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Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus.

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Presentation on theme: "Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Figure 7.1a Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) (a) Anterior view Facial bones Cranium Sacrum Vertebral column Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Ch. 7 The Skeleton

2 Skeletal System Composed of bones, cartilage, joints, and ligaments Accounts for 20% of body mass 30 lbs in a 160 lb person Bones – most of skeleton Cartilage – isolated areas – nose, parts of ribs, joints Ligaments – connect bones and reinforce joints Joints – allow for motility

3 Axial Skeleton 80 bones segregated into 3 major regions Skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage Forms: 1.Longitudinal axis of body 2.Supports head, neck, and trunk 3.Protects brain, spinal cord, and organs of the thorax

4 Skull Body’s most complex bone structure Formed by cranial and facial bones – 22 in all Cranium – cranial bones Enclose and protect the brain Attachment sites for head and neck muscles

5 Skull Facial Bones 1.Form framework of the face 2.Contain cavities for special sense organs – sight, taste, and smell 3.Provide openings for air and food passage 4.Secure the teeth 5.Anchor facial muscles of expression

6 Skull Bones Most are flat bones except for mandible firmly united by interlocking joints – sutures Major sutures – 1.Coronal 2.Sagittal 3.Squamous 4.lambdoid

7 Figure 7.2a Bones of cranium (cranial vault) Lambdoid suture Facial bones Squamous suture (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull Coronal suture

8 Skull - Overview Lopsided, hallow, bony sphere Anterior – facial bones Rest – cranium Cranium – divided into vault and base Cranial vault – calvaria – forms superior, lateral, and posterior aspects Cranial base or floor – inferior aspect - internal bony ridges – anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae Brian fits in snuggly

9 Figure 7.2b Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa (b) Superior view of the cranial fossae

10 Skull - Overview Smaller cavities – – Middle and inferior ear – Nasal cavities and orbits 85 names openings – – Formina – Canals – Fissures, Etc. Passageway for spinal cord, blood vessels, and cranial nerves (I-XII)

11 Cranium 8 bones 1. Frontal Bone – anterior cranium Articulates posteriorly with paired parietal bones via – coronal suture Anterior part – vertical squamous part – forehead Extends posteriorly forming superior walls of orbits and most of anterior cranial fossa – supports frontal lobes of the brain Subraorbital margin – pierced by supraorbital forman (notch) which allows artery and nerve to pass to forehead Smooth portion between orbits – glabella Just inferior – meets nasal bones at frontonasal suture Frontal sinuses

12 Figure 7.4a (a) Anterior view Mandibular symphysis Frontal bone Glablla Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (noch) Supraorbital margin

13 Cranium 2. Parietal Bones 2 large bones Curved, rectangular bones form most of the superior and lateral aspects Bulk of the cranial vault 4 largest sutures where parietal bones articulate 1.Coronal suture – parietal meets frontal 2.Sagittal suture – parietals meets superiorly 3.Lambboid suture – parietal meets occipital posteriorly 4.Squamous suture – parietal and temporal meet at lateral aspect

14 Figure 7.4a Parietal bone

15 Cranium 3. Occipital Bone Forms most of skulls posterior wall and base Articulates anteriorly with paired parietal and temporal – lambdoid and occipitomastoid sutures Joins sphenoid bone in cranial floor Projection – pharyngeal tubercle

16 Occipital bone (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Figure 7.5a

17 Cranium 3. Occipital Bone Internally – forms walls of posterior cranial fossa – supports cerebellum Base – foramen magnum – through which brain connects with spinal cord Flanked laterally by 2 occipital condyles – aciculate with first vertebrae – permits nodding Hypoglossal canal – cranial nerve XII passes External occipital protuberance – median protrusion Other ridges and crests mark bones

18 Occipital bone (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Figure 7.5a

19 Cranium 4. Temporal Bones – Line inferior to parietal bones and meet them at squamous sutures Form inferolateral aspects of skull and part of the cranial floor Complicated shape – 4 major areas (regions) Squamous, mastoid, tympanic, and petrous

