Presentation on theme: "1 The theme of the lecture: General osteology The chief of department prof. V. G. Cherkasov МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОХОРОНИ ЗДОРОВ’Я УКРАЇНИ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ МЕДИЧНИЙ."— Presentation transcript:
1 The theme of the lecture: General osteology The chief of department prof. V. G. Cherkasov МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОХОРОНИ ЗДОРОВ’Я УКРАЇНИ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ МЕДИЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ ІМЕНІ О.О. БОГОМОЛЬЦЯ КАФЕДРА НОРМАЛЬНОЇ АНАТОМІЇ
2 Bone Bone (os, Greek osteon) is an organ, that functionates as support or support and defence.
3 All the bones of an organism united in bone system (skeleton or systema skeletale), which is usually called skeleton.
8 Skeleton performs many functions: support protection body movement hemopoiesis mineral storage
9 Bone Markings and Formations Bone markings appear wherever tendons, ligaments, and fascias are attached or where arteries lie adjacent to or enter bones.
10 The various markings and features of bones are: caput (head): large, round articular end (e.g., the head of the humerus). Capitulum: small, round, articular head (e.g., the capitulum of the humerus).
11 Condyle: rounded, knuckle-like articular area, usually occurring in pairs (e.g., occipital condyle). Crest: ridge of bone (e.g., the sacral crest).
12 Epicondyle: eminence superior to a condyle (e.g., the lateral epicondyle of the humerus). Facet: smooth flat area, usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone (e.g., the superior costal facet on the body of a vertebra for articulation
13 Foramen: passage through a bone (e.g., the vertebral foramen). Fossa: hollow or depressed area (e.g., the infraspinous fossa of the scapula). Groove: elongated depression or furrow (e.g., the radial groove of the humerus).
14 Line: linear elevation (e.g., the soleal line of the tibia). Malleolus: rounded process (e.g., the lateral malleolus of the fibula). Notch: indentation at the edge of a bone (e.g., the greater sciatic notch).
15 Protuberance: projection of bone (e.g., the external occipital protuberance). Spine: thorn-like process (e.g., the spine of the scapula).
16 Spinous process: projecting spine-like part (e.g., the spinous process of a vertebra). Trochanter: large blunt elevation (e.g., the greater trochanter of the femur). Trochlea: spool-like articular process or process that acts as a pulley (e.g., trochlea of the humerus).
17 Tubercle: small raised eminence (e.g., the greater tubercle of the humerus). Tuberosity: large rounded elevation (e.g., the ischial tuberosity).
18 Stages of the development of the skeleton: 1.connective-tissue (membranouse) 2.cartilaginous 3.bony
20 The bones, which go through these three developmental stages, called secondary bone. The bones, which are formed directly from connective tissue without going through the stage of the cartilage, called primary bone.
21 The skeleton is devided into axial and appendicular portion.
22 The components of the axial skeleton are as follow: 1.Skull (cranium) 2.Hyoid bone 3.Vertebral column 4.Ribs and sternum
23 The appendicular skeleton is composed of the: 1.Pectoral girdle 2.Upper limb 3.Pelvic girdle 4.Lower limb
24 The skeleton is composed of more then 200 bones. Bone classification according the shape: Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones
25 Long bones are tubular (e.g., the humerus in the arm). Short bones are cuboidal and are found only in the ankle (tarsus) and wrist (carpus). Flat bones usually serve protective functions (e.g., those forming the cranium protect the brain). Irregular bones (e.g., in the face) have various shapes other than long, short, or flat.
26 Sesamoid bones (e.g., the patella or knee cap) develop in certain tendons and are found where tendons cross the ends of long bones in the limbs; they protect the tendons from excessive wear and often change the angle of the tendons as they pass to their attachments.
33 Osteon – is a structuring unit compact tissue of the bone. This is a system of bone lamellars, which are situated around the thin (Haversion) canal, where vessels and nerves are going through.
34 On the surface of the bone trabeculars are situated compactus and form compact bone tissue. Between the trabeculars of spongy tissue, which situated under the compact tissue, there are a lot of lacunas. In the wall of diaphysis of tubular bones and flat bones the compact tissue is the main.
37 yellow bone marrow. The bone lacunares of the spongy tissue contain bone marrow. It is situated in a central canal in the spongy bones which is called bone- medullary cavity. One half of the bone marrow forms red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow.
39 By the time of appearing in ontogenesis centers ossifi- cation are divided into: primary points (centres)primary points (centres) secondary points (centres)secondary points (centres) accessory points (centres)accessory points (centres)
40 The types of ossification (osteogenesis) are distinguished: Intramembranous or endesmal Perichondral Enchondral