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Agenda 1) Warm-Up (5 min) 2) Go over safety symbols + meaning (10 min) 3) “About Science” notes (15 min) 4) Creating a hypothesis WS (10 min) 5) Reading.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda 1) Warm-Up (5 min) 2) Go over safety symbols + meaning (10 min) 3) “About Science” notes (15 min) 4) Creating a hypothesis WS (10 min) 5) Reading."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Agenda 1) Warm-Up (5 min) 2) Go over safety symbols + meaning (10 min) 3) “About Science” notes (15 min) 4) Creating a hypothesis WS (10 min) 5) Reading assignment Ch. 1-2 (30 mins) 6) Reflection Electric shock: Never use electrical equipment around water, or when equipment or hands are wet. Biology, zoology, botany, entomology, anatomy & physiology etc.

3 Common to all Sciences Goggles Apron Glassware Heat-resistant gloves Electrical Shock No Open Flames Physical Safety Fumes Heating Glassware Corrosi ve Proper Disposal Hand Washing General Safety Toxic/poison Open Flames

4 Explanation of Symbols Goggles- Wear safety goggles to protect your eyes during labs that use chemicals, flames or heating, or the possibility of broken glass. Apron- Wear a lab apron to protect skin and clothing. Glassware- handle breakable materials with care. Do not handle broken glass. Heat-resistant gloves – Use hand protection when handling hot materials. Do not touch hot materials with bare hands. No Open Flames- Flammable materials may be present. Make sure no flames, sparks, or exposed heat sources are present. Physical Safety- When an experiment involves physical activity, take precaution not to injure yourself or others. Alert your teacher of any reason that you should not participate in the activity.

5 Explanation of Symbols Proper Disposal- Not everything goes in the trash or sink. Follow teacher’s directions as to where to dispose of all materials. Hand Washing- Wash hands thoroughly after all lab activities. General Safety- Follow additional safety precautions given by your teacher. Toxic/poison- Do not let poisonous chemicals come in contact with your skin, clothing or eyes. Do not inhale vapors. Wash hands when you are done with the activity

6 Unit 1: “About Science” Introduction to PHYSICS

7 Physics - The Basic Science Natural philosophy-the study of unanswered questions about nature; as the questions were answered, this became known as present-day Science. I. LIFE SCIENCES: Biology Zoology Botany II. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: Geology Astronomy Chemistry Physics

8 Physics (foundation for…) Chemistry (foundation for…) Biology Physics studies motion, forces, energy, matter, heat, sound, light, atoms

9 Mathematics – The Language of Science Mathematics – “universal” language When information is expressed mathematically, it is easier to prove or disprove correctness

10 1. A red car is driving slowly; a blue car is driving quickly (slowly or quickly relative to what?) VS 2. A car is driving at 35 mph, and a blue car is driving at 110 mph (mathematical terms – more clear) Example:

11 Methods used in science in gaining, organizing and applying knowledge Scientific Methods

12 Steps of the Scientific Method Problem Problem – what question do you want answered? Hypothesis Hypothesis – what do you THINK the answer might be? (an educated guess) The hypothesis must be TESTABLE (scientists must be able to experiment to test the hypothesis)

13 Atoms are the smallest particles of matter – TESTABLE VS Albert Einstein is the greatest physicist of all time – NOT TESTABLE For example:

14 Scientific Method Steps, cont. Prediction Prediction – what will happen if your hypothesis is correct? Experiment Experiment – test your hypothesis Results Results – visually show what you learned in your experiment (usually charts and graphs) Conclusion Conclusion – was your hypothesis correct? What did you learn from the experiment?

15 Scientific Attitude FACT FACT – a close agreement by competent observers of a series of observations of the same phenomenon (EX: water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius)

16 Scientific Attitude LAWS or PRINCIPLES LAWS or PRINCIPLES – a general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted (EX: Newton’s Laws of Motion)

17 THEORY THEORY – a synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well- tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world Theories are based on facts. (EX: Theory of Relativity, Theory of Evolution) Scientific Attitude, cont.

