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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton.

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1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton These consist of the limbs and their girdles. Their major function is to carry out movement.

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton These consist of the limbs and their girdles. Their major function is to carry out movement.

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and scapulaThe pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and scapula. 1) Only the clavicle attaches to the axial skeleton (sternal end) 2) The scapula is designed for flexibility

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24a The pectoral girdle and clavicle. Clavicle Acromio- clavicular joint Scapula (a)Articulated pectoral girdle

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24b The pectoral girdle and clavicle. Acromial (lateral) end (b)Right clavicle, superior view Posterior Sternal (medial) end Anterior

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The scapula has three borders. –Superior border –Medial border which lies toward the vertebral column –The lateral border which has the glenoid cavity

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25a The scapula. Acromion Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Superior border Superior angle Subscapular fossa Medial border Inferior angle Glenoid cavity Lateral border (a) Right scapula, anterior aspect

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25b The scapula. Superior angle Medial border Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Acromion Glenoid cavity at lateral angle Lateral border Infraspinous fossa Spine (b) Right scapula, posterior aspect Supraspinous fossa

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25c The scapula. Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Acromion Infraspinous fossa Spine (c) Right scapula, lateral aspect Infraglenoid tubercle Supraglenoid tubercle Supraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa Inferior angle Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa PosteriorAnterior

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The humerus articulates with the scapula at the shoulder and the ulna and radius distally. The proximal head has the greater and lesser tubercles and anatomical neck which is where the rotator cuff muscles attach.

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26a The humerus of the right arm and detailed views of articulation at the elbow. Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Inter- tubercular sulcus Lateral supracondylar ridge Radial fossa Capitulum Head of humerus Anatomical neck Deltoid tuberosity Coronoid fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea (a) Anterior view

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton Just distally is the surgical neck, the most frequently fractured portion of the humerus.

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 The Appendicular Skeleton The deltoid tuberosity on the lateral side is for the attachment of the deltoid muscle Distally there are two condyles, the medial trochlea which articulates with the ulna and the lateral capitulum which articulates with the radius.

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Coronoid fossa Radius Radial tuberosity Head of radius Capitulum Trochlea (c) Anterior view at the elbow region Humerus Medial epicondyle Coronoid process of ulna Ulna Radial notch Figure 7.26c The humerus of the right arm and detailed views of articulation at the elbow.

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Telling Left from Right Orient the bone so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially. Look for the deep olecranon fossa on the posterior side.

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton What is the medial epicondyle famous for?

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton What is the medial epicondyle famous for? The Funny Bone

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Funny Bone The ulnar nerve is the largest unprotected nerve in the human body unprotected by muscle or bone), so injury is common.

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Funny Bone This nerve is directly connected to the little finger, and the adjacent half of the ring finger, supplying the palmar side of these fingers, including both front and back of the tips.

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Funny Bone The clawed hand can be a result of ulnar nerve damage.

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The ulna and radial bones form the distal lower limb. The ulna is medial and the radius is lateral.

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The olecranon process (elbow) and the coronoid processes are the major land marks on the proximal portion of the ulna. The ulna plays no major role in wrist movement. Its only action is extension and flexion of the lower limb.

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 (c) Proximal portion of ulna, lateral view Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch View Figure 7.27c Radius and ulna of the right forearm.

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The radius is shaped like the head of a nail. Its head is concave. Its distal end is highlighted by the styloid process. The radius allows for pronation and supination of the wrist.

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 Figure 7.27d Radius and ulna of the right forearm. (d) Distal ends of the radius and ulna at the wrist Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Articulation for scaphoid Articulation for lunate Styloid process View

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Telling Left from Right Place the ulna so that the trochlear notch faces you, if the radial notch faces left, it is the right ulna. Place the radius so the distal styloid process is lateral. The radial tuberosity is to the right. It is the right radius.

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hand The “hand” is composed of 8 carpals and 5 metacarpals. Distally are the phalanges, these begin at the knuckles.

