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■ Essential Question ■ Essential Question: – How did the spread of communism into Asia impact the Cold War? – THIS DAY IN HISTORY THIS DAY IN HISTORY.

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Presentation on theme: "■ Essential Question ■ Essential Question: – How did the spread of communism into Asia impact the Cold War? – THIS DAY IN HISTORY THIS DAY IN HISTORY."— Presentation transcript:

1 ■ Essential Question ■ Essential Question: – How did the spread of communism into Asia impact the Cold War? – THIS DAY IN HISTORY THIS DAY IN HISTORY

2 The Cold War was a conflict of rival ideologies between the USA & USSR that lasted from 1945 to 1991 Early in the Cold War from 1945 to 1949, the focus of the conflict was on Europe The United States used the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, & NATO to successfully contain communism in Europe

3 Beginning in 1949, however, containment seemed to fail as communism spread to China, Korea, & Vietnam in Asia

4 For almost 2,000 years, China was the world’s most dominant empire because of trade along the silk road & the power of the ruling dynasties

5 In the 1600 & 1700s, European nations became powerful, began exploring, & claiming colonies The Industrial Revolution in the 1700s & 1800s made Europe the center of power in the world

6 Europeans used imperialism to control Africa & Asia Britain used the Opium Wars to claim trade rights in China By 1900, China was weak & divided into spheres of influence

7 In 1912, Sun Yat-sen ended the Chinese dynastic system & created a democracy called the Republic of China A group of reformers called nationalists called for changes

8 But, the republic did not modernize China & led to an era of chaos In the 1920s, nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek took over & ran China as a dictatorship Meanwhile, communism was growing in China under the leadership of Mao Zedong Mao’ s Communist Party gained popularity among poor peasants by offering to redistribute land from wealthy warlords

9 From 1930 to 1949, Nationalists & Communists fought in a bloody civil war for control of China When WWII began, Chiang & Mao agreed to a truce from 1937 to 1945 After WWII, Communists gained support & began to win control of China

10 The three “revolutionary” Communists Karl Marx Vladimir Lenin Mao Zedong In 1949, the Communists won the Civil War & Mao created the Peoples’ Republic of China Chiang’s gov’t fled China & set up in Taiwan The USA was shocked when China fell to communism & only recognized the Nationalists as the gov’t of China

11 Based upon this propaganda poster, what changes will Mao propose for China?

12 Mao was determined to reshape China’s economy based on Marxist socialism He seized land from the rich & divided the land among the poor peasants Mao followed Stalin’s example by creating collective farms & a Five Year Plan to improve Chinese industry

13 Based upon this propaganda poster, what two things will Mao’s “Great Leap Forward” focus on?

14 In 1958, Mao began a massive program to create agriculture & industry called the “Great Leap Forward” Millions of Chinese citizens were sent to work on large collective farms to grow food Image of a “People’s Commune” Other citizens were required to work on massive industrial projects like making iron & steel or building dams & railroads “Backyard furnaces” to make iron

15 “Struggle hard for 3 years. Change the face of China. Catch up with Britain & America.” --Mao, 1958

16 Mao’s Great Leap Forward started well…

17 …but, the it required forced labor & led to lots of suffering by millions of Chinese citizens

18 The Great Leap Forward was a failure & led severe food shortages, famine, & poor quality industry

19 Chinese peasants Mao ended the Great Leap Forward after three years

20 Based upon this image, what was purpose of Mao’s “Cultural Revolution”?

21 After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Mao began the Cultural Revolution ( ) The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to emphasize Mao’s strict socialist ideas & attack traditional Chinese ideas Mao distributed to all Chinese citizens the “Little Red Book,” a book of his quotes that reinforced what was acceptable for Chinese communists

22 After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Mao began the Cultural Revolution ( ) Mao targeted young people & many joined the Red Guards, a group to protected the culture of the revolution Red Guards closed schools & universities; burned books; & humiliated, beat, killed people who opposed Mao’s ideas

23 Parades united citizens Executing teachers, politicians, critics The Cultural Revolution unified the Chinese people but also led to the deaths or imprisonment of thousands of citizens

24

25 In 1976, Mao Zedong died & was followed by more moderate Communist officials Even without Mao, China remains a Communist nation today

26 Closure Activity ■ Read each of the quotations provided and match the quote with the appropriate historical event: – Fall of Dynastic China – Communist Revolution – Great Leap Forward – Cultural Revolution

27 Quote #1 Fall of Dynastic China Communist Revolution Great Leap Forward Cultural Revolution

28 Quote #2 Fall of Dynastic China Communist Revolution Great Leap Forward Cultural Revolution

29 Quote #3 Fall of Dynastic China Communist Revolution Great Leap Forward Cultural Revolution

30 Quote #4 Fall of Dynastic China Communist Revolution Great Leap Forward Cultural Revolution

31 Quote #5 Fall of Dynastic China Communist Revolution Great Leap Forward Cultural Revolution

32 Quote #6 Fall of Dynastic China Communist Revolution Great Leap Forward Cultural Revolution

33 ■ Essential Question ■ Essential Question: – What impact did the spread of communism into Asia impact the Cold War?

34 The fall of China to communism had a major impact on the Cold War between the USA & USSR

35 The U.S. response to the fall of China was to more aggressively confront communism the world The USA was afraid of a “domino theory” in which communist nations turn their neighbors communist As a result, the USA vowed to contain the spread of communism anywhere in the world The USA acted when communism threatened Korea

36 After WWII, Korea was divided along the 38° with a communist gov’t in North Korea & a democracy in South Korea During World War II, Korea was liberated from Japanese control by the U.S. army in the South & the Soviet army in the North In 1950, North Korea (using Soviet supplied weapons) crossed the 38° & attacked South Korea When South Korea appealed to the United Nations, the USA sent troops to Korea to contain communism But, when the USA pushed too close to China, the Chinese Army entered the war & helped North Korea

37 After 3 years of fighting, a ceasefire was agreed to in 1953, the fighting stopped, & the 38° was restored as the boundary between North & South Koreas The USA successfully stopped communism from spreading into South Korea & showed that it was willing to fight to contain communism Today, Korea remains divided between a communist North & a democratic South

38 The fighting in Korea convinced many nations to not choose a side during the Cold War These “neutral” countries during the Cold War were known as the “non-aligned nations” While Korea was a success, the Cold War would escalate in the 1950s & 1960s as communism threatened Africa, Southeast Asia, & Latin America

39 ■ The Great Leap Forward in China and the five-year plans in the Soviet Union were attempts to increase 1.private capital investment 2.religious tolerance 3.individual ownership of land 4.industrial productivity

40 ■ A major reason for the success of the Communist revolution in China was that the Communists 1.stressed Buddhism in their military training 2.included important businessmen in their ranks 3.promised land and power to the peasant class 4.fought successfully against the United States during World War II


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