20 (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Temporal bone Figure 7.5a

21 Cranium 4. Temporal Bones – Squamous Region – abuts squamous suture Bar like zygomatic process – meets zygomatic bones of the face Form zygomatic arch – projections of cheek Mandibular fossa – receive lower jawbone – forms temporomandibular joint

22 Figure 7.8 Mastoid region External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic region Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Squamous region

23 Cranium 4. Temporal Bones – Tympanic region – surrounds external acoustic meatus – external ear canal Below- needle like styloid process – attachment for tongue and neck muscles

24 Figure 7.8 Mastoid region External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic region Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Squamous region

25 Cranium 4. Temporal Bones – Mastoid Region – mastoid process – anchoring site for neck muscles Stylomastoid foramen – allow cranial nerve VII to leave skull Middle cranial fossa – sphenoid and petrous Supports temporal bones of brain

26 Carinum 4. Temporal Bones – Several foramen - jugular vein and cranial nerves IX, X, XI Carotid canal – carotid artery Foramen lacerum – closed by cartilage in living room Internal acoustic meatus – cranial nerves VII & VIII

27 Figure 7.8 Mastoid region External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Tympanic region Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Squamous region

28 Cranium 5. Sphenoid Bone – bat shaped Spans width of middle cranial fossa Central wedge – articulates with all the other cranial bones Central body and 3 pairs of processes Greater wings, lesser wings, and pterygoid processes With in the body – paired sphenoid sinuses

29 Figure 7.9a Greater wing Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Body of sphenoid Superior orbital fissure (a) Superior view Optic canal Lesser wing

30 Figure 7.9b Body of sphenoid Greater wing Superior orbital fissure Lesser wing Pterygoid process (b) Posterior view

31 Cranium 6. Ethmoid Bone – complex shape Lies between sphenoid and nasal bones Superior surface – cribriform plates Crista galli – triangular processes Perpendicular plate – part of nasal septum Lateral mass – ethmoid sinuses

32 Figure 7.10 Orbital plate Ethmoidal air cells Perpendicular plate Middle nasal concha Cribriform plate Olfactory foramina Crista galli Left lateral mass

33 Cranium 7. Sutural Bones – Thin irregularly shaped bones with in sutures Vary in numbers Not in all skulls Unknown significance

34 Figure 7.4b Sutural bone 7. Sutural Bones – Thin irregularly shaped bones with in sutures Vary in numbers Not in all skulls Unknown significance

35 Facial Bones 14 bones Only mandible and vomer unpaired Men – more elongated than women Women – rounder and less angular

36 Facial Bones - Mandible Lower jawbone Longest and strongest Forms chin 2 upright rami – meet body posterior at mandibular angle Top groove – notch Body – anchors lower teeth – Alveolar margin – contains sockets where teeth are embedded

37 Figure 7.11a Coronoid process Mandibular foramen Mental foramen Mandibular angle Ramus of mandible Mandibular condyle Mandibular notch Mandibular fossa of temporal bone Body of mandible Alveolar margin (a) Mandible, right lateral view Temporomandibular joint

38 Facial Bones – Maxillary Bones Maxillae Fused medially Form upper jaw and central portion of face Upper teeth – alveolar margins

39 Figure 7.11b Frontal process Articulates with frontal bone Anterior nasal spine Infraorbital foramen Alveolar margin (b) Maxilla, right lateral view Orbital surface Zygomatic process (cut)

40 Figure 7.4a Zygomatic bone (a) Anterior view Irregularly shaped Cheek bone and part of inferolateral margins of orbits

41 Facial Bones – Nasal Bones Thin, rectangular, bridge of nose Attach to cartilage of external nose

42 Figure 7.5a Nasal bone Thin, rectangular, bridge of nose Attach to cartilage of external nose Facial Bones – Nasal Bones

