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In the name of God In the name of Allah.

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Presentation on theme: "In the name of God In the name of Allah."— Presentation transcript:

1 In the name of God In the name of Allah

2 Esophagus 25 cm muscular tube From pharynx (C6, cricoid cartilage)
To stomach (T11) Enters mediastinum between trachea & vertebral column passes through the diaphragm (T10) Function: conducts food from pharynx to stomach

3 Esophagus Relations Anteriorly: Trachea Recurrent laryngeal nerves
Left bronchus Left atrium Left vagus Left lobe of liver

4 Esophagus Relations Posteriorly Vertebral column Azygos Thoracic aorta
Right vagus

5 Esophagus Relations Right side Pleura Azygos Thyroid gland Left side
Subclavian artery Aortic arch

6 Esophageal constrictions
At the junction of the esophagus with the pharynx where the esophagus is crossed by the arch of aorta; where the esophagus is compressed by the left main bronchus; at the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm.

7 Esophagus Arteries: Inferior thyroid Thoracic Aorta Left gastric
Veins: Azygos Nerves: Vagus (recurrent laryngeal, ant. & post. gastric, esophageal plexus) Sympathetic branches


9 Stomach (gaster, ventriculus)
Widest part of GI tract Capacity: 30, 1000 & 1500 ml Situation: Epigastrium Lt. hypochondriac Umbilical Stomach bed Functions: Storage and Digestion of food

10 Stomach Has: Two borders (curvatures) Two surfaces Two orifices

11 Lesser curvature Between cardiac and pyloric orifices
Descends from right side of esophagus Curving to the right at the angular notch Ends at the pylorus just right to the midline Lesser omentum is attachmented which contains Rt. and Lt. gastric arts.

12 Greater curvature Longer than lesser From cardiac notch
Up & postrolateral to the left Highest level at 5th intercostal space To 10th costal cartilage Turn right to the pylorus Bulge opposite of angular notch

13 Greater curvature Gastrosplenic lig. & greater omentum are atthached here

14 Surface Anterior (Antrosuperior) related to the; Lt. costal margin
6-9th intercostal space Diaphrgam Ant. Abdominal wall pericardium Lt. pleura & lung Lt and quadrate lobes of liver

15 Surface Posterior (Postro-inferior) Related to the Lesser sac
Diaphrgam Lt. suprarenal G. Lt kidney spleen splenic art. Pancreas Lt. colic flexure T. mesocolon

16 Cardiac orifice Behind of the 7th rib At the level of T11
Lt. to the midline Physiological sphincter 40 cm from incisor teeth Cardiac notch

17 Pyloric orifice Pyloric constrictor (sphincter)
1-2 cm right to the midline At the level of TPP

18 stomach Has: Body Fundus Pylorus Pyloric Antrum Pyloric canal; 2-3cm

19 Interior of the stomach

20 Blood supply Arteries Left gastric Right gastric Left gastroepiploic
Right gastroepiploic Short gastric veins Left gastric Right gastric Left gastroepiploic Right gastroepiploic Short gastric


22 Duodenum 20-25 cm Retroperitoneal Above umbilicus Curves around L2
From pylorus Turns abruptly forward to form duodenojejunal flexure 1 cm below TPP

23 Duodenum Divided into: Superior (first), Descending, (second)
Horizontal (third) & Ascending (forth) parts

24 Duodenum First part 5 cm, mobile From pylorus to superior flexure
First 2.5 cm intraperitoneal duodenal ulcers Second part 8-10 cm From superior flexure to the lower border of L3 Right to the vertebral column hepatopancreatic ampulla Major and minor duodenal papilla

25 Duodenum Third part 10 cm From inferior flexure
L3 lower border to the Lt. side Fourth part From … to the level of L2 upper border Left to the Aorta

26 Duodenum Relations Pancreas Liver Gall bladder Epiploic foramen
gasteroduodenal art. Rt. Colic flexure T. mesocolon Jejunum Sup. Mesenteric vv

27 Duodenum bill duct portal vein Rt. Kidney Renal vv IVC Rt. ureter
Rt. psoas Rt. & Lt. Gonadal vv Aorta at the level of inf. mesenteric origin

28 Duodenum Duodenal cap Suspensory lig (Treitz)
Skeletal and smooth muscles

29 Blood supply Arteries Superior and Inferior pancreaticoduodenal veins


31 Pancreas Grayish – pink 12-15 cm Situation Epigastric Lt hypochondriac

32 Pancreas Consists: Head, Uncinate process Neck, Constricted part
Body & Triangular Tail In the splenorenal

33 Pancreas Relations: Anterior; Duodenum, Sup. Mesentric VV.,
Sup. & inf. Pancreaticoduodenal AA Transeverse colon, Transeverse mesocolon Jejunum Stomach Lt. colic flexure …………….. Celiac trunk Splenic art.

34 Pancreas Relations: Posterior; Bile duct, Prtal vein Splenic vein IVC,
Aorta, Sup. Mesentric VV., Left suprarenal gland Left kidney Renal vein,

35 Pancreas Tail In (splenorenal) lienorenal lig. Main pancreatic duct
Accessory duct ascending in front of main

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