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.28 Bones of the left hand. Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Hamate Pisiform Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Base Shaft Head Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius Sesamoid bones

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Hand Carpal tunnel syndrome is pain, tingling, and other problems in your hand because of pressure on the median in your wrist. It is a common repetitive injury.

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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39 The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle The pelvic girdle attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton. The hip is also known as the os coxae It is made up of three separate bones: –Ischium –Ilium & –Pubis

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.29 Articulated pelvis showing the two hip (coxal) bones (which together form the pelvic girdle), the sacrum, and the coccyx. Coxal bone (os coxae or hip bone) llium Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Pubic bone Ischium Sacrum Base of sacrum Sacral promontory Pelvic brim Acetabulum Pubic crest Pubic symphysis Iliac crest Coccyx Pubic arch Anterior inferior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Pubic tubercle

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle During infancy and child hood, these three bones are separate and fuse to one large irregular bone in adulthood.

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle Important Land Marks on the Ilium include : –Acetabulum which is a socket that receives the head of the femur –The ala or wing like projection of the ilium –The greater sciatic notch where the sciatic nerve passes –The gluteal lines which are the point of attachment for the gluteal muscles

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle Important Land Marks on the Ischium include : –Ischial spine which projects medially into the pelvic cavity and is where the sacrospinous ligament attaches –Ischial Tuberosity bears our weight when we sit, also a point of attachment for the ham string muscles –Lesser sciatic notch where a number of blood vessels & nerves to the genitals pass

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle Important Land Marks of the Pubis include : –Superior and inferior rami –Obturator foramen which is a large empty circle –Pubic symphysis which is where both pubic bones attach.

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30c Bones of the bony pelvis. Anterior gluteal line Ilium Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Inferior gluteal line Acetabulum Pubic body Pubic tubercle Inferior ramus of pubis Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Ischial spine Ischium Ischial body Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ischial ramus (c) Lateral view, right hip bone Obturator foramen

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Dimples of Venus These are indentations sometimes visible on the human lower back, just superior to the gluteal cleft. They are directly superficial to the two sacroiliac joints, the sites where the sacrum attaches to the ilium of the pelvis.

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4 Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (1 of 3)Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (1 of 3)

48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Femur The femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body.

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Femur The femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. Its identified by having a large and have a distinct rounded headhead

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Femur The femur has a distinct neck separating the head from the rest of the bone. The neck is the most common area of fracture in the elderly.elderly

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Femur Important Features: The fovea capitis is the attachment point for the ligament between the head of the femur and the acetabulum The greater and lesser trochanter are the attachment point for the thigh muscles The gluteal tuberosity, linea apsera and supracondylar lines are sites of the “ham string attachment”

52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Femur Medial and lateral condyles articulate with the tibia. Medial and lateral epicondyles Patellar surface articulates with the patella Intercondylar fossa is the attachment point for the cruciate ligaments

53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.31b Bones of the right knee and thigh. Neck Fovea capitis Greater trochanter Inter- trochanteric crest Head Intertrochanteric line Lesser trochanter Gluteal tuberosity Linea aspera Lateral condyle Lateral epicondyle Intercondylar fossa Medial and lateral supra- condylar lines Medial condyle Medial epicondyle Adductor tubercle Anterior viewPosterior view (b) Femur (thigh bone) Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface

54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Telling Left from Right First orient the bones so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially (toward the body's midline). Look for the patellar surface, which is anterior. Note how the articulating surfaces of the condyles extends far back on the posterior side (since the knee bends back but not forward).

55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Patella The patella is a triangular, sesamoid bone enclosed in the quadriceps tendon. It helps to improve leverage of the thigh muscles on the tibia.

56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.31a Bones of the right knee and thigh. Posterior Facet for medial condyle of femur Facet for lateral condyle of femur Surface for patellar ligament Apex Anterior (a) Patella (kneecap)

57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Dislocation of the Patella Kneecap (patella) dislocation is often seen in women. It usually occurs after a sudden change in direction when your leg is planted. This puts your kneecap under stress.