43 Figure 7.4a Lacrimal bone (a) Anterior view Delicate, fingernail shaped Contribute to medial walls of each orbit Deep grove – lacrimal fossa – allows tears to drain Facial Bones – Lacrimal Bones

44 Facial Bones – Palatine Bones 2 bony plates – horizontal and perpendicular 3 processes – pyramidal, sphenoidal, and orbital Horizontal plate – hard palate Perpendicular – walls of nasal cavity and small part of orbits

45 Figure 7.6a Incisive fossa Median palatine suture Intermaxillary suture Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Maxilla (palatine process) Hard palate (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Palatine bone (horizontal plate)

46 Figure 7.6a Incisive fossa Median palatine suture Intermaxillary suture Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Maxilla (palatine process) Hard palate Vomer (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Palatine bone (horizontal plate) Slender, plow shaped In nasal cavity and small part of orbit

47 Figure 7.14a Inferior nasal concha Nasal bone Thin, curved bones in nasal cavity Wall of nasal cavity Inferior Nasal Conchae

48 Hyoid Bone Not really part of skull U shaped Inferior to mandible in anterior neck Does not articulate directly with any other bone Horseshoe shaped

49 The Vertebral Column Spine or spinal column 26 irregular bones connected in a flexible curved shape Skull  pelvis Infant – 33 bones Adult – 9 fuse  24 bones

50 Figure 7.16 Cervical curvature (concave) 7 vertebrae, C 1 –C 7 Thoracic curvature (convex) 12 vertebrae, T 1 –T 12 Lumbar curvature (concave) 5 vertebrae, L 1 –L 5 Sacral curvature (convex) 5 fused vertebrae sacrum Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae Anterior viewRight lateral view Spinous process Transverse processes Intervertebral discs Intervertebral foramen C1C1

51 The Vertebral Column Regions – ~ 70 cm long (28 inches) 5 major regions 1.Cervical region (7) 2.Thoracic region (12) 3.Lumbar region (5) 4.Sacrum 5.coccyx

52 The Vertebral Column Curvatures - cervical and lumbar curvatures – concave posteriorly Thoracic and sacral – convex posteriorly

53 Figure 7.16 Cervical curvature (concave) 7 vertebrae, C 1 –C 7 Thoracic curvature (convex) 12 vertebrae, T 1 –T 12 Lumbar curvature (concave) 5 vertebrae, L 1 –L 5 Sacral curvature (convex) 5 fused vertebrae sacrum Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae Anterior viewRight lateral view Spinous process Transverse processes Intervertebral discs Intervertebral foramen C1C1

54 Abnormal Spinal Curvatures some present at birth Others disease, poor posture, unequal muscle pull 1. Scoliosis – “twisted disease” abnormal lateral curvature in the thoracic region – Treated with braces or surgically 2. Kyphosis – hunchback – Dorsally exaggerate thoracic curvature – Common in elderly or from tuberculosis of spine, rickets, or osteomalacia 3. Lordosis – swayback, accentuated lumbar curvature – Spinal tuberculosis or osteomalacia – Common in people with large belles, pregnant women

55 Ligaments Elaborate system of cable like supports Strap like ligaments Major – anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments Run down back and front surfaces of vertebrae Posterior – prevents hyperextension

56 Intervertebral Discs Cushion like pad 2 parts – inner gelatinous nucleus pulposus – rubber ball – gives elasticity and compressibility Surrounded by – anucleus fibrosus – limits expansion when spine is compressed Woven strap Withstands twisting and tension

57 Figure 7.17c Vertebral spinous process (posterior aspect of vertebra) Spinal nerve root Anulus fibrosus of disc Herniated portion of disc Nucleus pulposus of disc Spinal cord (c) Superior view of a herniated intervertebral disc Transverse process

