2The Appendicular Skeleton These consist of the limbs and their girdles. Their major function is to carry out movement.
3The Appendicular Skeleton These consist of the limbs and their girdles. Their major function is to carry out movement.
4The Appendicular Skeleton The pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and scapula. 1) Only the clavicle attaches to the axial skeleton (sternal end) 2) The scapula is designed for flexibility
5Figure 7.24a The pectoral girdle and clavicle. Acromio-clavicularjointClavicleScapula(a)Articulated pectoral girdle
6Figure 7.24b The pectoral girdle and clavicle. Sternal (medial)endPosteriorAnteriorAcromial (lateral)end(b)Right clavicle, superior view
7The Appendicular Skeleton The scapula has three borders.Superior borderMedial border which lies toward the vertebral columnThe lateral border which has the glenoid cavity
8(a) Right scapula, anterior aspect Figure 7.25a The scapula.AcromionSuprascapular notchSuperior borderCoracoidprocessSuperiorangleGlenoidcavitySubscapularfossaLateral borderMedial borderInferior angle(a) Right scapula, anterior aspect
9(b) Right scapula, posterior aspect Figure 7.25b The scapula.Coracoid processSuprascapular notchSuperiorangleAcromionSupraspinousfossaGlenoidcavityat lateralangleSpineInfraspinousfossaMedial borderLateral border(b) Right scapula, posterior aspect
10(c) Right scapula, lateral aspect Inferior angle Figure 7.25c The scapula.Supraspinous fossaSupraglenoidtubercleAcromionCoracoidprocessGlenoidcavitySpineSupraspinousfossaInfraspinousfossaInfraglenoidtubercleInfraspinousfossaSubscapularfossaSubscapularfossaPosteriorAnterior(c) Right scapula, lateral aspectInferior angle
11The Appendicular Skeleton The humerus articulates with the scapula at the shoulder and the ulna and radius distally. The proximal head has the greater and lesser tubercles and anatomical neck which is where the rotator cuff muscles attach.
12Greater Head of tubercle humerus Lesser Anatomical tubercle neck Figure 7.26a The humerus of the right arm and detailed views of articulation at the elbow.GreatertubercleHead ofhumerusLessertubercleAnatomicalneckInter-tubercularsulcusDeltoidtuberosityLateralsupracondylarridgeCoronoidfossaRadialfossaMedialepicondyleCapitulumTrochlea(a) Anterior view
13The Appendicular Skeleton Just distally is the surgical neck, the most frequently fractured portion of the humerus.
15The Appendicular Skeleton The deltoid tuberosity on the lateral side is for the attachment of the deltoid muscleDistally there are two condyles, the medial trochlea which articulates with the ulna and the lateral capitulum which articulates with the radius.
17(c) Anterior view at the elbow region Figure 7.26c The humerus of the right arm and detailed views of articulation at the elbow.HumerusCoronoidfossaMedialepicondyleCapitulumTrochleaHead ofradiusCoronoidprocess ofulnaRadialtuberosityRadial notchRadiusUlna(c) Anterior view at the elbow region
18Telling Left from Right Orient the bone so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially.Look for the deep olecranon fossa on the posterior side.
19The Appendicular Skeleton What is the medial epicondyle famous for?
20The Appendicular Skeleton What is the medial epicondyle famous for? The Funny Bone
21The Funny BoneThe ulnar nerve is the largest unprotected nerve in the human body unprotected by muscle or bone), so injury is common.
22The Funny BoneThis nerve is directly connected to the little finger, and the adjacent half of the ring finger, supplying the palmar side of these fingers, including both front and back of the tips.
23The Funny BoneThe clawed hand can be a result of ulnar nerve damage.
24The Appendicular Skeleton The ulna and radial bones form the distal lower limb. The ulna is medial and the radius is lateral.
25The Appendicular Skeleton The olecranon process (elbow) and the coronoid processes are the major land marks on the proximal portion of the ulna. The ulna plays no major role in wrist movement. Its only action is extension and flexion of the lower limb.
27Figure 7.27c Radius and ulna of the right forearm. Olecranon processViewTrochlear notchCoronoid processRadial notch(c) Proximal portion of ulna,lateral view
28The Appendicular Skeleton The radius is shaped like the head of a nail. Its head is concave. Its distal end is highlighted by the styloid process. The radius allows for pronation and supination of the wrist.
