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The Red Storm The creation of China's Communist Party and its role in modern China By Nikita Baryshnikov and Baron Tang.

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Presentation on theme: "The Red Storm The creation of China's Communist Party and its role in modern China By Nikita Baryshnikov and Baron Tang."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Red Storm The creation of China's Communist Party and its role in modern China By Nikita Baryshnikov and Baron Tang

2 The New Culture Movement The Chinese Communist Party initially began in 1911 with the intellectual ferment of the New Culture Movement (NCM). Political theorists and activists of the NCM, such as Sun Yat-Sen, prodded for political and economic modernization (while retaining the traditional Confucian roots), whereas the May Fourth Movement’s ultimate goal was to eliminate Confucianism in exchange for a more westernized culture. The Chinese Communist Party initially began in 1911 with the intellectual ferment of the New Culture Movement (NCM). Political theorists and activists of the NCM, such as Sun Yat-Sen, prodded for political and economic modernization (while retaining the traditional Confucian roots), whereas the May Fourth Movement’s ultimate goal was to eliminate Confucianism in exchange for a more westernized culture.

3 The May Fourth Movement Prior to the end of WWI, the Japanese had taken Shantung from China. As part of the allied forces, the taking of Shantung was meant as a direct attack on Germany, who leased a naval base there. Even after the war was over, the Japanese insisted on keeping Shantung and coerced the Allied powers to comply with the demands of the Treaty of Versailles. On May 4, 1919, fired up with a nationalist fervor, students staged a mass demonstration against the Treaty which was very promptly suppressed and failed. This was the first mass protest in Chinese history. Prior to the end of WWI, the Japanese had taken Shantung from China. As part of the allied forces, the taking of Shantung was meant as a direct attack on Germany, who leased a naval base there. Even after the war was over, the Japanese insisted on keeping Shantung and coerced the Allied powers to comply with the demands of the Treaty of Versailles. On May 4, 1919, fired up with a nationalist fervor, students staged a mass demonstration against the Treaty which was very promptly suppressed and failed. This was the first mass protest in Chinese history.

4 The May Fourth Movement is critical in Chinese history because it spawned an intellectual revolution in the time of the New Culture Movement. After the mass protest failures, many pro-western movement leaders began to turn to Marxism and the lessons of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The May Fourth Movement is critical in Chinese history because it spawned an intellectual revolution in the time of the New Culture Movement. After the mass protest failures, many pro-western movement leaders began to turn to Marxism and the lessons of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.

5 Li Ta-ch'ao and Ch'en Tu-hsiu The founders of the Chinese Communist Party, Li Ta- ch’ao and Chen Tu-hsiu were prominent leaders in the New Culture Movement. They disagreed with the belief that Chinese society should be changed gradually or as some called it: “drop by drop,” they instead promoted immediate change, modeled after the Bolshevik Revolution. The Communist Party was formed in 1921 under the supervision of Soviet representative of the Comintern (Communist International). On July 20, 1921, the CCP held its first Congress with twelve Chinese and two Russians, among those who attended, Mao Tse- Tung played a leading role. The founders of the Chinese Communist Party, Li Ta- ch’ao and Chen Tu-hsiu were prominent leaders in the New Culture Movement. They disagreed with the belief that Chinese society should be changed gradually or as some called it: “drop by drop,” they instead promoted immediate change, modeled after the Bolshevik Revolution. The Communist Party was formed in 1921 under the supervision of Soviet representative of the Comintern (Communist International). On July 20, 1921, the CCP held its first Congress with twelve Chinese and two Russians, among those who attended, Mao Tse- Tung played a leading role.

6 The Chinese Communist Party After a continuous 9-year quarrel with the Soviet Comintern, Mao and the Communist Party finally became independent operatives from the Soviet Union in 1931. Shortly after, on November 7, 1931, Mao held the First All China Congress of the Soviets in his capital city of Juichin. After a continuous 9-year quarrel with the Soviet Comintern, Mao and the Communist Party finally became independent operatives from the Soviet Union in 1931. Shortly after, on November 7, 1931, Mao held the First All China Congress of the Soviets in his capital city of Juichin.

7 First All-China Congress of the Soviets The Bolshevik members of the Chinese politburo agreed to this congress, but only attended for the purpose of chastising Mao. They ridiculed his guerilla tactics, his recruitment of peasants over workers and his overall “ideological poverty.” But Mao, who foresaw this, stocked up the Congress with Maoists who then elected Mao the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-China Soviet Government and Chief Political Commissar of the Red Army. The Bolshevik members of the Chinese politburo agreed to this congress, but only attended for the purpose of chastising Mao. They ridiculed his guerilla tactics, his recruitment of peasants over workers and his overall “ideological poverty.” But Mao, who foresaw this, stocked up the Congress with Maoists who then elected Mao the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-China Soviet Government and Chief Political Commissar of the Red Army.

8 Maoists vs. Bolsheviks The differences between the Bolsheviks and the Maoists were irreconcilable. The Maoists believed that land should be equally distributed to landlords and poor alike; the Bolsheviks believed that the wealthy and the landlords should be completely deprived of all land. The Maoists believed that the Red Army should ally itself with other parties in order to meet the threat of Japanese aggression; the Bolsheviks believed that the Red Army should slowly grow and should have as its primary goal the protection of the Soviet Union from the Japanese. Finally, the Maoists believed in luring Nationalist forces into Communist territory and then surrounding and attacking them; the Bolsheviks believed that the Communists should defend their territories and occasionally make forays into Nationalist territory. The differences between the Bolsheviks and the Maoists were irreconcilable. The Maoists believed that land should be equally distributed to landlords and poor alike; the Bolsheviks believed that the wealthy and the landlords should be completely deprived of all land. The Maoists believed that the Red Army should ally itself with other parties in order to meet the threat of Japanese aggression; the Bolsheviks believed that the Red Army should slowly grow and should have as its primary goal the protection of the Soviet Union from the Japanese. Finally, the Maoists believed in luring Nationalist forces into Communist territory and then surrounding and attacking them; the Bolsheviks believed that the Communists should defend their territories and occasionally make forays into Nationalist territory.