58 Figure 7.17a Supraspinous ligament Intervertebral disc Anterior longitudinal ligament Intervertebral foramen Posterior longitudinal ligament Anulus fibrosus Nucleus pulposus Sectioned body of vertebra Transverse process Sectioned spinous process Ligamentum flavum Interspinous ligament Inferior articular process Median section of three vertebrae, illustrating the composition of the discs and the ligaments

59 Intervertebral Discs Shock absorbers Allow to spine to bend and flex Thickest in lumbar region 25 % of the height of the column Flatten during day – slightly shorter at night Sudden trauma – herniated disc – rupture of anulus fibrosus and protrusion of nucleus pulposus Treatment – heat, massage, exercise. If not must remove protruding disc and fuse vertebrae

60 Structure of Vertebral Column Vertebrae – body (centrum) and vertebral arch Enclose opening – vertebral foramen Successive vertebrae – vertebral canal = spinal cord Vertebrae arch – pedicles and laminae Pedicles – bony pillars on inside of arch Laminae – flattened plates Processes from arch – spinous process, transverse process, superior and inferior articular arches

61 Regional Characteristics Variation among groups Allow different functions and movements General movements – 1.Flexion and extension – straightening of spine 2.Lateral flexion – upper band right or left 3.Rotation – rotation on long axis of spine

62 Figure 7.18 Posterior Anterior Lamina Superior articular process and facet Transverse process Pedicle Spinous process Vertebral arch Vertebral foramen Body (centrum)

63 Cervical Vertebrae (7) C1  C7 Smallest, lightest Typical – C3  C7 1.Body is oval 2.Except C7 – spinous process is short, projects directly back and bifid – split at top 3.Vertebrae foramens large and generally triangular 4.Transverse process contains transverse foramen

64 Table 7.2

65 Cervical Vertebrae (7) C7 – not bifid – Larger than others – Process visible through skin – Landmark for counting vertebrae – vertebra prominens 1 st two – atlas and axis – More robust – No intervertebral disc – Highly modified

66 Figure 7.20a Dens of axis Transverse ligament of atlas C 1 (atlas) C 2 (axis) Bifid spinous process Transverse processes C 7 (vertebra prominens) (a) Cervical vertebrae C3C3 Inferior articular process

67 Cervical Vertebrae (7) C1 – atlas – no body – No spinous processes – Ring of bone – “carries” the skull – Allow to nod yes C2 – axis – not as specialized – Dens – “tooth” projecting from body superiorly – Pivot for rotation – Allow head to shake no

68 Figure 7.19a-b Anterior arch Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Posterior arch Posterior tubercle Anterior tubercle Posterior Lateral masses (a) Superior view of atlas (C 1 ) C1C1 Facet for dens Transverse process Lateral masses Transverse foramen Posterior arch Posterior tubercle Posterior Anterior tubercle Anterior arch (b) Inferior view of atlas (C 1 ) Inferior articular facet

69 C2C2 Posterior Dens (c) Superior view of axis (C 2 ) Inferior articular process Body Superior articular facet Transverse process Pedicle Lamina Spinous process Figure 7.19c

70 Thoracic Vertebrae (12) T1  T12 First – like C7 Last 4 – progression towards lumbar Increase in size

71 Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Characteristics – 1.Body – heart shaped -2 small faucets – demi facets – receive heads of ribs 2. Vertebral foramen is circular 3. Spinosous process – long and points downward 4. Except T11 and T12 – transverse costal faucets articulate with ribs 5. Faucets in frontal plane – prevent flexion and extension -Allows to rotate – restricted by ribs

72 Table 7.2

73 Figure 7.20b Transverse process Spinous process Superior articular process Transverse costal facet (for tubercle of rib) Body Intervertebral disc Inferior costal facet (for head of rib) Inferior articular process (b) Thoracic vertebrae

74 Lumbar Vertebrae (5) L1  L5 Small of back Receives the most stress Sturdier structure Bodies massive and kidney shaped

