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Russia and China: Post- Communism. Themes Globalization: liberalization (Washington Consensus) –End corporatism in Mexico –Implementation Four Modernizations.

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Presentation on theme: "Russia and China: Post- Communism. Themes Globalization: liberalization (Washington Consensus) –End corporatism in Mexico –Implementation Four Modernizations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Russia and China: Post- Communism

2 Themes Globalization: liberalization (Washington Consensus) –End corporatism in Mexico –Implementation Four Modernizations China (Deng) –Immigration + global culture “Red Oxen” in Mongolia –Neo-Mercantilism: import substitution + export-driven growth –Anti-globalization Democratization: post-communism –“Color revolutions”: Ukraine, Lebanon –Nigeria, Mexico –“no representation w/o taxation” –Islamo-Fascism + Putinism

3 Communism Soviet Union General Secretary Politburo (Political Bureau) Central Committee (ran Party + gov’t in between Congresses) Party Congress (every 5 years; but none ’39-’52) Party cell (any org. w/3+ Communists Party ran the state; Party extra-legal China Central Committee –Secretariat (General Secretary; Hu Jintao, 2002) –Politburo + Standing Committee (24 / 9) –Central Military Commission (chair: Hu, ’04; PLA 3 rd “branch” of gov’t) National People’s Congress [every 5 years; “one party two factions”: Shanghai clique (rich, urban) and populist coalition (rural, Communist Youth League); complementary, expertise, unity achieved through patronage] President of the PRC (1982 Constitution; Hu, ‘03) State Council (top People’s Government; Premier: Wen Jiabao) Party bound by PRC Constitution, “rule of law”

4 China USSR + Imperial China structure –Bureaucratic admin., centralized control (but increasing devolution; Hong Kong, Macau) “Mass Line”: “from the masses, to the masses”; peasants as revolutionary (contra Marx + Lenin); investigate conditions, listen to ideas, raise consciousness “Democratic centralism”: members subordinate to org.; minority to majority; lower to higher; gov’t to Party; all to Central Committee –No private/indiv. interest, “people’s democratic dictatorship”  no organized opposition (non-CCP parties controlled by CCP; “vanguard of the proletariat”); Party represents objective history (Marxism/Maoism) “Harmony”: “harmonizing” (e.g. websites) = censorship; Falun Gong; Tibet; Xianjiang province

5 Democratization in China Deng’s 4 Modernizations; esp. Special Economic Zones Household responsibility system; Township and Village Enterprises (TVE)  “industrial clusters” Key: Industries allowed to exceed quotas, buy and sell, reinvest 1989: Tiananmen Square protests  crackdown  purge 2002: SARS 2008: Tibet vs. earthquake; economic slowdown (crucial: trade off collapsing)

6 Communist Party Membership Routes Russia Cost-benefit: Purges vs. Nomenklatura (list + class) Young Pioneers  Komonsol (Young Communist League)  Communist Party membership –1986: 10% of pop. China Power = connections (Deng Xiaoping post-”resignation”); Party networks; jobs –BUT: ideology, desire to travel overseas Young Pioneers  Communist Youth League –Shut down in Cultural Revolution, replaced by Red Guards Requires nomination existing member, testing/assessment + probation period 70+ million members (largest party in world) –Only 17% of members are women and 78% are over 35 years old, though efforts are under way to broaden its membership and attract more young people

7 Democratization in Russia M. Gorbachev Perestroika (1987): political + economic “restructuring”: multi-candidate (not party) elections, called Party Conference; Law on State Enterprise: output based on demand, private ownership certain sectors Glasnost: “openness;” get around apparatchiks (agent of the apparatus) Secession crisis  1991 coup, Yeltsin gains power  26 December USSR dissolves  Commonwealth Independent States 1993: Yeltsin’s “shock therapy”  crisis  bombards legis  new structure (Federal Assembly) + increased Pres power via referendum on Constitution –How democratic was Yeltsin? Many of Putin’s actions expansion Yeltsin

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