9 Structure of the party Communist Party Party eldersPolitburoDiscipline commission Military Affairs commission National People’s Congress State council Provinces & townships Courts & Prosecutors Armed forces Exerts influence Elects/approves

10 China’s National People’s Congress According to the Constitution, the NPC is the highest organ of state power. According to the Constitution, the NPC is the highest organ of state power. It meets every march and the congress is represented by all 30 provinces, the military as well as the autonomous regions. It meets every march and the congress is represented by all 30 provinces, the military as well as the autonomous regions. It is also supposed to elect the President and Vice president and select the Premier. It is also supposed to elect the President and Vice president and select the Premier. Delegates to the Congress are selected by the regional peoples congresses Delegates to the Congress are selected by the regional peoples congresses However it does not have the power to remove officials or to set policy. Elections are under the firm control of the CCP. However it does not have the power to remove officials or to set policy. Elections are under the firm control of the CCP.

11 The Politburo The Politburo of the Communist Party of China is a group of about 20 people who oversee the Communist Party. While the members of the politburo are supposed to be appointed by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the practice since the 1980s has been that the Politburo is self-perpetuating. The Politburo is very powerful due to the positions that its members have in the PRC as well as their control over personnel appointments. The Politburo of the Communist Party of China is a group of about 20 people who oversee the Communist Party. While the members of the politburo are supposed to be appointed by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the practice since the 1980s has been that the Politburo is self-perpetuating. The Politburo is very powerful due to the positions that its members have in the PRC as well as their control over personnel appointments.

12 The Premier- Wen Jiabao The premier is the Chairman of the state Council of the PRC and head of government. He is appointed by the NPC after negotiation of the Communist Party. He has the responsibility to organizing and administrating the Chinese civil bureaucracy. He has no authority over the Peoples Liberation Army. The premier gets elected at the same time as the president. The premier is the Chairman of the state Council of the PRC and head of government. He is appointed by the NPC after negotiation of the Communist Party. He has the responsibility to organizing and administrating the Chinese civil bureaucracy. He has no authority over the Peoples Liberation Army. The premier gets elected at the same time as the president.

13 The President- Hu Jintao The President gets chosen in a similar way as the premier. Since the early 1990s, the President has generally been responsible for establishing general policy and direction for the state and leaves responsibility for the implementation details to the Premier The President gets chosen in a similar way as the premier. Since the early 1990s, the President has generally been responsible for establishing general policy and direction for the state and leaves responsibility for the implementation details to the Premier

14 Govermnet has strong control over Media The Constitution states that freedom of speech and freedom of the press are fundamental rights to be enjoyed by all citizens The Constitution states that freedom of speech and freedom of the press are fundamental rights to be enjoyed by all citizens However The Party and the Government still controls some or all print and broadcast media and uses them in its favor. Guidelines are set up by the CCP for journalists to follow and to avoide coverage of sensitive topics.

15 Freedom of Speech without Freedom of Assembly The Constitution also provides the freedom of peaceful of assembly The Constitution also provides the freedom of peaceful of assembly However the Government severely restricts any assembly and prohibits protests against the government. Especially after the Tiananmen square demonstration the government is very sensitive regarding political demonstrations. When in 2002, hundreds of workers who were laid-off from state owned companies protested, their leaders were arrested. Similarly, the government doesn’t tolerate protest by the Falun Gong, a spiritual movement. Even demonstrations that are not against the government are under the control of the Government such as the ones following the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia. Student demonstrators were taken to and from the designated protest sites by the government in order to ensure that the protests would remain under the control of the CCP. Since 1999 all concerts, sports events and other meetings of more than 200 people require approval from Public Security Forces

16 Party’s control over religion The Constitution further provides for the freedom of religious belief. The Constitution further provides for the freedom of religious belief. At the same time however the Government monitors the activities of religious institutions and is trying to prevent the religious organizations to gain any authority. In addition to that the party does not support having high-ranking members to be religious. Furthermore some Party members as well as PLA personnel have been expelled for adhering to the Fulan Gong beliefs.

17 Economics In 2002 during the 16 th Party congress it has been established that private enterprise would be able to compete against state run companies In 2002 during the 16 th Party congress it has been established that private enterprise would be able to compete against state run companies However landownership is still not allowed However landownership is still not allowed Large amount of companies are state owned and controlled by ministries in Beijing, of them about 50% are not profitable. Large amount of companies are state owned and controlled by ministries in Beijing, of them about 50% are not profitable.

18 China’s new rich in the Cummunist Party The CCP is a large business network for the many entrepreneurs The CCP is a large business network for the many entrepreneurs Of China’s 100 richest people, a quarter are party members, 6 are delegates at the NPC Of China’s 100 richest people, a quarter are party members, 6 are delegates at the NPC Of the 100 richest people Three-quarters made their money in property or with conglomerates, showing that China’s entrepreneurs are using their government connections to get rich. Of the 100 richest people Three-quarters made their money in property or with conglomerates, showing that China’s entrepreneurs are using their government connections to get rich.


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