75 Lumbar Vertebrae (5) 1.Pedicles and laminae – shorter and thicker 2.Spinous process – short, flat, hatchet shaped – project downward 3.Vertebrae foramen – triangular 4.Orientation of facets differs – modification lock vertebrae together and provide stability – flexion/extension possible

76 Table 7.2

77 Figure 7.20c Superior articular process Transverse process Spinous process Intervertebral disc Body Inferior articular process (c) Lumbar vertebrae

78 Sacrum Triangular shaped Shapes posterior wall of the pelvis S1  S5 – five fused vertebrae Auricular surfaces and sarcoiliac joints Sacral promontory – bulges into pelvic cavity 4 ridges – transverse ridges

79 Figure 7.21a Coccyx Anterior sacral foramina Apex Sacral promontory Ala Body of first sacral vertebra Transverse ridges (sites of vertebral fusion) (a) Anterior view

80 Figure 7.21b Coccyx Posterior sacral foramina Median sacral crest Sacral canal Sacral hiatus Body Facet of superior articular process Lateral sacral crest Auricular surface Ala (b) Posterior view

81 Coccyx Tailbone Small triangular bone 4 (sometimes 3) vertebrae fused together Nearly useless bone

82 Thoracic Cage Chest and bony underlying Thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and costal cartilages Protective cage around vital organs (heart, lung, etc.) Supports girdles and upper limbs

83 Figure 7.22a Intercostal spaces True ribs (1–7) False ribs (8–12) Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium Sternal angle Body Xiphisternal joint Xiphoid process L 1 Vertebra Floating ribs (11, 12) (a) Skeleton of the thoracic cage, anterior view Sternum Costal cartilage Costal margin

84 Sternum Breast bone Lies in anterior midline Flat, ~15 cm long Fusion of 3 bones – manubrium, body, xiphoid process 3 anatomical landmarks – jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint

85 Figure 7.22a Intercostal spaces True ribs (1–7) False ribs (8–12) Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium Sternal angle Body Xiphisternal joint Xiphoid process L 1 Vertebra Floating ribs (11, 12) (a) Skeleton of the thoracic cage, anterior view Sternum Costal cartilage Costal margin

86 Ribs 12 pairs Attach posteriorly to thoracic vertebrae and curve internally towards body surface 7 superior ribs – attach directly to sternum – true or vertebrosternal ribs 5 remaining – false ribs – attach indirectly or entirely lack sternum attachment Ribs 8 – 10 – vertebrochondrial ribs Ribs 11 and 12 – vertebral ribs/floating ribs – no anterior attachment

87 Figure 7.23a Transverse costal facet (for tubercle of rib) Superior costal facet (for head of rib) Body of vertebra Head of rib Intervertebral disc Tubercle of rib Neck of rib Shaft Sternum Angle of rib Cross- section of rib Costal groove Costal cartilage (a) Vertebral and sternal articulations of a typical true rib

88 Figure 7.23b Spinous process Articular facet on tubercle of rib Shaft Ligaments Neck of rib Head of rib Body of thoracic vertebra Transverse costal facet (for tubercle of rib) Superior costal facet (for head of rib) (b) Superior view of the articulation between a rib and a thoracic vertebra

89 Ribs Increase in length – 1  7 Decrease in length – 8  12 Bowed flat bone Bulk shaft – transverse process of vertebrae Head, neck, and tubercle 1st pair flattened superiorly horizontal table

90 Appendicular Skeleton Bones of limbs and their girdles Appended to axial skeleton Pectoral girdles – attach to upper limbs Pelvic girdles – secure lower limbs Limbs – same plane – 3 major segments connected by moveable parts

91 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Clavicle and scapula Girdle – usually signifies belt like structure – pectoral does not Girdles attach to upper limbs to axial skeleton and provide attachment points for muscles Light and allow motility 1.Only clavicle attaches to axial skeleton – scapula move freely 2.Socket of shoulder – shallow and poorly reinforced, does not restrict movement, good for flexibility, bad for stability

