Presentation on theme: "Historical Inquiry for 21 st- Century Students ABC-CLIO Schools Workshop Series."— Presentation transcript:
Historical Inquiry for 21 st- Century Students ABC-CLIO Schools Workshop Series
Crossing the Border to Freedom: The Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe Texas Council for Social Studies October 19-20, 2007 Brett Piersma Santa Ynez Valley Union High School, Santa Ynez, California
AGENDA FOR THIS SESSION: Warm-up Activity—Soviet Bloc States The Case for History and ABC-CLIO’s Historical Inquiry Process Dilemma Explanation—By helping one another flee to the free world, did east European states hasten the fall of communism? –Sample Dilemma Border Crossing Map Game Exploring the ABC-CLIO database and Research Lists Conclusion
Welcome Participants! Each of you has been placed on a team which represents one of six Eastern European Soviet Bloc states. Each team has received a Soviet Bloc Role Card as well as 4 Characteristic Cards representing: Communist Leader, Reformer/Dissenter, and 2 Movement/Event cards Unfortunately, you have received the wrong 4 Characteristic Cards! Your job is to trade with other groups around the room until you have recovered the 4 proper Characteristic Cards for your specific Soviet Bloc State. If you are unsure which of your cards are correct, check periodically with the game leader or ask around. Who can be first to accurately identify their State?
Soviet Bloc Role Card: EAST GERMANY Soviet Bloc Role Card: POLAND Soviet Bloc Role Card: HUNGARY
Soviet Bloc Role Card: ROMANIA Soviet Bloc Role Card: CZECHOSLOVAKIA Soviet Bloc Role Card: YUGOSLAVIA
Game Leader Checklist CountryCommunist LeaderReformer/DissenterMovement/EventMovement/Event YugoslaviaJosip TitoMilovan Djilas2 American Planes 1971 Croatian Shot down Spring Czechoslovakia:Antonin NovotnyDubcek/HavelPrague SpringVelvet Revolution Hungary:Janos KadarImre Nagy1956 Uprising Petofi Circle Poland:JaruzelskiLech WalesaGdansk StrikeSolidarity East Germany:Erich HoneckerEgon KrenzLeipzig DemonstrationMass Migration to W. Germany Romania:Nicolae CeaucesceuLaszlo TokesTimisoara MassacreExecution of former Communist leader
The Case for History “We're deluged by conflicting, fragmented information that tries to steer us in particular directions. We need to raise citizens who ask themselves, 'Is this true? Who's saying so? What's the nature of the evidence?' Taught this way, history is a training ground for democracy." Sam Wineburg, Professor of Education at Stanford University and formerly Professor of Cognitive Studies in Education and Adjunct Professor of History at the University of Washington, Seattle.
What is a Dilemma? di– in dilemma comes from a Greek prefix meaning “two” A dilemma is a problem offering two (or more) solutions A dilemma is a situation in which a choice must be made between alternative courses of action or argument.
A dilemma is NOT… An unsolved mystery like: -Who Killed Kennedy? -Did John Wilkes Booth act alone? A historical question that can be answered definitively: -Did John Adams increase the size of the navy? A current issue dilemma such as: -How can we get rid of poverty? -Should we allow prayer in schools? What is NOT a Dilemma?
Look at these two pictures. What are several key questions that would clarify these events? Write these questions on a separate sheet of paper.
Key Questions In what country is this taking place? When is this taking place? What are they doing? Why are they doing it? What are the likely results of this action for citizens of this country? What are results for citizens of neighboring countries? What is Communism?
Here is another important image from the same time. What are several key questions that would clarify this image?
Key Questions In what country is this taking place? Are the people in the picture from that country or another country? Why do they feel the need to flee? What governmental actions have made this possible? What ultimately happened to these people?
Dilemma By opening borders and allowing freedom of movement, did some east European states hasten the fall of communism ?
