the Cold War at Home Anti-Communist Hysteria & Suspicion in the 1950s
1.3: Connecting the Experience to History 4 How did you feel when you discovered you had a blank piece of paper? A dot? 4 What methods did you use to determine who had a dot? 4 For those that had dots, how did you convince others you were not a dot? 4 For those who were accused of being a dot, how did you feel? What made you fearful or suspicious? 4 Given that there was no way to know for sure who was or was not a dot, why did you try so hard to convince others that certain class members were dots? 4 What emotions fueled this activity? Can you think of any time in history when something like this occurred?
1.3A: McCarthyism 4 What do you see here? 4 This man is Sen. Joe McCarthy who promoted anti- Communism in the 1950s 4 Why do you think he spoke out against Communism? 4 How do you think the American public responded? 4 Why?
4 Birth of McCarthyism 4 1950 - not well-known, Republican 4 barely won re-election 4 sought to promote pol career by attacking Communism 4 Feb. 12, 1950 - held a list of 205 Comm Party members who were working for the State Dept. 4 Communist Menace in: – the Government –entertainment industry –& education 4 (HUAC) House Un-American Activities Committee 1.3A: McCarthyism
4 Browbeat, bullied and berated for 4 years w/ HUAC 4 “are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?” 4 Refuse to testify?...“Fifth Amendment Communists” 4 Other deemed “guilty by association” –Attack Hollywood…this means name is always in newspaper 4 One of the most feared and powerful men in Wash. DC. 4 Fear, suspicion, scapegoating became known as McCarthyism 4 Carried Cold War hysteria to new heights 1.3A: McCarthyism
4 Anti-Communism as a Pol. Weapon 4 Democrats nervous b/c of ideology in liberal causes & reform politics 4 Democrats were labeled “soft on communism” 4 Reds were Communists 4 Pinks would gradually help lead America to Communism 4 Even called FDR’s New Deal “20 years of treason.” Creeping Socialism
1.3A: McCarthyism 4 McCarthyism & the Cold War 4 Prominence of McCarthyism was fueled by fears and tensions of the early Cold War. 4 The years surrounding McCarthyism were marked by Cold War setbacks and revelations about real spies. 4 1949 China becomes Communist (1/5 world pop.) 4 1949 Alger Hiss, a top state dept official is tried and convicted for passing classified docs to the Soviets. 4 1949 The Soviet Union tested its 1st Atomic Bomb 4 Several Americans, Julius and Ethyl Rosenberg, worked in a spy ring to pass atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. 4 Tried and executed for treason in 1953
1.3B: Anti-Communist Sentiment in American Society 4 What do you see ion this film poster? 4 What is the “Red Menace? 4 How can you tell? 4 What do you think the filmmaker’s purpose was in making this film? 4 How do you think moviegoers responded to the film’s message? 4 What conclusions can you draw about Americans’ cultural attitudes during the McCarthy era? Explain 4 In this transparency we see a promotional poster for the film The Red Menace, a stridently anti-Communist film made in 1949.
1.3B: Anti-Communist Sentiment in American Society 4 Anti-Communist Sentiment Pervades American Life 4 Hysteria and paranoia of McCarthyism permeated Am society and culture 4 Every aspect of society and culture was touched the anti-Communist fervor 4 Some consequences were extreme and comical. 4 However, the impact of McCarthyism was serious and long lasting
Tree Map Anti-Communist Sentiment Pervades American Life Politics Examples Lawmaking Examples Education Examples Film Industry Examples
1.3B: Anti-Communist Sentiment in American Society 4 Political Discourse 4 American politics swung heavily to the right, Republican and conservative. 4 Proposals by Democrats to increase the govt role in any program was viewed as leading to RED. (Creeping Socialism.) 4 1948 - Truman’s proposal for health care was defeated. 4 Communists favored “compulsory health insurance.” 4 1950s - Jonas Salk invented the Polio vaccine, it was suggested that all school age children be vaccinated for free. 4 However, Eisenhower’s sec’y of health, argued against vaccinating saying it would be “socialized medicine through the back door.” 4 Govt Funding for vaccinations cut by 70%
1.3B: Anti-Communist Sentiment in American Society 4 Lawmaking 4 In Texas, membership in the Comm Party was a felony and punishable by 20 years in prison. –The governor vetoed the bill, calling for death. 4 NY City, fisherman had to pledge their loyalty to the US to get their fishing license. 4 Indiana, wrestlers took a loyalty oath to get their license to wrestle. 4 Federal Level…Communist Control Act of ‘54 - illegal to be a member of the Comm Party. 4 6 Concentration camps scattered around the country to house suspected Communists
1.3B: Anti-Communist Sentiment in American Society 4 Education 4 Anti-Communist hysteria heavily impacted education. 4 Teachers/Professors required to tale loyalty oaths. 4 Textbooks emphasized patriotic themes, promoted anti- RED propaganda 4 High Schools told students to report suspicious behavior. 4 “Un-American” books were banned and removed from libraries.
1.3B: Anti-Communist Sentiment in American Society 4 The Film Industry 4 Prime target. 4 Constantly attacked by HUAC 4 Writers, producers, actors and directors tried to defend themselves, but ruined their career. 4 “Blacklisted” - banished from working in the industry. 4 John Wayne Gary Cooper, Walt Disney founded Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals. –“co-existence is a myth and neutrality impossible … anyone who is not fighting Communism is helping Communism.
1.3B: Anti-Communist Sentiment in American Society 4 The Film Industry 4 Film studios churned numerous anti-Communist films 4 The Iron Curtain, The Red Menace, The Steel Fist. 4 1952, 12 anti-Communist movies were made
4 What do you see here? 4 If this cartoon were in color, what color do you think the paint would be? Why? 4 What do you think the cartoon is saying about what will happen to McCarthy next? 4 How do you think the cartoonist felt about McCarthy?
1.3C: The End of McCarthyism 4 McCarthy Falls 4 Despite all of the hysteria, NO conspirators were ever found. 4 McCarthy Never proved his conspiracy theory. 4 Political power waned, supporters abandoned him. 4 Finally overreached himself when he shouted at a general on TV 4 “You are a disgrace to the uniform. You’re shielding communist conspirators … You’re not fit to be an officer. You’re ignorant.” 4 He ranted, raved, and even appeared to slur his speech as if he was drunk.
1.3C: The End of McCarthyism 4 McCarthy Falls 4 American s grew tired of his bullying tactics. 4 He disgraced general, congressman, Pres. Eisenhower. 4 He was censured by the Senate, 67-22 4 Died of liver failure 3 years later in 1957