92 Clavicle - collarbones Slender, doublely curved bones Cone shaped at medial sternal end Flattened on lateral – acromial end Anchor muscles Braces – hold scapula and arms out laterally Not very strong, likely to shatter Fracture outward – protect subclavian artery Sensitive to muscle pull Larger and stronger in those who perform manual labor or athletics

93 Figure 7.24a Clavicle Acromio- clavicular joint Scapula (a)Articulated pectoral girdle

94 Figure 7.24b Acromial (lateral) end (b)Right clavicle, superior view Posterior Sternal (medial) end Anterior

95 Scapulae Shoulder blades Thin, triangular flat bones “spade” or “Shovel” 3 borders – superior shortest, sharpest – Medial, Vertebral Border – parallel vertebrae – Lateral or auxiliary, border abuts armpits Shallow fossa – glenoid cavity Spine – easily felt through skin Acromion – triangular portion Acromioclavicular joint – coracoid process – anchors biceps muscle

96 Figure 7.25a Acromion Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Superior border Superior angle Subscapular fossa Medial border Inferior angle Glenoid cavity Lateral border (a) Right scapula, anterior aspect

97 Figure 7.25b Superior angle Medial border Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Acromion Glenoid cavity at lateral angle Lateral border Infraspinous fossa Spine (b) Right scapula, posterior aspect Supraspinous fossa

98 Upper Limb – 30 bones Arm – upper limb – shoulder  elbow Humerous - longest, largest bone of upper limb Articulates – scapula and radius/ulna Head fits into glenoid cavity of scapula Coronoid fossa & olecranon fossa – allow ulna to move freely Radial fossa – head of radius

99 Figure 7.26a Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Inter- tubercular sulcus Lateral supracondylar ridge Radial fossa Capitulum Head of humerus Anatomical neck Deltoid tuberosity Coronoid fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea (a) Anterior view

100 Forearm 2 parallel long bones Radius and ulna Articulate with each other Radioulnar joint – connected by interosseous membrane

101 Figure 7.27a-b Radial notch of the ulna Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Proximal radioulnar joint Distal radioulnar joint Styloid process of radius Radius Neck of radius Head of radius Ulnar notch of the radius Head of ulna Styloid process of ulna Interosseous membrane Ulna Head Neck Radial tuberosity Radius Styloid process of radius (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view

102 Ulna Slightly longer than radius forming elbow joint 2 processes – olecranon and coronoid  separated by notch

103 Figure 7.27c-d (c) Proximal portion of ulna, lateral view Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch View (d) Distal ends of the radius and ulna at the wrist Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Articulation for scaphoid Articulation for lunate Styloid process View

104 Figure 7.26c-d Coronoid fossa Radius Radial tuberosity Head of radius Capitulum Trochlea (c) Anterior view at the elbow region Humerus Medial epicondyle Coronoid process of ulna Ulna Radial notch Olecranon fossa Ulna Olecranon process Medial epicondyle (d) Posterior view of extended elbow Humerus Lateral epicondyle Head Radius Neck

105 Radius Thin at proximal end – wide distally Head – shaped like head of nail Radial tuberosity – anchors biceps molecule Contributes with wrist joint -Colle’s Fracture – break in distal end of radius -Falling person – break their fall

106 Figure 7.27a-b Radial notch of the ulna Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Proximal radioulnar joint Distal radioulnar joint Styloid process of radius Radius Neck of radius Head of radius Ulnar notch of the radius Head of ulna Styloid process of ulna Interosseous membrane Ulna Head Neck Radial tuberosity Radius Styloid process of radius (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view

107 Hand Wrist – carpus Palm – metacarpals Phalanges - fingers

108 Figure 7.28a-b Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Hamate Pisiform Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Base Shaft Head Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius Sesamoid bones

