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© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College—North Harris 8 The Appendicular Skeleton.

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1 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College—North Harris 8 The Appendicular Skeleton

2 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton The limbs The supportive girdles

3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-1 The Appendicular Skeleton Clavicle Pectoral girdle Upper limbs Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges Pelvic girdle Hip bone SKELETAL SYSTEM AXIAL SKELETONAPPENDICULAR SKELETON (see Figure 7–1)

4 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-1 The Appendicular Skeleton (Part 2 of 2) Lower limbs Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsal bones Metatarsal bones Phalanges

5 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Pectoral Girdle Also called shoulder girdle Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement Consists of: Two clavicles Two scapulae Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium

6 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Clavicles Also called collarbones Long, S-shaped bones Originate at the manubrium (sternal end) Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)

7 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-2a The Right Clavicle Clavicle The position of the clavicle within the pectoral girdle, anterior view. ScapulaJugular notch

8 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-2b The Right Clavicle MEDIAL LATERAL Acromial end Sternal end Superior view of the right clavicle. Facet for articulation with acromion

9 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-2c The Right Clavicle Acromial end Conoid tubercle Costal tuberosity Sternal facet Sternal end Inferior view of the right clavicle. Stabilizing ligaments attach to the conoid tubercle and the costal tuberosity. LATERALMEDIAL

10 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades Broad, flat triangles Articulate with arm and collarbone Anterior surface the subscapular fossa

11 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Structures of the scapula Body has three sides 1. Superior border 2. Medial border (vertebral border) 3. Lateral border (axillary border)

12 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Body has three corners Superior angle Inferior angle Lateral angle (head) The scapular head Holds glenoid cavity Which articulates with humerus To form shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint)

13 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Processes of the glenoid cavity Coracoid process Anterior, smaller Acromion Posterior, larger Articulates with clavicle At the acromioclavicular joint

14 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-3a The Right Scapula Acromion Coracoid process Superior border Superior angle Lateral angle Subscapular fossa Lateral border Body Inferior angle Anterior view Medial border

15 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-3b The Right Scapula Acromion Supraglenoid tubercle Coracoid process Spine Glenoid cavity Lateral border Inferior angle Lateral view

16 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-3c The Right Scapula Inferior angle Acromion Supraspinous fossa Superior border Coracoid process Neck Spine Infraspinous fossa Body Medial border Lateral border Posterior view

17 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1 The Pectoral Girdle The Scapulae Posterior features of the scapula Scapular spine Ridge across posterior surface of body Separates two regions 1. Supraspinous fossa 2. Infraspinous fossa

18 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Upper Limbs Consist of: The arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus

19 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper arm bone Articulates with the pelvic girdle

20 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus Tubercles of the proximal epiphysis Separated by the intertubercular groove Greater tubercle Lateral Forms tip of shoulder Lesser tubercle Anterior, medial

21 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus Head Rounded, articulating surface Contained within joint capsule Anatomical neck Margin of joint capsule Surgical neck The narrow metaphysis

22 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus The shaft Deltoid tuberosity A bulge in the shaft Attaches deltoid muscle Radial groove For radial nerve Posterior to deltoid tuberosity

23 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus The distal epiphysis Medial and lateral epicondyles For muscle attachment Condyle of the humerus Articulates with ulna and radius

24 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Humerus Articular regions of the condyle Trochlea Coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa Articulates with ulna Capitulum Radial fossa Articulates with radius

25 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-4a The Right Humerus and Elbow Joint Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Intertubercular groove Head Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Shaft Anterior surface Radial fossa Lateral epicondyle Condyle CapitulumTrochlea Coronoid fossa Medial epicondyle

26 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-4c The Right Humerus and Elbow Joint Humerus Medial epicondyle Trochlea Capitulum Coronoid process of ulna Radial notch of ulna Head of radius Elbow joint, anterior view

27 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-4b The Right Humerus and Elbow Joint Head Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Radial groove Greater tubercle Olecranon fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea Lateral epicondyle Posterior surface

