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Geography and Social Conditions Shan-Gan-Ning Base Area: Capital in Yan’an Extremely Poor, Hilly land on China’s leoss plateau About ½ the size.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography and Social Conditions Shan-Gan-Ning Base Area: Capital in Yan’an Extremely Poor, Hilly land on China’s leoss plateau About ½ the size."— Presentation transcript:

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5 Geography and Social Conditions Shan-Gan-Ning Base Area: Capital in Yan’an Extremely Poor, Hilly land on China’s leoss plateau About ½ the size of the UK 1.4 million people

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13 Explaining CCP Success During the War—Historiography Peasant Nationalism: willing to go along with Communists to fight Japan Social and Economic Gains: Communists offered a better life for many peasants Institution/Organization Building: Communists did this well, and got peasants involved in building grass-roots power

14 Rebuilding Power after the Long March Political Challenges: Mao vs. Wang Ming ( ) Wang Ming: Soviet trained, Stalin-backed Chinese Communist Party member Social Policy: Focus on Building local government organizations: Revolutionary associations, peasant associations

15 Political Issues and Strategy Second United Front: Cornerstone of Communist Policy in Base Areas Three-thirds system: Communists hold not more than 1/3 of local government positions Emphasis on flexibility and inclusion The “Yan’an Way”

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17 Party Purification: The Rectification Campaign Launched on Feb.1, 1942 An intra-Party movement to enforce discipline, ideological unity, and Mao’s line Emergence of Maoism as CCP’s leading ideology Causes: Wartime economic and military stress in base areas, diverse and rapidly growing Party membership

18 Maoism Voluntarism: the will and desire of people, of revolutionaries, can overcome ALL obstacles (especially through revolutionary struggle) Emphasis on “correct ideological consciousness” as the main tool to achieve what China wants ALL Chinese, if instilled with the right form of consciousness, have revolutionary potential “Mass line”: a faith in the masses, the peasantry, often at expense of top down bureaucratic rule

19 Features of the Rectification Campaign 3 Main Targets: Those who worship Marxism/Leninism without translating it to Chinese conditions, into present day action Factions: Bureaucracy vs. peasant based action, Mao distrustful of bureaucracy Formalism in the Party: Don’t get lost in spouting theory, holding meetings-- keep it real

20 Artists under fire Ding Ling ( ) a famous woman author who moves to Yan’an. She criticizes the Communists for not keeping promises of women’s liberation. Severely criticized by Communist leaders, and sent to the countryside. Wang Shiwei Wrote an essay called “Wild lilies” critical of Communist leaders who were living better than the masses, called for true egalitarian living. Executed in 1947

21 Talks at the Yan’an Forum on Art and Literature Very important speech Mao gives in May, 1942 Lays out the Party line on art for the next 30 years Art serves the Party, it must therefore serve the peasants and workers: emergence of social realism as the form of art and literature

22 Rectification: Consequences Mao becomes undisputed leader, militarily, ideologically, of the Chinese Communists Intellectuals and Artists critical of the Party are silenced Tactics developed for future ideological campaigns: being “sent down” to the countryside, small and large group study sessions, self criticism in small groups


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