Presentation on theme: "IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE (TOTALITARIAN) Also known as a Communist State. One small political group holds power. Government policy is based on a an ideology."— Presentation transcript:
IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE (TOTALITARIAN) Also known as a Communist State. One small political group holds power. Government policy is based on a an ideology. (equality of all) It appears in underdeveloped or backwards countries that wish to industrialize. The former Soviet Union and China are examples.
Karl Marx Marx said one day there would be a revolution that would overthrow the ruling class and set up a system he called communism. Under communism, all farms, factories, mines and profit were to be shared equally. Marx wrote his ideas in two books, The Communist Manifesto & Das Kapital.
FASCISM VS. COMMUNISM FASCISM Draws support from lower classes & business. Makes decisions in the interest of the state. Focuses activities on the state.(national) Corporate state (private enterprise) Elitism Ultra-nationalism(ethnocentric) racist COMMUNISM Draws support from working classes. Makes decisions in the interest of the working class. Desire to help working class around the world. (international) State ownership of the means of production. Nationalities unimportant (equally)
THE RISE AND FALL OF THE SOVIET UNION
The Russian Revolution of 1917 Karl Marx believed that Russia was an unlikely place for a communist Revolution because it was a non- industrialist nation. Bolsheviks seized power through a coup; people faced food shortages, soldiers rioted. Communists led by Lenin seized telephone lines, railways, banks, electric plants, etc. Communist Control of Soviet Union was complete in 1921.
THE BOLSHEVIKS One revolutionary group called the Bolsheviks took their ideas from a German writer named Karl Marx. Marx said one day there would be a revolution that would overthrow the ruling class and set up a system he called communism. Under communism, all farms, factories, mines and profit were to be shared equally. Marx wrote his ideas in two books, The Communist Manifesto & Das Kapital.
Values, Assumptions, and Myths Communists claimed that the new country was a democracy. –Set up govt. that on paper was democratic –Govt. based on a constitution (1922) –CPSU refers to itself as democratic because it rules in the interest of the majority. Real power was with the CPSU. –Maintained a monopoly of power by controlling Access to positions of leadership Content of communication Direction of the economy Culture and education
Democratic Forms Founding myth… –Lenin took control of the “Democratic Soviets” Councils that set policies and had elections. Example –“National Congress of Soviets” –Made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
Authoritarian Essence The CP was the only legal political party This was justified by –Only one class (proletariat) therefore only one party needed. –Party was the “vanguard of the proletariat” and protector of communism. Lenin also believed that elections in capitalist countries were simply a “sham” (illusion of real choice).
Democratic Centralism Issues are discussed bottom up, then resolved by the party congress with the expectation that all party members will obey. Eventually used by Stalin to purge all opposition and became a justification for strict censorship, imprisonment and executions. In this way, Stalin ended up controlling the party, which controlled the government, which controlled the USSR. Authoritarian Essence cont…
Structure of Communist Party Politburo: –Supreme policy making body –15 members Secretariat: –Supervised the Politburo –Managed daily activities of the party –Supervised all state and government appointments –Implemented policies –Led by General-Secretary
Structure of Soviet Government Though appearing both democratic and federal in nature the Supreme Soviet (parliament) was not effectively democratic. –Met 2 times per year –Laws first past by Presidium so Supreme Soviet simply rubber stamped legislation. Real purpose of Supreme Soviet was simply to spread message of Presidium. Elections were not considered democratic because there was usually only one name on ballot.
Communist Party Membership Only those who were politically conscious, honest, educated, and dedicated to the party could join. –Nominated by party member –Two years to become member –Every aspect of candidates life was investigated –Only 20% of population were members. –Majority of CPSU members were employed in industry and agriculture. (72%)
Large Secret Police Force Cheka (1917) : Lenin NKVD (1934) : Stalin –People’s Commissarat of Internal Affairs KGB (1954) –Committee for State Security
Soviet Government Federal system Little autonomy to republics. Autonomy: right to make own decisions Government controls all levels of government. (Moscow: Kremlin)
China becomes a Communist State 1949, Mao Zedong revolts against the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) and turns China into a communist state.
The People’s Republic of China Mao adopted a country that was politically and economically backwards. –Lack of political unity –Primitive technology –Population explosion –Famine Began a campaign of abolishing private property, collectivization of agriculture and 5 year plans.
