2 Esophagus 25 cm muscular tube From pharynx (C6, cricoid cartilage) To stomach (T11)Enters mediastinum between trachea & vertebral columnpasses through the diaphragm (T10)Function: conducts food from pharynx to stomach
3 Esophagus Relations Anteriorly: Trachea Recurrent laryngeal nerves Left bronchusLeft atriumLeft vagusLeft lobe of liver
5 Esophagus Relations Right side Pleura Azygos Thyroid gland Left side Subclavian arteryAortic arch
6 Esophageal constrictions At the junction of the esophagus with the pharynxwhere the esophagus is crossed by the arch of aorta;where the esophagus is compressed by the left main bronchus;at the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm.
7 Esophagus Arteries: Inferior thyroid Thoracic Aorta Left gastric Veins:AzygosNerves:Vagus (recurrent laryngeal, ant. & post. gastric, esophageal plexus)Sympathetic branches
11 Lesser curvature Between cardiac and pyloric orifices Descends from right side of esophagusCurving to the right at the angular notchEnds at the pylorus just right to the midlineLesser omentum is attachmented which contains Rt. and Lt. gastric arts.
12 Greater curvature Longer than lesser From cardiac notch Up & postrolateral to the leftHighest level at 5th intercostal spaceTo 10th costal cartilageTurn right to the pylorusBulge opposite of angular notch
13 Greater curvatureGastrosplenic lig. & greater omentum are atthached here
14 Surface Anterior (Antrosuperior) related to the; Lt. costal margin 6-9th intercostal spaceDiaphrgamAnt. Abdominal wallpericardiumLt. pleura & lungLt and quadrate lobes of liver
15 Surface Posterior (Postro-inferior) Related to the Lesser sac DiaphrgamLt. suprarenal G.Lt kidneyspleensplenic art.PancreasLt. colic flexureT. mesocolon
16 Cardiac orifice Behind of the 7th rib At the level of T11 Lt. to the midlinePhysiological sphincter40 cm from incisor teethCardiac notch
17 Pyloric orifice Pyloric constrictor (sphincter) 1-2 cm right to the midlineAt the level of TPP
22 Duodenum 20-25 cm Retroperitoneal Above umbilicus Curves around L2 From pylorusTurns abruptly forward to form duodenojejunal flexure1 cm below TPP
23 Duodenum Divided into: Superior (first), Descending, (second) Horizontal (third) &Ascending (forth) parts
24 Duodenum First part 5 cm, mobile From pylorus to superior flexure First 2.5 cm intraperitonealduodenal ulcersSecond part8-10 cmFrom superior flexure to the lower border of L3Right to the vertebral columnhepatopancreatic ampullaMajor and minor duodenal papilla
25 Duodenum Third part 10 cm From inferior flexure L3 lower border to the Lt. sideFourth partFrom … to the level of L2 upper borderLeft to the Aorta