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 Years of tension & hostility between Superpowers  U.S. Vs. USSR  War of ideas  Communism Vs. Democracy  Capitalism Vs. command  Arms Race,

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Presentation on theme: " Years of tension & hostility between Superpowers  U.S. Vs. USSR  War of ideas  Communism Vs. Democracy  Capitalism Vs. command  Arms Race,"— Presentation transcript:

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5  Years of tension & hostility between Superpowers  U.S. Vs. USSR  War of ideas  Communism Vs. Democracy  Capitalism Vs. command  Arms Race, Space Race, etc.

6  Democracy restored to nations of Western Europe  Aided by U.S. & G. Britain  Eastern Europe occupied by armies of USSR  Stalin supported the establishment of pro communist governments in the Region

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9  Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin Germany would be divided into zones of occupation  Stalin promises Eastern European countries will have free elections

10  Stalin, Truman,Attlee  Stalin refuses free elections in Eastern European countries Establishes satellite nations (pro communist governments) in occupied countries

11  “An Iron Curtain has descended across Europe”- W. Churchill 1946  Western Europe – Democratic  Eastern Europe- Communist

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14  U.S. policy of blocking further Communist expansion  Limiting Communism to regions already under Communist control Creating alliances,aiding weak countries, military action  Ex. Vietnam, Korea, Marshall Plan, Truman Doctrine

15  U.S. sent military & financial aid to Turkey & Greece Dictated US foreign policy for years to come $400 Million Helping them resist communist forces  Proved successful

16  U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall  Massive economic aid package for European Recovery  12.5 Billion in loans  Strengthened Democracies in Europe  Lessened the appeal of communism

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19  Germany is divided into 4 occupational zones  US, France, Britain USSR  Division is supposed to be temporary  Tensions grew between East & West  Stalin feared a strong united Germany

20  Berlin the divided capital was located in the Eastern sector  three western zones unified  Stalin responded by attempting to to force the allies out of Berlin  Closed of all land routes to city  Shut off supplies to city

21  American & British response to blockade  Yearlong airlift of food, fuel & medicine into Western Berlin  Planes fly around the clock missions  The Soviets end blockade in 1949

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23  Planes took off & landed every 3 minutes  277,000 flights  2.3 million tons of supplies

24  1949-German Democratic Republic (East Germany)- Communist  1949-German Federal Republic(West Germany)- Democratic  Division would last until 1990

25  1961-East Germany constructed a wall that separated East from West Berlin  Known as the “wall of death”  The Wall’s destruction in 1989 symbolizes the fall of communism

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30  1949-NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization Defensive alliance  10 Western European nations w/ US & Canada  Pledged to support each other if attacked

31  1955 Warsaw Pact Soviet Response to NATO  Also a defensive alliance  Alliance between USSR &7 of its Eastern European satellites countries

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34  Stockpiling & development of the deadliest weapons  Atomic bomb US 1945/ USSR 1949  Hydrogen Bomb US 1952/ USSR 1953  Construction of ICBM’s Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles

35  Arms race raised the level of tension for over 40 years Raised fears that conflict would destroy the world  Brinkmanship- willingness to go to the brink or edge of destruction

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37  1957USSR launched first satellite Sputnik  US founds NASA  1961USSR launch first man in space  1969 US lands on moon  US & USSR explored military use of spy satellites

38  US & USSR Never clash head to head  They clashed through surrogate or representative states

39  Following WWII Korea is 38 th Parallel  North(Communist), South (non-communist)  N. Korea invades South  US Containment put to the test

40  UN forces led by Macarthur prevented communist takeover Three years of Back & forth fighting (Ping Pong)  Armistice signed in 1953 Border is 38 th Parallel

41  Korea remains divided  US troops patrol DMZ Hot spot in the world today  North Korean construction of Nuclear weapons

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44  1959-Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro overthrows the government  Becomes Communist state dependant upon USSR  Still rules today as dictator

45  Bay of Pigs Invasion Exiled Cuban Nationalists backed by US attempt overthrow of Castro  Invasion is crushed  Kennedy administration is humiliated

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47  The Cuban Missile Crisis USSR installs missile bases in Cuba  Threat to US security US blockades Cuba  US & USSR brought to the brink of war (Brinkmanship)

48  Crisis is avoided after 13 days  USSR dismantles nuclear missiles

49  France loses control of its colonies in Indochina to Communist/ Nationalist forces  Vietnam is the 17 th Parallel  Communist(North)  Led by Ho Chi Minh  Anti-communist (South)

50  US forces sent in to prevent Communist from uniting Vietnam  Eisenhower’s “Domino Theory” US pulls out in 1973/ Saigon falls in 1975  Vietnam remains communist today

51  USSR kept a tight grip on its satellites  Any revolts were put down with extreme force East Germany& Poland 1950’s 1956 Hungary 1969 Czechoslovakia

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55  Soviet leader following Stalin Destalinization  Purged the USSR of Stalin’s memory Policy of peaceful coexistence with Capitalist states  Maintained strict control over satellites

56  Adopted repressive home & in Satellites Brezhnev Doctrine  Initiated Détente with the US A cooling down of tensions between East & West SALTI & II- 1972,1979 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties  Limited # of ICBM’s

57  Drastically reformed the Soviet government & failing economy  Withdrew Soviet Troops from Afghanistan  Encouraged Glasnost (openness) Ended censorship & encouraged free flow of ideas  Allowed open criticism of the government

58  Perestroika  Movement towards a free market economy (Capitalism) NEP?  Democratization  Voters could choose candidates for office

59  Allowed pro-democracy movements in the Satellites  Repealed Breshnev Doctrine  Without threat of Soviet force, communism crumbles in E. Europe  EX. The Berlin Wall 1989

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63  1991 Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania declare independence  Shortly after all other 15 Soviet Republics gain independence  1991 The USSR ceases to exist

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66  1989 Berlin Wall comes down  1990 Germany is reunited  Financial strain on West Germany  Unemployment rises in East

67  1980 Independent trade union Solidarity led by Lech Walesa calls for a change  Polish government outlaws union & arrested members  1989 Lech Walesa is elected President of Poland

68  Czechoslovakia breaks apart  Czech Republic & Slovakia  Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia- Herzegovina, & Macedonia separate from Yugoslavia  Bosnia becomes crisis point in 1990’s  Genocide of Non- Serbs

69  Communist hardliners attempt to overthrow Gorbachev  Attempts failed but Gorbachev resigns

70  Succeeds Gorbachev after failed coup  1 st popularly elected President of Russia  Adopted policy of Shock Therapy  Abrubt shift to a free market economy  Living standards declined/ economy faltered/ corruption rampant  Resigned 1999 due to poor health

71  Current President of Russia  Continues market reforms  Former KGB administrator  Problems still exist today with rebel Province of Chechnya  Improved relations w/ U.S., E.U., NATO & China

72  US & USSR attempted to gain influence over Third World countries  Underdeveloped countries of Africa & Latin America  Military, technical, & financial assistance  Backed revolutions (Cuba, Nicaragua, Afghanistan)

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