18 SCIENCE deals with theoretical questions; it is a “way of knowing” TECHNOLOGY deals with practical problems; it is a “way of doing” What do you think - Is technology good or bad? Science, Technology, and Society

19 Science, Art and Religion All are pathways to search for order and meaning SCIENCE investigates natural phenomenon ART is the creation of objects or events that stimulate the senses RELIGION is the belief in nature’s purpose The 3 do not exist alone. The blending of all 3 creates diversity among scholars.

20 DUE TODAY: About science notes (KEEP-Binder) Hypothesis worksheet Reading Assignment Ch. 1-2 DUE NEXT CLASS: Syllabus contract Binder/dividers/CALCULATOR Unit folders Study for Safety Quiz “Courage is not the absence of fear, but rather the judgment that something else is more important than fear.” - Ambrose Redmoon

21 08 – 25 – 2011 No Open Flames- Flammable materials may be present. Make sure no flames, sparks, or exposed heat sources are present By the lab door in a box with a red cross

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23 Explanation of Symbols Goggles- Wear safety goggles to protect your eyes during labs that use chemicals, flames or heating, or the possibility of broken glass. Apron- Wear a lab apron to protect skin and clothing. Glassware- handle breakable materials with care. Do not handle broken glass. Heat-resistant gloves – Use hand protection when handling hot materials. Do not touch hot materials with bare hands. No Open Flames- Flammable materials may be present. Make sure no flames, sparks, or exposed heat sources are present. Physical Safety- When an experiment involves physical activity, take precaution not to injure yourself or others. Alert your teacher of any reason that you should not participate in the activity.

24 Explanation of Symbols Proper Disposal- Not everything goes in the trash or sink. Follow teacher’s directions as to where to dispose of all materials. Hand Washing- Wash hands thoroughly after all lab activities. General Safety- Follow additional safety precautions given by your teacher. Toxic/poison- Do not let poisonous chemicals come in contact with your skin, clothing or eyes. Do not inhale vapors. Wash hands when you are done with the activity

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26 What Science Is and Is NOT - The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions.

27 What Science Is 1) science deals with the natural world 2) scientists collect and organize information in an orderly way, looking for patterns and connections between events. 3) scientists propose explanations that can be tested by examining evidence. * In other words science is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world

28 Thinking Like a Scientist Suppose your car doesn’t work. Is it out of gas? Is the battery dead? How can one find out what is wrong? FINDING ANSWERS IN THE REAL WORLD

29 Thinking Like A Scientist *THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observation: The car won’t move Question: Is the car out of gas? Hypothesis: The car is out of gas. Experiment: Put gas in the car. Repeat: *Then maybe you will come to a conclusion

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31 Thinking Like A Scientist - Scientific thinking usually begins with an observation. - Observations generally involve using one’s senses. The information gathered then is called data.

32 ***Observations Louis Pasteur used the scientific method to disprove the idea of spontaneous generation. READ FROM SCIENTIFIC METHOD

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34 Collect Data about Question Quantitative data is data that is expressed in numbers. Qualitative data is descriptive and involves characteristics that can’t usually be counted.

35 Quantitative vs. Qualitative Weight and Height are an example of: The manatee seems healthy and alert is an example of:

36 ***Question Ask a question about the problem you observe. Example: Is the car out of gas? Why are there ants in my glove box?

37 Explaining and Interpreting Evidence After making essential observations, researchers will propose one or more hypotheses. Hypothesis – A testable statement for what was observed.

38 ***Hypothesis What is a hypothesis? What is a guess? How do you know what is educated?

39 Question Everything. This book contains a lot of facts but don’t think biological science is a set of truths that do not change. Science is always an ongoing process that involves asking question, observing, making inferences, and testing hypothesis.

