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Communist China: Rise of Mao to Modern Day. Attempted Political RevolutionAttempted Political Revolution –1911, soldiers rebelled against Qing Dynasty.

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Presentation on theme: "Communist China: Rise of Mao to Modern Day. Attempted Political RevolutionAttempted Political Revolution –1911, soldiers rebelled against Qing Dynasty."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communist China: Rise of Mao to Modern Day

2 Attempted Political RevolutionAttempted Political Revolution –1911, soldiers rebelled against Qing Dynasty under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen (longtime critic of the Manchus). –He wanted to establish a western-style democratic government.

3 The Warlord Period Sun Yat-sen failed to create a democracy, instead warlords (military generals) fought to control various provinces in China.Sun Yat-sen failed to create a democracy, instead warlords (military generals) fought to control various provinces in China. This period lasted until 1927, resulted in violence in the countryside. Peasants were exploited by bandits and lesser warlords.This period lasted until 1927, resulted in violence in the countryside. Peasants were exploited by bandits and lesser warlords. Warlord of Manchuria

4 The Rise of Mao Zedong In the 1920s, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) was formed:In the 1920s, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) was formed: –Wanted to end social & economic inequality, especially for the peasants (90% of the population). –Mao Zedong was the Communist founder, he believed that “whoever wins the peasants will win China.”

5 1920s-1930s, millions of peasants starved due to unequal land distribution.1920s-1930s, millions of peasants starved due to unequal land distribution. –Communists won favor with the peasants by taking land from landlords then redistributing it to poor peasants.

6 Civil War in China 1927, General Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) defeated other regional warlords to establish himself as president & virtual dictator of China.1927, General Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) defeated other regional warlords to establish himself as president & virtual dictator of China. –He was the leader of the Guomindang (Nationalist Party). –He fought for 20 years against the increasingly influential Communist armies.

7 1934, Jiang Jieshi surrounded small Communist armies and attempted to defeat them.1934, Jiang Jieshi surrounded small Communist armies and attempted to defeat them. –Mao Zedong then led 90,000 Communist supporters over thousands of miles of in the mountains, this would be called the Long March. –Only 6,000 of them would survive.

8 The Victory of the Communist Revolution , Jiang Jieshi & Mao united their armies in an uneasy alliance to fight against the Japanese during World War II , Jiang Jieshi & Mao united their armies in an uneasy alliance to fight against the Japanese during World War II. After WWII, the Guomindang and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) continued their civil war for the control of China.After WWII, the Guomindang and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) continued their civil war for the control of China.

9 Though heavily outnumbered, the PLA used peasant support and guerilla tactics to win.Though heavily outnumbered, the PLA used peasant support and guerilla tactics to win. –As the PLA took over, they confiscated land from rich landlords and redistributed it to poor peasants. –Meanwhile, the Guomindang controlled the major cities but faced inflation and widespread corruption.

10 By 1949, the PLA controlled most of the countryside and many of Jiang Jieshi’s troops defected to the PLA.By 1949, the PLA controlled most of the countryside and many of Jiang Jieshi’s troops defected to the PLA. –Jiang Jieshi then fled to Taiwan (with U.S. support). –On October 1949, Mao Zedong proclaims that the People’s Republic of China is established (“liberation”).

11 The Influence of Soviet Socialism Mao turns to the USSR for help.Mao turns to the USSR for help. –He faced establishing a socialist nation and the need to modernize China’s underdeveloped economy. –Also, in 1950, he felt compelled to send troops to aid Communist North Korea to fight the United States in the Korean War.

12 Mao adopted the Soviet Five Year Plan & Collectivization ( ):Mao adopted the Soviet Five Year Plan & Collectivization ( ): –Five Year Plan: objective is to modernize key aspects of the economy within 5 years (technology & science to develop heavy industry). –Collectivization: Mao reversed original land reform and peasants were organized into government owned collectives (rather than having their own land).

13 –By 1955, China, with the help of Soviet aid, had achieved considerable success in developing heavy industry & increasing agricultural production. –Communist leaders even spoke of China as a model for less- industrialized nations in Africa & Asia to copy.

14 Breaking from Soviet Socialism:Breaking from Soviet Socialism: –By 1956, Chairman Mao disagreed with Soviet leaders. –He believed they relied too much on machine & technological experts, and not enough on human spirit & the socialist value of equality. Consequently, the Soviets decreased financial aid & withdrew technical advisors.Consequently, the Soviets decreased financial aid & withdrew technical advisors. –He wanted to achieve full communism much more quickly through a uniquely Chinese socialist experiment  must achieve “equality” through great effort & sacrifice from the masses.