58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Dislocation of the Patella Dislocation may also occur as a direct result of injury. When the kneecap is dislocated, it can slip sideways and around to the outside of the knee.outside of the knee

59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 The Tibia and Fibula The tibia is medial and the fibula is lateral. Only the tibia is weight bearing.

61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The tibia is a large, heavy bone and thus potentially confused with the femur or humerus.tibia Note that its superior end is rather flat- topped and lacks any sort of a rounded head.

62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Two large proximal condyles which articulate with the femur Intercondylar eminence is the attachment for the cruciate ligaments Tibial tuberosity is the attachment point for the patella tendon Medial Malleolus articulates with the talus(“ankle”

63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32a The tibia and fibula of the right leg. Medial condyle Articular surface Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior border Tibia Medial malleolus Intercondylar eminence Proximal tibiofibular joint Distal tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus Lateral condyle Fibula Head (a) Anterior viewAnterior view

64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32b The tibia and fibula of the right leg. Medial condyle Articular surface of lateral condyle Articular surface of medial condyle Articular surface Interosseous membrane Tibia Fibula Head of fibula Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus (b) Posterior view

65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32c The tibia and fibula of the right leg. Lateral condyle Tibial tuberosity (c) Anterior view, proximal tibia

66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Fibula Articulates with the tibia proximally and the talus distally Major land mark is the lateral malleolus

67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Injuries to the Tibia and Fibula Pott’s Fracture is a common injury involving the fibula, tibia or both it’s a “broken ankle”

68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Injuries to the Tibia and Fibula A SHIN SPLINT IS INFLAMMATION AND PAIN ALONG THE INNER PART OF THE LOWER LEG. IT INVOLVES THE TIBIA (SHIN BONE).

69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Injuries to the Tibia and Fibula SHIN SPLINTS OCCUR WHEN THE TISSUE THAT CONNECTS MUSCLES TO THE LINING OF THE TIBIA BECOMES IRRITATED AND INFLAMED.

70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. RISK FACTORS FOR A SHIN SPLINT INCLUDE: IMPROPER STRETCHING OR FAILURE TO WARM UP BEFORE EXERCISING ACTIVITIES THAT INVOLVE REPEATED POUNDING OF THE LEGS ON HARD SURFACES, SUCH AS RUNNING, BASKETBALL, OR TENNIS INCREASING INTENSITY OF EXERCISE OR MILEAGE OF RUNNING WITHOUT PROPER PREPARATION AND CONDITIONING WORN-OUT OR ILL-FITTING FOOTWEAR IMPROPER RUNNING TECHNIQUE OR PROBLEMS WITH THE WAY THE FOOT HITS THE GROUND WHEN RUNNING A STRENGTH IMBALANCE BETWEEN TWO OPPOSING MUSCLE GROUPS IN THE LEG FLATTENED FOOT ARCHES RUNNING ON A SLOPE

71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.33a Bones of the right foot. Medial cuneiform Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Talus Calcaneus (a) Superior view Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Proximal Middle Distal Trochlea of talus

72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.34 Arches of the foot. Medial longitudinal arch Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch (a) Lateral aspect of right foot (b) X ray, medial aspect of right foot

73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Problems with the Foot Each of your feet has 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments. No wonder a lot of things can go wrong.

74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Problems with the Foot Here are a few common problems: Bunions - hard, painful bumps on the big toe joint

75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Problems with the Foot It have several causes, including: arthritis, a hereditary condition, an injury, or ill-fitting shoes

76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Problems with the Foot Corns and Callouses - thickened skin from friction or pressure Usually caused by poorly fitting shoes or abnormal gait.

77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Problems with the Foot Fallen arches - also called flat feet Usually caused by failure of the arch of the foot to develop.

78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Flip Flops and the Foot


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