Presentation on theme: "Forensic Anthropology Study of bones. Questions to ask about bones 1.Are the bones human? 2.What was the ____ of the individual? A.Size B.Age C.Sex D.Race."— Presentation transcript:
Questions to ask about bones 1.Are the bones human? 2.What was the ____ of the individual? A.Size B.Age C.Sex D.Race E.Occupation 3.How long has the person been dead? 4.What is the cause and manner of death?
What was person’s size? Estimated height of female: (centimeters) H= femur length x 2.21 + 61.41 H= tibia length X 2.53 + 72.57 H= humerus length X 3.14 + 64.97 Estimated height of male (cm) H= femur length x 2.23 + 69.08 H= tibia length X 2.39 + 81.68 H= humerus length X 2.97 + 73.57
What was the person’s age? Look at: –Teeth (20 baby teeth) –32 permanent teeth in adults (complete by age 12) –Skull (sutures fuse over time) –Long bones –Pelvis –Ribs: –Bone density Easier in younger victims as bones and teeth develop
Long bones Epiphysis: ends of long bones Diaphysis: shaft of long bones ossification- fusing of epiphysis and diaphysis Bones don’t completely fuse until age 25 Birth (300 bones) Adult (206 bones)
Ribs Sternal areas – where ribs join breastbone Young- smooth and rounded Older- pitted and sharp
What was the person’s sex? Not easy until puberty In males: –Size and bone thickness greater –Diameters of the heads of the humerus, radius and femur are larger
Sex determination (pelvis) FemaleMale Wide/shallowNarrow/deep U shaped subpubic angle V shaped subpubic angle wider sciatic notchSmall sciatic notch smootherrougher Small muscle attachments (ridges) Large muscle attachments (ridges)
Pubic symphysis Cartilage between 2 bones During pregnancy, a hormone softens the cartilage, and scars (pits) are formed.
Sex Determination (skulls) FemalesMales Vertical foreheadSloping forehead Smaller ridges/crestsLarger ridges/crests Narrow zygomaticWide zygomatic Small mandibleLarge mandible Narrow ascending ramus (straight) Wide ascending ramus (slight curve) Small mastoid processLarge mastoid process No occipital protuberance occipital protuberance
What was the person’s race? Caucasian Negroid Mongoloid Difficult
What was their occupation? Stenographer - bumps on pelvis Florist/typist – arthritic fingers Milked cows – bumps on neck bones Seamstress (pins)- notch in front tooth Pipe smoker - worn edge on front tooth Horse rider - larger ridges on femur
Occupation? Weightlifter - large ridge on humerus Clarinet player- small bumps at hinge of jaw Trumpet player-large ridges on clavicle
Other evidence for ID Clothing, jewelry Healed fractures Nicks in bones from knives or gunshots Artificial hips or pacemakers Bone cancers Dental patterns DNA from teeth or bones Mitochondrial DNA
How long has the person been dead? PMI = Post-mortem Interval
Post-Mortem Interval 1.Examine artifacts at the burial site 2.Chemical analyses - breakdown of nitrogen - breakdown of amino acids 3.UV light - fresh bones fluoresce (glow) pale blue - diminishes over time, from outside in 4.Radioactive isotopes - increased amounts since 1950 - strontium 90, cesium 137, tritium
Antemortem- before death Fractured bones will heal Callus- scar formation at the injury site Perimortem- at time of death »No healing, no callus
Bones affected by: Occupation Right handed or left handed Activity level Nutrition Disease Health
Disease Arthritis Anemia Osteoporosis Too many minerals in the water Malnutrition
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