Crossing the Border to Freedom: Interactive Map Game
Crossing the Border to Freedom Interactive Map Game - Teacher Instructions Step One—Explain the that the year is 1989 and reform movements are beginning to see positive change all over Eastern Europe. Citizens of each state are eager to capitalize on this progress either by finding a way to get to the West directly, through a neighboring country (via permission from the Embassy), or by establishing freedom and prosperity in their own country. Explain the goal of the game is to get your team across the Iron Curtain and into a free, western nation before members of the other teams do, or achieve independence for your country by accumulating 10,000 Freedom Points. Explain that this game will simulate the events of 1989, but not exactly reflect them. Instead, dice will be rolled and Trivia questions asked to determine the fate of your state and its fight for democratic freedoms. Step Two—Divide class into 6 teams representing six Soviet Bloc States: Yugoslavia, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, and Poland. Project Map of Europe in 1989 on the screen. Step Three—The team that successfully achieved their Soviet Bloc State Cards first (during the warm up activity) gets to roll first. They will roll the dice and according to their roll chart, either: Immediately loses turn due to workers’ or students’ protest being crushed. Must answer a TRIVIA question about their country in order to earn Freedom Points Immediately earns Freedom Points. Draws a Politburo Card with a variety of movement possibilities. GOOD LUCK! LET’S PLAY
Dice Rolls: 1—Protests crushed by military. Lose turn. 2—Ethnic unrest causes government to crack down on demonstrations. Re-roll. 3, 4—Student protest succeeds! Government grants concessions. Answer Trivia Question for Freedom Points. 5, 6—Draw a Politburo Card
2000 Freedom Points What Communist dictator declared Yugoslavia non- aligned? Josip Broz Tito
3000 Freedom Points What was Marshal Josip Tito’s motto and state political concept? “Brotherhood and Unity”
5000 Freedom Points Name three of the countries Yugoslavia splintered into in the 1980s and 1990s. Albania, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia - Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro, and Macedonia.
5000 Freedom Points In what year did Josip Tito die. 1980
Dice Rolls: 1--Workers’ Union outlawed and protest crushed by police. Lose turn. 2, 3--Government opens talks with Solidarity. Answer Trivia Question for Freedom Points. 4--Roundtable Accords are signed and concessions are offered to workers after strike. Earn 2,000 Freedom Points! 5, 6--Soviets call head of Polish government for meeting. Draw a Politburo Card
2000 Freedom Points What Soviet agreement to control its Eastern Bloc states was signed in Poland? Warsaw Pact
3000 Freedom Points In what year was the Solidarity Movement started? 1980
5000 Freedom Points What was the other name for the Gdansk Shipyards? Lenin Shipyards
5000 Freedom Points Which US President responded to liberalization in Poland with a modest package of economic benefits? George H.W. Bush
Dice Rolls: 1--Police shoot man trying to scale Berlin Wall. Lose turn. 2--Large-scale public demonstrations are met with little government force. Earn 2,000 Freedom Points! 3, 4, 5--Honecker meets with Soviets to discuss Perestroika. Answer Trivia Question for Freedom Points. 6--Draw a Politburo Card
2000 Freedom Points He said “Mr. Gorbechev, tear down this wall!” President Ronald Reagan
3000 Freedom Points What was the official name of East Germany? German Democratic Republic (GDR)
5000 Freedom Points On the East German flag there is a symbol at the center of the red stripe. What three groups does the symbol represent? Working class, Intelligentsia, and Farmers
5000 Freedom Points What economic offer did Helmut Kohl of W. Germany make to citizens of E. Germany in November 1989? One-for-one exchange from E. German marks to W. German marks.
Dice Rolls: 1—Public demonstration is broken up with violence. Lose turn. 2, 3—Thousands attend funeral of dissident executed in Earn 2,000 Freedom Points! 4, 5—Hungary begins to dismantle border with Austria. Answer Trivia Question for Freedom Points. 6—Draw a Politburo Card
2000 Freedom Points What Hungarian dissident was executed by hanging in 1958 after a failed revolt, and later reburied with honor? Imre Nagy
3000 Freedom Points From what radio station did Imre Nagy broadcast his final plea for help from the West? Free Kossuth Radio
5000 Freedom Points 1956 In what year did Janos Kadar become the General Secretary of the Communist Party in Hungary?
5000 Freedom Points Imre Pozsgay When Janos Kadar stepped down as General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1988, what reformist Communist leader took his place?
Dice Rolls: 1—Peaceful student demonstration severely beaten back by police. Lose turn. 2, 3—Crowd of 250,000 forms to protest police brutality. Earn 2,000 Freedom Points! 4—Opposition party is formed. Answer Trivia Question for Freedom Points! 5, 6—Communist government agrees to consider giving up its political monopoly. Draw a Politburo Card
2000 Freedom Points Before becoming president in 1990, he was a reformist leader, a writer, and dramatist? Vaclav Havel
3000 Freedom Points What political party organization did Vaclav Havel form and lead in 1989? The Civic Forum
5000 Freedom Points Alexander Dubcek He announced “Socialism with a human face”, a systematic reform of Communism in Czechoslovakia?
5000 Freedom Points Leonid Brezhnev He was the Russian General Secretary of the Communist Party in charge of Prague Spring.