109 Carpus (wrist) Carpals – 8 marble sized bones 2 irregular rows of 4 bones 1.Proximal row – (lateral  medial) -Scaphoid “boat shaped”  lunate ‘moon- shaped”  triguetrum “triangle”  pisciform “pea-shaped” 2. Carpals – distal row -Trapezium “little table”  trapezoid “4 sided”  capitate “head-shaped”  hamate “hooked”

110 Figure 7.28a-b Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Hamate Pisiform Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Base Shaft Head Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius Sesamoid bones

111 Carpus (wrist) Carpal tunnel – overuse and inflammation of tendons – swell and compress nerves in the wrist Pain is greatest at night Carpal tunnel syndrome

112 Metacarpals (palm) 5 radiate from wrist Form palm of hand Not named – numbered 1-5 Bases – articulate with carpals Heads – articulate with phalanges Thumb (1) – more anterior position

113 Figure 7.28a-b Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Hamate Pisiform Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Base Shaft Head Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius Sesamoid bones

114 Phalanges (fingers) Digits, fingers 1 – 5 – thumb number 1 3 rd fingers usually longest 14 miniature bones Distal, middle, and proximal Thumb – no middle bone

115 Figure 7.28a-b Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Hamate Pisiform Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Base Shaft Head Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius Sesamoid bones

116 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle Attaches lower limbs Transmits full weight of upper body Supports visceral organs Sparingly attached to thoracic cage Secured to axial skeleton by ligaments Sockets – deep, cuplike Lacks motility of pectoral girdle Formed by pair of hip bones – os coxae or coxal bone 3 regions – ilium, ischium, and pubis (adults – bones fused) Point of fusion - anetabulum

117 Figure 7.29 Coxal bone (os coxae or hip bone) llium Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Pubic bone Ischium Sacrum Base of sacrum Sacral promontory Pelvic brim Acetabulum Pubic crest Pubic symphysis Iliac crest Coccyx Pubic arch Anterior inferior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Pubic tubercle PLAY Animation: Rotatable pelvis

118 Ilium Large, flaring bones Superior region of coxal bone Body with wing like portion – ala Iliac crests – hands on hips

119 Figure 7.30a Ilium Ala Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iIiac spine Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Ischial body Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ischium Ischial ramus Obturator foramen Inferior gluteal line Acetabulum Pubic body Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Pubis Inferior ramus of pubis (a) Lateral view, right hip bone

120 Figure 7.30b Iliac fossa Ilium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Arcuate line Pubic tubercle Superior ramus of pubis Inferior ramus of pubis Posterior superior iliac spine Obturator foramen Body of the ilium Ischium Ischial ramus (b) Medial view, right hip bone Auricular surface Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Articular surface of pubis (at pubic symphysis)

121 Ischium Posteroinferior part of hip bone Roughly L-shaped or arc shaped Thicker superior body Thinner inferior ramus 3 markings 1.Ischial spine – attachment of ligament – sacrospinous ligament 2.Lesser sciatic notch 3.Ischial tuberosity

122 Figure 7.30a Ilium Ala Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iIiac spine Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Ischial body Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ischium Ischial ramus Obturator foramen Inferior gluteal line Acetabulum Pubic body Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Pubis Inferior ramus of pubis (a) Lateral view, right hip bone

123 Pubis Pubic bone Anterior portion of hipbone Lies nearly horizontally – urinary bladder lies on it Anterior portion – thickened – pubic crest Joined by fibrocartilage – pubis symphsis – forms pubic arch or subpubic angle

124 Figure 7.30a Ilium Ala Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iIiac spine Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Ischial body Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ischium Ischial ramus Obturator foramen Inferior gluteal line Acetabulum Pubic body Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Pubis Inferior ramus of pubis (a) Lateral view, right hip bone