30Figure 7.27d Radius and ulna of the right forearm. Ulnar notch of radiusArticulationfor lunateArticulationfor scaphoidStyloidprocessViewHead ofulnaStyloidprocess(d) Distal ends of the radius andulna at the wrist
31Telling Left from Right Place the ulna so that the trochlear notch faces you, if the radial notch faces left, it is the right ulna.Place the radius so the distal styloid process is lateral. The radial tuberosity is to the right. It is the right radius.
32The HandThe “hand” is composed of 8 carpals and 5 metacarpals. Distally are the phalanges, these begin at the knuckles.
33Figure 7.28 Bones of the left hand. Phalanges• Distal• Middle• ProximalMetacarpals• Head• ShaftSesamoidbones• BaseCarpalsCarpalsCarpals• Trapezium• Hamate• Trapezium• Trapezoid• Capitate• Trapezoid• Scaphoid• Pisiform• Scaphoid• TriquetrumRadius• LunateUlnaRadius(a) Anterior view of left hand(b) Posterior view of left hand
34The HandCarpal tunnel syndrome is pain, tingling, and other problems in your hand because of pressure on the median in your wrist. It is a common repetitive injury.
39The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle The pelvic girdle attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton.The hip is also known as the os coxaeIt is made up of three separate bones:IschiumIlium &Pubis
40Base of sacrum Iliac crest Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Anterior Figure Articulated pelvis showing the two hip (coxal) bones (which together form the pelvic girdle), the sacrum, and the coccyx.Base of sacrumIliac crestSacroiliacjointIliac fossaAnteriorsuperioriliac spineSacralpromontoryCoxalbone(os coxaeor hipbone)Anterior inferioriliac spinelliumSacrumPubicbonePelvic brimCoccyxAcetabulumPubic tubercleIschiumPubic crestPubic symphysisPubic arch
41The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle During infancy and child hood, these three bones are separate and fuse to one large irregular bone in adulthood.
42The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle Important Land Marks on the Ilium include:Acetabulum which is a socket that receives the head of the femurThe ala or wing like projection of the iliumThe greater sciatic notch where the sciatic nerve passesThe gluteal lines which are the point of attachment for the gluteal muscles
43The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle Important Land Marks on the Ischium include:Ischial spine which projects medially into the pelvic cavity and is where the sacrospinous ligament attachesIschial Tuberosity bears our weight when we sit, also a point of attachment for the ham string musclesLesser sciatic notch where a number of blood vessels & nerves to the genitals pass
44The Appendicular Skeleton The Pelvic Girdle Important Land Marks of the Pubis include:Superior and inferior ramiObturator foramen which is a large empty circlePubic symphysis which is where both pubic bones attach.
45Figure 7.30c Bones of the bony pelvis. Anteriorgluteal lineIliumPosteriorgluteal lineAnteriorsuperioriliac spinePosteriorsuperioriliac spineAnteriorinferioriliac spinePosteriorinferioriliac spineInferiorgluteallineAcetabulumGreatersciatic notchIschial bodyPubicbodyIschial spineLessersciatic notchPubictubercleIschiumInferiorramusof pubisIschialtuberosityIschial ramusObturatorforamen(c) Lateral view, right hip bone
46Dimples of VenusThese are indentations sometimes visible on the human lower back, just superior to the gluteal cleft.They are directly superficial to the two sacroiliac joints, the sites where the sacrum attaches to the ilium of the pelvis.
47Table 7.4 Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (1 of 3)
48The femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body.
49The FemurThe femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. Its identified by having a large and have a distinct rounded head
50The FemurThe femur has a distinct neck separating the head from the rest of the bone. The neck is the most common area of fracture in the elderly.
51The FemurImportant Features:The fovea capitis is the attachment point for the ligament between the head of the femur and the acetabulumThe greater and lesser trochanter are the attachment point for the thigh musclesThe gluteal tuberosity, linea apsera and supracondylar lines are sites of the “ham string attachment”
52Medial and lateral condyles articulate with the tibia. The FemurMedial and lateral condyles articulate with the tibia.Medial and lateral epicondylesPatellar surface articulates with the patellaIntercondylar fossa is the attachment point for the cruciate ligaments
53Figure 7.31b Bones of the right knee and thigh. NeckFoveacapitisGreatertrochanterHeadInter-trochantericcrestLesser trochanterIntertrochantericlineGluteal tuberosityLinea asperaMedial andlateral supra-condylar linesLateralcondyleIntercondylar fossaLateralepicondyleMedial condyleLateralepicondyleAdductortuberclePatellarsurfaceMedialepicondyleAnterior viewPosterior view(b) Femur (thigh bone)
54Telling Left from Right First orient the bones so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially (toward the body's midline).Look for the patellar surface, which is anterior. Note how the articulating surfaces of the condyles extends far back on the posterior side (since the knee bends back but not forward).