Dice Rolls: 1, 2—Army opens fire on demonstrators killing thousands. Lose turn. 3—Ceausescu ignores chanting crowd calling for an end to the Communist Party. Re-roll. 4, 5—Army turns against Communist Government. Answer Trivia Question for Freedom Points. 6—Draw a Politburo Card
2000 Freedom Points What method was used to execute Nicolae Ceausescu? Firing squad
3000 Freedom Points Over what issue did the Timisoara Protest break out in 1989? Freedom of religion/the eviction of a pastor
5000 Freedom Points What were the primary subjects of Ceaucescu’s public message before 100,000 Romanians in December 1989? Condemning the Timisoara Revolt and praising the achievements of socialism
5000 Freedom Points By what two radio stations did Romanians learn of the events surrounding the Timisoara Massacre? Radio Free Europe and Voice of America
Debrief Map Game 1.Which country had the most difficult time achieving freedom in our simulation? 2.Did this reflect what really took place in 1989? 3.What did you learn about the geography of Eastern Europe?
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Notes, Handouts, and Support Materials for Presenter
Getting to know you warm-up game: Notes for presenter 1. Before your presentation, cut out all Soviet Bloc Role Cards and Characteristic Cards (Government, Leader, Movements) included in the slides below. 2. To each of the 6 larger Soviet Bloc Role Cards, paper clip the following: 1 Communist Leader card 1 Reformer/Dissenter card 2 different Movement/Event cards 3. Make sure that none of the Soviet Bloc Role Cards receive any correct Characteristic Cards. 4. Divide the whole group into 6 separate teams of 1, 2 or 3 people. 5. Present each team with one packet of 5 cards (Role, Government, Leader and 2 Movements cards) 6. Now tell the group that they have received the wrong 4 cards and their job is to trade with other groups in the room until they have found the proper cards for their Soviet Bloc State. 7. Invite the groups to check frequently with to see if they have the right cards. You can tell them which cards are right and which are wrong. Use the “game leader checklist” as a quick guide. 8. Provide prizes for the team members that find their four proper cards first.
Communist Leader: MARSHAL JOSIP TITO Communist Leader: ANTONIN NOVOTNY Communist Leader: JANOS KADAR Communist Leader: WOJCIECH JARUZELKI Communist Leader: ERICH HONECKER Communist Leader: NICOLAE CEAUCESCEU
Reformer/Dissenter: LASZLO TOKES Reformer/Dissenter: ALEXANDER DUBCEK Reformer/Dissenter: EGON KRENZ Reformer/Dissenter: MILOVAN DJILAS Reformer/Dissenter: LECH WALESA Reformer/Dissenter: IMRE NAGY
Movement/Event: PRAGUE SPRING Movement/Event: VELVET REVOLUTION Movement/Event: LEIPZIG PROTEST Movement/Event: MASS MIGRATION TO WEST GERMANY
Movement/Event: TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF FORMER COMMUNIST LEADER Movement/Event: TWO AMERICAN PLANES SHOT DOWN Movement/Event: CROATIAN SPRING 1971
Gorbechev rises to power in the Soviet Union. You earn 1000 Freedom Points. Gorbechev announces policy of Glasnost, openness, to the world. You earn 1000 Freedom Points. Your country allows free movement. Move across one border, but not across the Iron Curtain. Gorbechev announces policy of Perestroika, restructuring, to the world. You earn 1000 Freedom Points. Your country allows free movement. Move across one border, but not across the Iron Curtain.
Embassy refuses to grant you asylum. Return to your country and lose 2,000 Freedom Points. Hungary begins to dismantle its border with Austria. Move across one border. If you are Hungary or are in Hungary, earn 2,000 Freedom Points. East Germany opens new border crossings to the West. Move across one border. If you are E. Germany or are in E. Germany, earn 2,000 Freedom Points. Your country allows free movement. Move across one border, but not across the Iron Curtain. Embassy refuses to grant you asylum. Return to your country and lose 2,000 Freedom Points.
East German police shoot man trying to scale the Berlin Wall. Lose 1,000 Freedom Points. If you are E. Germany or are in E. Germany, lose 2,000 Freedom Points. Hungary opens its borders with Austria. Move across one border. (If you are Hungary or are in Hungary, earn 2,000 Freedom Points. East Germany opens new border crossings to the West. Move across one border. (If you are E. Germany or are in E. Germany, earn 2,000 Freedom Points.) Solidarity movement is legalized in Poland. If you are Poland or are in Poland, earn 2,000 Freedom Points. Embassy grants you permission to emigrate. Cross one border.
East German police shoot man trying to scale the Berlin Wall. If you are in E. Germany, lose 2,000 Freedom Points. Hungary allows freedom of movement. If you are in Hungary, cross border with Austria. YOU WIN!!! If not, move across one border. Romanian demonstration is brutally crushed. If you are in Romania, lose 2,000 Freedom Points. Embassy grants you permission to emigrate. Cross one border. Hungary allows freedom of movement. If you are in Hungary, cross border with Austria. YOU WIN!!! If not, move across one border.
Gorbechev announces policy of Glasnost, openness, to the world. You earn 1000 Freedom Points. Gorbechev rises to power in the Soviet Union. You earn 1000.