Great Leap Forward ( ) Economic and social plan to turn China from an agrarian society into a modern industrialized communist society. The hope was to industrialize by making use of the massive supply of cheap labor (unemployed) and avoid having to import heavy machinery. (People’s Communes) Plan was a disaster “Great Leap Backwards” –Unorganized (more workers dedicated to industry than to agriculture caused food shortages) –Unrealistic work assignments – typhoons, floods –Mao stepped aside from the government as he had lost support of the communist party. (though still a “father figure” to the masses of Chinese people)
Foreign Policy After the death of Stalin a bitter rift developed between China and the Soviets. Mao was ignored by Stalin successors which forced Mao to solicit support from other communist nations. Mao criticized Khrushchev for his policy of peaceful co-existence. USSR offered moderate aid to the Chinese but did not want to help them become a global power. –Ordered all Soviet technicians and scientists in China to return home in 1960.
Foreign Policy cont… Tensions between China & the USSR grew when Brezhnev (1964) became the new leader. (Brezhnev Doctrine) This resulted in friendlier relations with the USA. (ping pong diplomacy) 1970’s China retreated from socialism to more of a modified private enterprise system.
Cultural Revolution ( ) A method to regain control of the party after the disastrous Great Leap Forward. Mao’s strategy was to use the youth (Red Guard) of China to raise mass consciousness of the dangers of privilege and modified capitalism. (destroy all symbols of the past) Over 12 million students activists took part in mass rallies in support of Mao. –Large bands of protesters all over China left chaos and political instability.
OUTCOME… Premier Zhou Enlai ordered the People’s Army to restore order by force. – people died –17 million sent to work camps –Millions more sent to correctional camps to be re-educated. Mao Zedong dies in Government of China rounds of the “Gang of Four” puts them on trial for role in Cultural Revolution. Sentenced to death (later changed to life imprisonment) Deng Xiaoping takes control of China. –Favored better relations with the west in trade.
LIFE UNDER THE CEAUSESCUS (ROMANIA) Ruled Romania from ( ). Owned 40 homes Elena owned 40 fur coats and 2000 gowns. Elena never past grade four but had claimed she discovered compounds she named after herself.(received 72 degrees) One in three people were secret police agents. Bedrooms of high ranking officials bugged with microphones. Program of Scientific Nourishment was started. Abortions made illegal. (spied on mothers) Sold babies of single mothers.
THE CUBAN REVOLUTION 1898: Cuba with American help freed itself from Spanish control. 1902: Platt amendment is signed with the USA making Cuba an American Protectorate.
THE REVOLUTION of 1933 Cubans’ dissatisfaction over their country’s political system turned into riots. 1933: government was overthrown by the military and Batista ruled Cuba through puppet presidents. –USA supported overthrow because Batista promised concessions. (i.e. protect foreign investments.) –Supplied weapons and trained Cuban officers.
FIDEL CASTRO Born in 1926 came from a wealthy family. In 1950 graduated from law school but was disinterested. Unhappy with the Batista regime decided to organize an armed uprising.(1952) –Uprising ended in failure and Castro was given 15 year prison sentence. –While in prison mapped out strategy to overthrow Batista. Freed from prison in 1955 (political amnesty) and fled to Mexico.
FIDEL CASTRO Castro and Che Guevara (friend) began to train a small force in guerilla warfare. –Announced he would return to Cuba in Landing was a disaster and Castro was forced to hide (regroup) in the Sierra Maestra mountains. Castro gained supporters and they began winning small conflicts, broadcasting on “Radio Rebelde” and using propaganda. USA stopped all shipments of weapons to Cuba (Castro promised protection of foreign investments, private enterprise, etc.) 1958: Cuban government collapsed and Fidel Castro became the leader of Cuba.
USA and CUBA Once Castro was in power, it became obvious that Castro was not willing to cooperate with the United States. Tensions came to a head during the Cold War when Cuban rebels (backed by the USA) attempted to overthrow Castro and failed. This is known as the BAY OF PIGS. Following this, Castro allowed Khrushchev to place missiles in Cuba, the USA placed a quarantine on Cuba, preventing all trade. To date, the USA has a trade embargo on Cuba, which has greatly burdened the Cuban economy. Much of Castro’s popularity within Cuba has been based on his Anti-American stance.
After 49 years of rule, Castro resigns as dictator of Cuba! Currently, his brother, Raul Castro, has taken over as leader Will the USA lift their current trade sanctions………………????
In General, All Dictatorships… Promise to remake society on a grand scale Penetrate all aspects of society - Army, schools, must be a party member to get ahead - No individual rights, subordinate to the state Party is dominated by an all-powerful, charismatic leader Party and leader’s power are maintained by force (militarized society) Monopolization of the flow of ideas Rule supported by terrorist activities - Parliamentary activities, Secret Police Law is only what the state dictates State control of the economy - Different if fascist or communist!)