15 The Great Leap Forward 1956, Mao asked intellectuals to comment on his first 5 years of leadership.1956, Mao asked intellectuals to comment on his first 5 years of leadership. –However, he severely punished those who criticized him & consequently re- evaluated the revolutionary spirit of the Chinese people. Mao started large scale industrial projects (dams, reservoirs, railroads, etc.)Mao started large scale industrial projects (dams, reservoirs, railroads, etc.)

16 Mao organized peasants into People’s Communes (regimented into semi-military lines  peasants ate & worked together).Mao organized peasants into People’s Communes (regimented into semi-military lines  peasants ate & worked together). All people had to work shift after shift with little rest, and rid themselves of all anti-communist thoughts.All people had to work shift after shift with little rest, and rid themselves of all anti-communist thoughts. Results:Results: –Ultimately failed due to poor management. –Food shortages (hundreds of thousands died from during one of the largest famines in history). –Without acknowledging any failure, the CCP began retreating from these policies. –Officially ending in 1961, many peasants still refer to this period as the “three hard years.”

17 The “Great Leap Forward”…

18 The Cultural Revolution After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, communist leaders focused on rebuilding the ruined economy.After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, communist leaders focused on rebuilding the ruined economy. With the successes of the economic recovery in the early 1960s, Mao feared that society would be concerned most with making money & destroy the spirit of revolution, thus he must get rid of The Four Olds:With the successes of the economic recovery in the early 1960s, Mao feared that society would be concerned most with making money & destroy the spirit of revolution, thus he must get rid of The Four Olds: –Old ideas, old culture, old customs, and old habits (anything rooted in pre-revolutionary or Western culture). Many leaders in the Communist Party opposed Mao’s plan to reverse the successful economic recoveryMany leaders in the Communist Party opposed Mao’s plan to reverse the successful economic recovery

19 So, Mao turned to young people (high school and college students).So, Mao turned to young people (high school and college students). –They became the “Red Guards”; they harassed, humiliated, and imprisoned “enemies” of the state (usually the educated Chinese, city dwellers, & corrupt officials). –Mao published the Little Red Book containing his quotations and was required reading in schools and the workplace. –The Red Guards went through and destroyed anything associated with the “Four Olds” or Western Culture.

20 Communist leaders lost control of the Red Guards, and China was brought to the brink of anarchy.Communist leaders lost control of the Red Guards, and China was brought to the brink of anarchy. –At first, even after Red Guards beat people to death, the police & military were under Mao’s orders not to interfere. –By 1967, organized marches had become angry mobs that attacked teachers, civil leaders, & foreign diplomats. –Thousands died and hundreds of thousands had been imprisoned. In 1969 Mao finally ordered the Red Guards to disband and for the military to impose law & order.In 1969 Mao finally ordered the Red Guards to disband and for the military to impose law & order.

21 Aftermath:Aftermath: –As Mao became old & ill in the early 1970s, his wife, Jiang Qing, gained powerful influence in the CCP and continued many radical policies of the Cultural Revolution. –When Mao died in 1976 his wife & three radical colleagues, known as the Gang of Four, were arrested for trying to overthrow the government & causing the deaths of 34,000 people during the Cultural Revolution.

22 Deng Xiaoping By 1979, Deng Xiaoping, a leader twice disgraced by Mao, secured control of the Communist Party and again shifted government policy toward economic development.By 1979, Deng Xiaoping, a leader twice disgraced by Mao, secured control of the Communist Party and again shifted government policy toward economic development. He condemned the Cultural Revolution and called for “less empty talk and more hard work”.He condemned the Cultural Revolution and called for “less empty talk and more hard work”.

23 Deng’s reforms were called the Four Modernizations – science, industry, technology, & defense – and argued that they were needed to modernize China.Deng’s reforms were called the Four Modernizations – science, industry, technology, & defense – and argued that they were needed to modernize China. Unlike Mao who distrusted intellectuals, Deng praised scientists & engineers and wanted China to rise above its peasant culture.Unlike Mao who distrusted intellectuals, Deng praised scientists & engineers and wanted China to rise above its peasant culture. Mao believed that the central government in Beijing should plan a socialist economy for all China, while Deng shifted power & responsibility from the capital to local governments.Mao believed that the central government in Beijing should plan a socialist economy for all China, while Deng shifted power & responsibility from the capital to local governments.