28 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-4d The Right Humerus and Elbow Joint Humerus Medial epicondyle Olecranon fossa Olecranon Trochlea of humerus Head of radius Ulna Elbow joint, posterior view

29 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Forearm Also called the antebrachium Consists of two long bones 1. Ulna (medial) 2. Radius (lateral)

30 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Ulna The olecranon Superior end of ulna Point of elbow Superior lip of trochlear notch Articulates with trochlea of humerus The coronoid process Inferior lip of trochlear notch

31 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Ulna Articulations with the humerus Forearm extended Olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed Coronoid process enters coronoid fossa

32 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Ulna Other articulations Radial notch Articulates with head of radius Forms proximal radio-ulnar joint Ulnar head Prominent styloid process Attaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist

33 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-5a The Right Radius and Ulna Olecranon Proximal radioulnar joint ULNA Ulnar head Styloid process of ulna Posterior view Radial head Neck of radius RADIUS Interosseous membrane Ulnar notch of radius Styloid process of radius

34 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-5b The Right Radius and Ulna Radial head Neck of radius Radial tuberosity RADIUS Interosseous membrane Styloid process of radius Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch Ulnar tuberosity ULNA Distal radio-ulnar joint Ulnar head Anterior view

35 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Ulna Interosseous membrane A fibrous sheet Connects lateral margin of ulnar shaft to radius

36 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Radius Lateral bone of forearm Disk-shaped radial head above the neck Radial tuberosity below the neck, attaches biceps Articulations of the radius Ulnar notch Distal end Articulates with wrist and radius Styloid process Stabilizes wrist joint

37 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-5a The Right Radius and Ulna Olecranon Proximal radioulnar joint ULNA Ulnar head Styloid process of ulna Posterior view Radial head Neck of radius RADIUS Interosseous membrane Ulnar notch of radius Styloid process of radius

38 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-5b The Right Radius and Ulna Radial head Neck of radius Radial tuberosity RADIUS Interosseous membrane Styloid process of radius Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch Ulnar tuberosity ULNA Distal radio-ulnar joint Ulnar head Anterior view

39 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-5c The Right Radius and Ulna Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch Ulnar tuberosity ULNA Lateral view of ulna, showing trochlear notch

40 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs Eight Carpal Bones Four proximal carpal bones Four distal carpal bones Allow wrist to bend and twist

41 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Four Proximal Carpal Bones 1. Scaphoid Near styloid process 2. Lunate Medial to scaphoid 3. Triquetrum Medial to lunate 4. Pisiform Anterior to triquetrum

42 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs The Four Distal Carpal Bones 1. Trapezium Lateral 2. Trapezoid Medial to trapezium 3. Capitate Largest 4. Hamate Medial, distal

43 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-6 Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand RADIUS V IV III II I Lunate Scaphold Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Metacarpal bones Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx ULNA Triquetrum Pisiform Hamate Posterior view Anterior view V IV III II I RADIUS Lunate Scaphold Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Metacarpal bones Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx

44 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2 The Upper Limbs Metacarpal Bones The five long bones of the hand Numbered I–V from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges Phalanges of the Hands 14 total finger bones Pollex (thumb) Two phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers Three phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

45 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-6a Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand RADIUS V IV III II I Lunate Scaphold Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Metacarpal bones Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx ULNA Triquetrum Pisiform Hamate Anterior view

46 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-6b Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand ULNA Triquetrum Pisiform Hamate Posterior view V IV III II I RADIUS Lunate Scaphold Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Metacarpal bones Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx

47 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle The Pelvic Girdle Made up of two hip bones (coxal bones) Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement Part of the pelvis Coxal bones Made up of three fused bones 1. Ilium (articulates with sacrum) 2. Ischium 3. Pubis

48 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Coxal Bones The acetabulum Also called the hip socket Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the hip bone (coxal bone) Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface) Acetabular notch A gap in the ridge of the margins of the acetabulum

