Presentation on theme: "IN THE SOVIET UNION. Karl Marx Marx said one day there would be a revolution that would overthrow the ruling class and set up a system he called communism."— Presentation transcript:
Karl Marx Marx said one day there would be a revolution that would overthrow the ruling class and set up a system he called communism. Under communism, all farms, factories, mines and profit were to be shared equally. Karl Marx believed that Russia was an unlikely place for a communist Revolution because it was a non-industrialist nation.
Rise of the Planned Economy People believed that other economic systems were exploiting the working class. Came as a response to the industrial revolution. Some people believed that if the government controlled the economy and chose what should be produced, how and for whom; there would be greater economic equality.
Problems Created by the Industrial Revolution Low wages Long hours Urbanization –Crime –Poverty –Disease –Pollution Unfair labor practices Unsafe working conditions
Early Russia Russia originally had an aristocratic society, under a leader called the Tsar.. 80% of the population of Russia was poor. These peasants were known as Serfs and worked on farms that were owned by landlords. They were treated as slaves and had very poor conditions. Workers in the cities were not better off. They worked long hours for very little pay.
Tsar Nicolas II Tsar Nicolas was the last Tsar of Russia. During his rule Russia was in turmoil. Food was scarce, and the people were forced to pay heavy taxes. The working class were unhappy with the Tsar and wanted change. This brought about new ideologies. Communism was the most widely accepted. Two main groups represented communism; the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
Bloody Sunday On Sunday, 22nd January 1905, more than 200 000 workers took part in a peaceful demonstration in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the Tsar. The workers wanted: - Better working conditions - Medical benefits - A parliament to represent them They believed the Tsar would help them and make their lives better if he knew about the horrible conditions the had to deal with. Unfortunately, even though they still supported the Tsar, the army opened fire. The Tsar's officials recorded 96 dead and 333 injured; anti-government sources claimed more than 4,000 dead. The Tsar was blamed for this across the country, even though he was not even at the palace at the time. This event contributed to negative feelings toward the monarchy, and many who were once in support of the government called for immediate change.
The Tsar’s Last Chance During the First World War, Russia became even poorer; many resented Russia’s involvement in the war. As shortages grew worse and causalities mounted, soldiers began a mutiny against the government. The Tsar refused to change the administration and did nothing to improve conditions. In 1917, after mass demonstrations on the brink of revolution, the Duma forced the Tsar to abdicate the throne and a temporary provisional government was set up.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 Bolsheviks seized power through a coup; people faced food shortages, soldiers rioted. Communists led by Lenin seized telephone lines, railways, banks, electric plants, etc. Lenin pulls the Soviet Union out of WWI Communist Control of Soviet Union was complete in 1921. After 1921, Russia became known as the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), which was made up of 15 Republics. This area became known as Russia once again after the Fall of Communism in 1991. NOTE:
The Appeal of The Bolsheviks The leader of the Bolsheviks was Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Lenin had been influenced by Marx's socialist writings and wished to transform Russia into the ideal communist state. Essentially, Lenin rejected classical liberal economic principles and called for a complete and total reform of the economy Provisional Government loosened up their hold on the press, making it easier for Lenin to spread his ideologies across Russia. Lenin often made speeches to the people, emphasizing the need for "Peace, Bread and Land". He wanted the current government gone and the Bolsheviks in control as soon as possible. His promises were so appealing that the Bolsheviks gained power rapidly; thus weakening the Provisional Government.
Democratic Forms Founding myth… –Lenin took control of the “Democratic Soviets” Councils that set policies and had elections. Example –“National Congress of Soviets” –Made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
Planned Economy (Command Economy) Economy directed by the government All means of production (land, labor, capital) are state owned and controlled. The government makes all economic choices of what to produce, how to produce, how to distribute.
IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE Also known as a Communist State. One small political group holds power. Government policy is based on a an ideology. (equality of all) It appears in underdeveloped or backwards countries that wish to industrialize. The former Soviet Union and China under Mao are examples.
Elements of a Planned Economy Cooperation Public ownership Equality as incentive Central planning –A group of economic experts carry out the goals of the government.
Use your notes as well as pages 167-171 to record your answers to this question Was this resistance to liberalism justified?