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1 Section 2 Bones of trunk Bones of trunk include : * vertebrae * ribs * sternum.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Section 2 Bones of trunk Bones of trunk include : * vertebrae * ribs * sternum."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Section 2 Bones of trunk Bones of trunk include : * vertebrae * ribs * sternum

2 2 A. Vertebral column is divides into: 1. Cervical vertebrae 7 2. Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae 5 These 24 are independent vertebrae (true vertebrae). 4. Sacral vertebrae 5 →sacrum. 5. Coccygeal vertebrae 4 →coccyx (false vertebrae). A. Vertebral column is divides into: 1. Cervical vertebrae 7 2. Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae 5 These 24 are independent vertebrae (true vertebrae). 4. Sacral vertebrae 5 →sacrum. 5. Coccygeal vertebrae 4 →coccyx (false vertebrae).

3 3 B. General features of the typical vertebra It is composed of: 1. a body 2. vertebral arch: two pedicles, one lamina. 3. seven processes: --- a spinous process --- two transverse processes --- two superior articular processes --- two inferior articular processes * The body with the arch surrounds a vertebral foramen. * In the vertebral column, all of the foramina form the vertebral canal, which lodges the spinal cord et al. * A notch above or below the pedicle with its neighbour forms the intervertebral foramen, which transmits spinal nerve et al. B. General features of the typical vertebra It is composed of: 1. a body 2. vertebral arch: two pedicles, one lamina. 3. seven processes: --- a spinous process --- two transverse processes --- two superior articular processes --- two inferior articular processes * The body with the arch surrounds a vertebral foramen. * In the vertebral column, all of the foramina form the vertebral canal, which lodges the spinal cord et al. * A notch above or below the pedicle with its neighbour forms the intervertebral foramen, which transmits spinal nerve et al.

4 4

5 5 C. The main characteristics of vertebrae in each part 1. Cervical vertebrae a) * a transverse foramen b) * spinous processes are short and bifid. c) the first one hasn’t body and spinous process (Atlas). d) the second has a dens (Axis). e) the 7th’s spine is the longest and easily felt out (vertebral prominens). C. The main characteristics of vertebrae in each part 1. Cervical vertebrae a) * a transverse foramen b) * spinous processes are short and bifid. c) the first one hasn’t body and spinous process (Atlas). d) the second has a dens (Axis). e) the 7th’s spine is the longest and easily felt out (vertebral prominens).

6 6 2. Thoracic vertebrae a) there are costal fovea (superior, inferior and transverse costal fovea) b) the spinous process are long and downward sloping.

7 7 3. Lumbar vertebrae The spines are strong, square and horizontal.

8 8 4. Sacrum a) base of sacrum (promontory). b) pelvic surface (concave, 4 pairs of anterior sacral foramina). c) dorsal surface (convex, 4 pairs of posterior sacral foramina). d) lateral part (auricular surface). e) Sacral canal(sacral hiatus).

9 9 D. Ribs pairs a) The upper seven ribs are referred to as true ribs. b) The lower five ribs are false ribs. c) The eighth, ninth and tenth ribs join together one by one to form the costal margins(or costal arch) by means of the costal cartilages. D. Ribs pairs a) The upper seven ribs are referred to as true ribs. b) The lower five ribs are false ribs. c) The eighth, ninth and tenth ribs join together one by one to form the costal margins(or costal arch) by means of the costal cartilages.

10 10 2. Shape of a typical rib a) a posterior extremity (costal head, costal neck, costal tubercal). b) shaft of rib (costal angle, costal groove). 2. Shape of a typical rib a) a posterior extremity (costal head, costal neck, costal tubercal). b) shaft of rib (costal angle, costal groove).

11 11 E. Sternum 1. Subdivision It is divided into: a) Manubrium (jugular notch, clavicular notch and 1st costal notch. b) Body (costal notches). c) Xiphoid process. 2. General feature a) Sternal angle: it marks the position of the second rib.


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