55The PatellaThe patella is a triangular, sesamoid bone enclosed in the quadriceps tendon. It helps to improve leverage of the thigh muscles on the tibia.
56Figure 7.31a Bones of the right knee and thigh. ApexAnteriorFacet for lateralcondyle of femurFacet formedialcondyleof femurSurface forpatellarligamentPosterior(a) Patella (kneecap)
57Dislocation of the Patella Kneecap (patella) dislocation is often seen in women.It usually occurs after a sudden change in direction when your leg is planted. This puts your kneecap under stress.
58Dislocation of the Patella Dislocation may also occur as a direct result of injury. When the kneecap is dislocated, it can slip sideways and around to the outside of the knee.
60The Tibia and FibulaThe tibia is medial and the fibula is lateral. Only the tibia is weight bearing.
61The tibia is a large, heavy bone and thus potentially confused with the femur or humerus. Note that its superior end is rather flat-topped and lacks any sort of a rounded head.
62Two large proximal condyles which articulate with the femur Intercondylar eminence is the attachment for the cruciate ligamentsTibial tuberosity is the attachment point for the patella tendonMedial Malleolus articulates with the talus(“ankle”
63Figure 7.32a The tibia and fibula of the right leg. Lateral condyleIntercondylar eminenceHeadMedial condyleProximal tibiofibularjointTibial tuberosityInterosseous membraneAnterior borderFibulaTibiaDistal tibiofibularjointArticular surfaceLateral malleolusMedial malleolus(a) Anterior view
64Figure 7.32b The tibia and fibula of the right leg. Articular surfaceof medial condyleArticular surface oflateral condyleMedial condyleHead of fibulaInterosseousmembraneTibiaFibulaArticular surfaceMedial malleolusLateral malleolus(b) Posterior view
65Figure 7.32c The tibia and fibula of the right leg. LateralcondyleTibialtuberosity(c) Anterior view, proximal tibia
66The FibulaArticulates with the tibia proximally and the talus distallyMajor land mark is the lateral malleolus
67Injuries to the Tibia and Fibula Pott’s Fracture is a common injury involving the fibula, tibia or both it’s a “broken ankle”
68Injuries to the Tibia and Fibula A shin splint is inflammation and pain along the inner part of the lower leg. It involves the tibia (shin bone).
69Injuries to the Tibia and Fibula Shin splints occur when the tissue that connects muscles to the lining of the tibia becomes irritated and inflamed.
70Risk factors for a shin splint include: Improper stretching or failure to warm up before exercisingActivities that involve repeated pounding of the legs on hard surfaces, such as running, basketball, or tennisIncreasing intensity of exercise or mileage of running without proper preparation and conditioningWorn-out or ill-fitting footwearImproper running technique or problems with the way the foot hits the ground when runningA strength imbalance between two opposing muscle groups in the legFlattened foot archesRunning on a slope
71Figure 7.33a Bones of the right foot. PhalangesDistalMiddleProximal12345MetatarsalsMedialcuneiformIntermediatecuneiformLateralcuneiformNavicularCuboidTarsalsTalusTrochleaof talusCalcaneus(a) Superior view
72Figure 7.34 Arches of the foot. MediallongitudinalarchTransversearchLaterallongitudinalarch(a) Lateral aspect of right foot(b) X ray, medial aspect ofright foot
73Problems with the FootEach of your feet has 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments. No wonder a lot of things can go wrong.
74Problems with the FootHere are a few common problems: Bunions - hard, painful bumps on the big toe joint
75Problems with the Foot It have several causes, including: arthritis, a hereditary condition,an injury,or ill-fitting shoes
76Problems with the FootCorns and Callouses - thickened skin from friction or pressure Usually caused by poorly fitting shoes or abnormal gait.
77Problems with the FootFallen arches - also called flat feet Usually caused by failure of the arch of the foot to develop.