40 ***Designing an Experiment Asking a question. Forming a hypothesis. Setting up a Controlled Experiment Recording and Analyzing results Drawing a conclusion

41 Setting Up a Controlled Experiment Testing a hypothesis often involves designing an experiment. The factors in the experiment that can change are called variables. Ex: weather, materials, light, time, space, etc.

42 Controlled Experiment Whenever possible, a hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables should be left unchanged, or controlled. Manipulated variable / Independent variable – variable that is deliberately changed. Responding variable / Dependent variable – variable that changes in response to the independent variable.

43 Questions What are the controlled variables? What is the independent variable? What would be the dependent variable?

44 When Experiments Are Not Possible Field studies – If a scientist wanted to gain a better understanding of a particular organism in the wild then an experiment would be impossible.

45 Creating an Experiment Get into groups of three or four and create a controlled experiment from the observation you see below. Observation: ? Question: ? Hypothesis: ? Experiment: ? (Controlled) Maybe Conclusion: ?

46 DUE TODAY: Hypothesis Simpsons worksheet DUE NEXT CLASS: Syllabus contract Binder/spiral/calculator STUDY FOR QUIZ STUDY FOR QUIZ “ Patience is the companion of wisdom.” ~Saint Augustine

47 08 – 25 – 2011 IF……, THEN…. True

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49 Basic Equipment and Metric System

50 Used to make accurate measurements of liquid volumes. The bumper ring on larger cylinders is to prevent breakage if tipped over. Graduated cylinder

51 Measuring the Volume of a liquid with a graduated cylinder The top of a liquid in a cylinder curves to form what is known as a meniscus. Read the bottom of the meniscus to measure the amount of liquid in the cylinder! The smaller the container the greater the curve.

52 Triple Beam Balance The balance is named for its three "beams". How to use the Triple Beam Balance: The tares, or weights are moved to ZERO An object is placed on the pan of the balance Facing the balance  the back beam is in 10 gram steps ( 10g – 20g – 30 g …) the middle beam is in 100 gram steps (100g – 200g …) the front beam is in 1 gram steps (1g – 2g – 3g…) 1 st move the 100g step to the next notch 2 nd move the 10g step to the next notch 3 rd move the 1g step to the next notch It is very important that the tares on these two beams are in the notch for the whole number of grams and not in between notches. Total mass = (100g beam) + (10g beam) + (1g beam)

53 Reading a Balance

54 Using Litmus Paper An acid turns blue litmus paper red A base turns red litmus paper blue. You should never dip the test paper into the solution being tested. Always use a glass stirring rod. Dip a clean stirring rod into the solution, then touch the wet stirring rod to the paper. Base = BLUE Acid = RED

55 Used to hold test tubes for short periods of "gentle" heating. Test tube holder

56 Heating a Test Tube Never heat a closed container Heat the open test tube pointing away from you and others Always heat the test tube at an angle from the flame.

57 Foundations of the Metric System Based on multiples of TEN (10) Seven basic units Uses of prefix for making numbers larger and smaller.

58 Basic Units Length = meter (m) Mass = gram (g) Time = second (s) Temperature = Celcius (C ° ) Volume = Liter (L)

59 Commonly use Metric Prefixes… PrefixSymbolFactor gigaG10 9 megaM10 6 kilok10 3 ***Basic unitm, g, s, Cº, L 10 no superscript*** centic10 -2 millim10 -3 micoµ10 -6 nanoN10 -9

60 Conversions The superscript  tells you how many ZEROS the number has from the decimal (.) Example 1: “kilo” (k) = 10 3 so…“kilo” has 3 zeros to the LEFT of the (.) 12 km = m Example 2: “nano” (n) = so…”nano” has 9 zeros to the RIGHT of the (.) 3nm = m Your turn… 23 mm = ______ m

61 DUE TODAY: Safety Quiz Metric System notes (KEEP) Simpsons worksheet DUE NEXT CLASS: Syllabus contract Binder/spiral/calculator “ Patience is the companion of wisdom.” ~Saint Augustine


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