125 Male vs. Female Female – modified for childbearing – wider, shallow, lighter, and rounder Must be large enough to allow infants head to pass False (greater) pelvis and true (lesser) pelvis 1.False bound by alea of ilia – really part of abdomen – helps support viscera 2.True pelvis – region inferior to brim that is surrounded by bone – deep bowl containing pelvic organs -Pelvic inlet – pelvic brim – labor – head enter inlet first -Then pelvic outlet

126 Comparison of Male and Female Pelves CharacteristicFemaleMale Bone thicknessLighter, thinner, and smoother Heavier, thicker, and more prominent markings Pubic arch/angle80˚– 90˚50˚– 60˚ AcetabulaSmall; farther apartLarge; closer together SacrumWider, shorter; sacral curvature is accentuated Narrow, longer; sacral promontory more ventral CoccyxMore movable; straighterLess movable; curves ventrally

127 Lower Limb Carry entire weight of body Subjected to exceptional force Thicker and stronger than upper limbs

128 Thigh - Femur Single bone of thigh Largest, longest, strongest bone in body Clothed in bulky muscles Articulates with hip bone and knee Ball like head, neck, and shaft Ends in wheel like lateral and medial condyles – articulate with tibia Patella – triangular seasmoid bone – enclosed in quadriceps – tendon secures thigh muscles to tibia

129 Figure 7.31 Neck Fovea capitis Greater trochanter Inter- trochanteric crest Head Intertrochanteric line Lesser trochanter Gluteal tuberosity Linea aspera Lateral condyle Lateral epicondyle Intercondylar fossa Medial and lateral supra- condylar lines Medial condyle Medial epicondyle Adductor tubercle Anterior viewPosterior view (b) Femur (thigh bone) Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface Posterior Facet for medial condyle of femur Facet for lateral condyle of femur Surface for patellar ligament Apex Anterior (a) Patella (kneecap)

130 Leg 2 parallel bones – tibia and fibia Connected by interosseous membrane

131 Figure 7.32a Medial condyle Articular surface Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior border Tibia Medial malleolus Intercondylar eminence Proximal tibiofibular joint Distal tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus Lateral condyle Fibula Head (a) Anterior view

132 Tibia Receives weight of body from femur 2 nd only to femur in size and strength

133 Figure 7.32a Medial condyle Articular surface Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior border Tibia Medial malleolus Intercondylar eminence Proximal tibiofibular joint Distal tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus Lateral condyle Fibula Head (a) Anterior view

134 Fibula Stick like bone with slightly expanded ends

135 Figure 7.32a Medial condyle Articular surface Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior border Tibia Medial malleolus Intercondylar eminence Proximal tibiofibular joint Distal tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus Lateral condyle Fibula Head (a) Anterior view

136 Foot Tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges 2 functions – supports body weight and acts a lever to propel body forward

137 Figure 7.33a Medial cuneiform Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Talus Calcaneus (a) Superior view Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Proximal Middle Distal Trochlea of talus

138 Figure 7.33b Facet for medial malleolus Calcaneal tuberosity (b) Medial view Intermediate cuneiform Sustentac- ulum tali (talar shelf) Talus Navicular First metatarsal Medial cuneiform Calcaneus PLAY Animation: Rotatable bones of the foot

139 Figure 7.33a Medial cuneiform Tarsals Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Talus Calcaneus (a) Superior view Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Trochlea of talus 7 bones – tarsals 2 largest – talus and calcaneous

140 Figure 7.33a Metatarsals small bones 1-5, big toe - #1

141 Figure 7.33a Phalanges Proximal Middle Distal 14 bones – smaller than hands 3 on each digit except great toe (hallux) Only 2 – proximal and distal

142 Arch 3 arches – 2 longitudinal – medial and lateral and 1 transverse Maintained by bones, ligament, and pull of tendons Provide springiness Makes running and walking more economical in terms of energy use Medial – well above ground Lateral – very low Transverse – other way Standing immobile – long periods – strain on tendons and ligaments – flat feet

143 Figure 7.34a Medial longitudinal arch Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch (a) Lateral aspect of right foot


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