24 Economic Reforms in Agriculture & IndustryEconomic Reforms in Agriculture & Industry –In agriculture, Deng initiated the Responsibility System, which permitted peasants to sell crops from their own private plots at local markets – if they first produced a government quota to be given to the government. This led to increased production.This led to increased production. –In industry, capitalist enterprise came to be accepted. Citizens were allowed to start their own private businesses, hire people to work, and to earn a profit.Citizens were allowed to start their own private businesses, hire people to work, and to earn a profit. Deng also created Special Economic Zones, in which foreign investors were permitted to build factories, using cheap Chinese labor to reproduce goods mostly intended for export.Deng also created Special Economic Zones, in which foreign investors were permitted to build factories, using cheap Chinese labor to reproduce goods mostly intended for export. –Still, many Chinese workers preferred employment in State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) due to promises of lifetime employment, housing, healthcare, and retirement.

25 Results of the Economic ReformsResults of the Economic Reforms –Agricultural & industrial production increased enormously after Deng began his economic reforms. –Despite this success, however, China still lacked efficient energy and transportation systems.

26 The Call for Political ReformThe Call for Political Reform –During the first 10 years of Deng’s rule, people expressed a desire to have political reforms coincide with the successful economic reforms. –In 1978 people created posters criticizing the government & attached them to a wall in Beijing, known as the Democracy Wall. –In 1986 thousands of students protested for democracy in the cities of Hefei, Wuhan, & Shanghai. –The communist authoritarian government usually stopped these protests by arresting key leaders. State censorship was also used to limit discussion of political reform.

27 Student Protest at Tiananmen SquareStudent Protest at Tiananmen Square –In April 1989 students held a protest at Tiananmen Square, the main public square in the capital city of Beijing. –They demanded that the government consider some political reforms, such as freedom of the press. –When the government refused to discuss these initial demands, students began protesting for more radical reforms, such as democracy.

28 In the first few weeks, the government did little to stop the demonstrations, even as some students went on hunger strikes as acts of protest.In the first few weeks, the government did little to stop the demonstrations, even as some students went on hunger strikes as acts of protest. Finally, after a month of protest & an enormous amount of international attention, the government ordered troops into Beijing to impose martial law (military rule over civilians).Finally, after a month of protest & an enormous amount of international attention, the government ordered troops into Beijing to impose martial law (military rule over civilians). Troops were unable to enter the city because local citizens – estimated at two million – showed their support of the students by blocking the advance of the troops.Troops were unable to enter the city because local citizens – estimated at two million – showed their support of the students by blocking the advance of the troops.

29 Finally, on June 3, 1989, Deng called in the army the second time to use force to clear the square of protesters, which it did, killing an estimated 700-3,000 citizens.Finally, on June 3, 1989, Deng called in the army the second time to use force to clear the square of protesters, which it did, killing an estimated 700-3,000 citizens. Although the protest is often called the Tiananmen Square Massacre, most of the dead were actually not students and were killed as soldiers were fighting their way into the square.Although the protest is often called the Tiananmen Square Massacre, most of the dead were actually not students and were killed as soldiers were fighting their way into the square.

30 Tank Man

31 Aftermath of the ProtestAftermath of the Protest –The government made a systematic effort to find & arrest the student leaders of the democracy movement. –Some of the top leaders in the CCP were removed from power & disgraced as sympathizers of the protest. –The international community voiced outrage at the massacre, but no political reforms occurred.

32 –In an effort to maintain power & legitimacy, the Chinese Communist Party (the single party who rules all level of Chinese government) has not made any real political reforms, but has increased economic liberties – thus no longer communist but still an authoritarian form of government This has resulted in a huge economic boom since 1989 and satisfied the newly developing “middle classes”.This has resulted in a huge economic boom since 1989 and satisfied the newly developing “middle classes”. –They thus do not generally clamor for political freedoms & they continue to support the CCP who they see as making economic success possible.

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34 Those who fuel the economic boom as cheap labor are the 800 million peasants who continue to live in poverty.Those who fuel the economic boom as cheap labor are the 800 million peasants who continue to live in poverty. –In the largest migration in human history, millions of peasants have moved to urban centers in search of work. –They have no political, social, economic, or education rights or protections from the government.


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