49 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-7a The Right Hip Bone Ischium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Inferior gluteal line Anterior inferior iliac spine Acetabulum Acetabular notch Superior ramus of pubis Pubic tubercle Inferior ramus of pubis Obturator foramen Ischial ramus Ischial tuberosity Lesser sciatic notch Ischial spine Lunate surface of acetabulum Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior gluteal line Anterior gluteal line Right hip bone, lateral view ANTERIOR POSTERIOR Ilium Pubis

50 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the Ilium Greater sciatic notch For sciatic nerve Iliac crest Upper brim Iliac fossa Depression between iliac crest and arcuate line

51 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the Ischium Ischial spine Above lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Posterior projection you sit on Ischial ramus Meets inferior ramus of pubis Superior ramus Meets pubic tubercle

52 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the Pubis Pubic symphysis Gap between pubic tubercles Padded with fibrocartilage Obturator foramen Formed by ischial and pubic rami Attaches hip muscles

53 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the Pubis Pectineal line Ridge of superior ramus of pubis Continues to iliac crest as arcuate line (both of the ilia)

54 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-7a The Right Hip Bone Ischium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Inferior gluteal line Anterior inferior iliac spine Acetabulum Acetabular notch Superior ramus of pubis Pubic tubercle Inferior ramus of pubis Obturator foramen Ischial ramus Ischial tuberosity Lesser sciatic notch Ischial spine Lunate surface of acetabulum Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior gluteal line Anterior gluteal line Right hip bone, lateral view ANTERIOR POSTERIOR Ilium Pubis

55 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-7b The Right Hip Bone Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Pectineal line Pubic tubercle Right hip bone, medial view Ischium ANTERIORPOSTERIOR Ilium Pubis Iliac fossa Auricular surface for articulation with sacrum Iliac tuberosity Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Arcuate line Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ischial ramus Location of pubic symphysis

56 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Coxal Bones Articulations of the pelvic girdle Sacroiliac joint Articulation of posterior auricular surface of ilium With the sacrum Stabilized by ligaments of iliac tuberosity The Pelvis Consists of two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae

57 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-8a The Pelvis of an Adult Male SACRUM COCCYX ILIUM PUBIS ISCHIUM Hip bone (Figure 8–7) Iliac crest L5L5 SACRUM Arcuate line Acetabulum Pubic tubercle Obturator foramen Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Pubic symphysis ILIUM PUBIS ISCHIUM Anterior view

58 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-8b The Pelvis of an Adult Male Iliac crest Sacral foramina Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Ischial spine Ischial tuberosity L5L5 SACRUM COCCYX Posterior view SACRUM COCCYX ILIUM PUBIS ISCHIUM Hip bone (Figure 8–7)

59 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Divisions of the Pelvis True pelvis Encloses pelvic cavity Pelvic brim Upper edge of true pelvis Encloses pelvic inlet Perineum region Inferior edges of true pelvis Forms pelvic outlet Perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity

60 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Divisions of the Pelvis False pelvis Blades of ilium above arcuate line

61 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-9a Divisions of the Pelvis Pelvic brim Pelvic inlet False pelvis Pelvic outlet Superior view. The pelvic brim, pelvic inlet, and pelvic outlet.

62 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-9b Divisions of the Pelvis Pelvic outlet Pelvic brim Pelvic inlet False pelvis True pelvis Lateral view. The boundaries of the true (lesser) pelvis (shown in purple) and the (false) greater pelvis.

63 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-9c Divisions of the Pelvis Inferior view. The limits of the pelvic outlet. Ischial spine Pelvic outlet

64 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3 The Pelvic Girdle Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female Pelvis Female pelvis Smoother and lighter Less prominent muscle and ligament attachments Pelvis modifications for childbearing Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (>100°) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis Ilia project laterally, not upwards

65 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-10 Anatomical Differences between a Male and Female Pelvis Ischial spine Ischial spine 90° 100° or less or more Female Male

66 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-10a Anatomical Differences between a Male and Female Pelvis Ischial spine 90° or less Male

67 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-10b Anatomical Differences between a Male and Female Pelvis Ischial spine 100° or more Female

68 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs Functions of the Lower Limbs Weight bearing Motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg

69 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs Bones of the Lower Limbs Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes)

70 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Femur The proximal epiphysis Femoral head Articulates with pelvis at acetabulum Attaches at fovea capitis The neck Narrow area between head and trochanters Joins shaft at angle

71 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Femur The proximal epiphysis Trochanters Greater trochanter and lesser trochanter Tendon attachments Intertrochanteric line (anterior) and intertrochanteric crest (posterior) Mark edge of articular capsule

72 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Femur The shaft Linea aspera Most prominent ridge of shaft Attaches hip muscles Joins epicondyles

73 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Femur The distal epiphysis Medial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle Above the knee joint Medial condyle and lateral condyle Separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surface Form part of knee joint

74 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-11 Bone Markings on the Right Femur Neck Greater trochanter Patellar surface Lateral epicondyle Lateral condyle Anterior surface Fovea capitis Femoral head Intertrochanteric line Lesser trochanter Shaft Medial supracondylar ridge Adductor tubercle Medial epicondyle Medial condyle Neck Greater trochanter Intertrochanteric crest Gluteal tuberosity Pectineal line Linea aspera Lateral supracondylar ridge Posterior surface Popliteal surface Intercondylar fossa Lateral epicondyle Lateral condyle

75 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Patella Also called the kneecap A sesamoid bone Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris Base attaches quadriceps femoris Apex attaches patellar ligament

76 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-12a The Right Patella (a, b) and Patella with Femur (c) Base of patella Apex of patella Attachment area for patellar ligament Attachment area for quadriceps tendon Anterior view

77 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-12b The Right Patella (a, b) and Patella with Femur (c) Posterior view Articular surface of patella Medial facet, for medial condyle of femur Lateral facet, for lateral condyle of femur

78 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-12c The Right Patella (a, b) and Patella with Femur (c) Inferior view of right femur and patella Medial condyle of femur Patella Lateral condyle of femur Articular surface of patella Medial facet, for medial condyle of femur Lateral facet, for lateral condyle of femur

79 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Tibia Also called the shinbone Supports body weight Larger than fibula Medial to fibula

80 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Tibia The proximal epiphysis Medial and lateral tibial condyles Separated by intercondylar eminence Articulate with medial and lateral condyles of femur Tibial tuberosity Attaches patellar ligament

81 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Tibia The shaft Anterior margin Sharp ridge of shinbone The distal epiphysis Medial malleolus Medial projection at the ankle

82 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia Lateral to tibia

83 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Fibula Articulations with tibia Fibula/tibia articulations Head Inferior tibiofibular joint Interosseous membrane Binds fibula to tibia Lateral malleolus Lateral projection of ankle

84 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-13a The Right Tibia and Fibula Medial tibial condyle Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior margin TIBIA FIBULA Medial malleolus (tibia) Inferior articular surface Anterior view Lateral malleolus (fibula) Superior tibiofibular joint Head of fibula Lateral tibial condyle

85 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-13b The Right Tibia and Fibula Soleal line Articular surface of medial tibial condyle Medial tibial condyle Medial malleolus (tibia) FIBULA TIBIA Inferior tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus (fibula) Posterior view Intercondylar eminence Articular surface of lateral tibial condyle Lateral tibial condyle Head of fibula Interosseous membrane

86 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-13c The Right Tibia and Fibula Anterior margin Tibia Interosseous membrane Cross section of tibia and fibula Fibula

87 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Ankle Also called the tarsus Consists of seven tarsal bones Bones of the ankle Talus Carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone) Transfers weight from talus to ground Attaches calcaneal (Achilles) tendon Cuboid Articulates with calcaneus

88 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs The Ankle Bones of the ankle Navicular Articulates with talus and three cuneiform bones Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform

89 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-14a Bones of the Ankle and Foot Calcaneus Trochlea of talus Hallux Medial Intermediate Lateral Cuneiform bones Cuboid Talus Navicular V IV III II I Metatarsal bones Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Superior view, right foot Distal Middle Proximal Phalanges

90 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs Metatarsal Bones of the Foot Five long bones of foot Numbered I–V, medial to lateral Articulate with toes

91 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs Phalanges of the Foot Phalanges 14 bones of the toes Hallux Big toe or great toe, two phalanges (distal, proximal) Other four toes Three phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)

92 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8-14a Bones of the Ankle and Foot Calcaneus Trochlea of talus Hallux Medial Intermediate Lateral Cuneiform bones Cuboid Talus Navicular V IV III II I Metatarsal bones Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Superior view, right foot Distal Middle Proximal Phalanges

93 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4 The Lower Limbs Arches of the Feet Arches transfer weight from one part of the foot to another The longitudinal arch Calcaneal portion Lateral Talar portion Medial The transverse arch Formed by a difference in curvature between medial and lateral borders of the foot

94 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8–14b Bones of the Ankle and Foot Medial view, right foot Longitudinal arch Transverse arch Phalanges Metatarsal bones Medial cuneiform bone Navicular Talus Calcaneus

95 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Individual Skeleton Variation Studying the Skeleton Reveals characteristics Muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass) Medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures) Sex and age (bone measurements and fusion) Body size

96 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Sex Differences in the Human Skeleton Region and FeatureMale (compared to female) Female (compared to male) SKULL General appearanceHeavier, rougherLighter, smoother ForeheadMore slopingMore vertical SinusesLargerSmaller CraniumAbout 10% largerAbout 10% smaller MandibleLarger, more robustSmaller, lighter TeethLargerSmaller

97 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Sex Differences in the Human Skeleton PELVIS Region and FeatureMale (compared to female)Female (compared to male) General appearanceNarrower, more robust, rougher Broader, lighter, smoother Pelvic inletHeart shapedOval to round shaped Iliac fossaDeeperShallower IliumMore vertical; extends farther superior to sacroiliac joint Less vertical; less extension superior Angle inferior to pubic symphysis Under 90°100° or more (Figure 8–10) AcetabulumDirected laterallyFaces slightly anteriorly as well as laterally Obturator foramenOvalTriangular Ischial spinePoints mediallyPoints posteriorly SacrumLong, narrow triangle with pronounced sacral curvature Broad, short triangle with less curvature CoccyxPoints anteriorlyPoints inferiorly

98 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Sex Differences in the Human Skeleton Region and FeatureMale (compared to female) Female (compared to male) OTHER SKELETAL ELEMENTS Bone weightHeavierLighter Bone markingsMore prominentLess prominent

99 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Age-Related Changes in the Skeleton Region and Feature EventsAge in Years GENERAL SKELETON Bony matrixReduction in mineral content; increased risk of osteoporosis Begins at age 30–45; values differ for males versus females between ages 45 and 65; similar reductions occur in both sexes after age 65 Bone markingsReduction in size, roughness Gradual reduction with increasing age and decreasing muscular strength and mass

100 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Age-Related Changes in the Skeleton Region and FeatureEventsAge in Years SKULL FontanellesClosureCompleted by age 2 Frontal sutureFusion2–8 Occipital boneFusion of ossification centers1–4 Styloid processFusion with temporal bone12–16 Hyoid boneComplete ossification and fusion 25–30 TeethLoss of “baby teeth”; appearance of secondary dentition; eruption of permanent molars Detailed in Chapter 24 (digestive system) MandibleLoss of teeth; reduction in bone mass; change in angle at mandibular notch Accelerates in later years (60)

101 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Age-Related Changes in the Skeleton Region and FeatureEventsAge in Years VERTEBRAE CurvatureDevelopment of major curves 3 months–10 years Intervertebral discsReduction in size, percentage contribution to height Accelerates in later years (60)

102 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5 Age-Related Changes in the Skeleton Region and FeatureEventsAge in Years LONG BONES Epiphyseal cartilagesFusionBegins about age 3; ranges vary, but general analysis permits determination of approximate age PECTORAL AND PELVIC GIRDLES EpiphysesFusionRelatively narrow ranges of ages (e.g., 14–16, 16–18, 22–25) increase accuracy of age estimates


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