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Introduction Human skeleton initially cartilages and fibrous membranes

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1 Introduction Human skeleton initially cartilages and fibrous membranes
Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant cartilage By age 25 the skeleton is completely hardened 206 bones make up the adult skeleton (20% of body mass) 80 bones of the axial skeleton 126 bones of the appendicular skeleton

2 Bone Classification Bone Classification: Long Bones Short Bones
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Bone Classification: (b) Long Bones Short Bones Sesamoid Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Wormian Bones (sutural) (c) (d) (a) (e)

3 Classification of Bones
Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus Slide 5.4a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

4 Classification of Bones
Short bones Generally cube-shape Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals Slide 5.4b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

5 Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape
Figure 5.1 Slide 5.4c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

6 Classification of Bones
Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum Slide 5.5a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

7 Classification of Bones
Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip Slide 5.5b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8 Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape
Figure 5.1 Slide 5.5c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

9 Parts of a Long Bone Epiphysis Compact bone Articular cartilage
Distal Proximal Diaphysis Metaphysis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Epiphyseal plates Articular cartilage Proximal Spongy bone epiphysis Space containing red marrow Compact bone Spongy bone Endosteum Compact bone Articular cartilage Periosteum Endosteum Medullary cavity Y ellow marrow Periosteum Diaphysis Medullary cavity Trabeculae Bone marrow Red marrow and yellow marrow Distal epiphysis Femur

10 Microscopic Structure
Bone cells are called osteocytes in a lacuna Osteocytes transport nutrients and wastes by cellular processes in canaliculi The extracellular matrix of bone is largely collagen and inorganic salts Collagen gives bone resilience & strength Inorganic salts make bone hard

11 Compact Bone Osteon Central canal
aka Haversian System Central canal Perforating canal aka Volkmann’s canal Osteocytes Lamellae Lacunae Bone matrix Canaliculi Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Osteon Compact bone Central canal containing blood vessels and nerves Endosteum Spongy bone Periosteum Nerve Blood vessels Pores Central canal Perforating canal Compact bone Nerve Blood vessels Nerve Trabeculae Bone matrix Canaliculus Osteocyte Lacuna (space)

12 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
Figure 5.3 Slide 5.10b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

13 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
Lacunae Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) Arranged in concentric rings Lamellae Rings around the central canal Sites of lacunae Figure 5.3 Slide 5.11a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

14 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
Canaliculi Tiny canals Radiate from the central canal to lacunae Form a transport system Figure 5.3 Slide 5.11b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

15 a: © Ed Reschke; b,c: Courtesy of John W. Hole, Jr.
Spongy Bone Spongy bone is aka cancellous bone Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spongy bone Compact bone (a) Remnant of epiphyseal plate Spongy bone Compact bone (b) (c) Spongy bone Compact bone a: © Ed Reschke; b,c: Courtesy of John W. Hole, Jr.

16 Bone Development and Growth
Parts of the skeletal system begin to develop during the first few weeks of prenatal development Bones replace existing connective tissue in one of two ways: As intramembranous bones As endchondral bones

17 Intramembranous Bones
These bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues They are the broad, flat bones Skull bones (except mandible) Are known as intramembranous bones

18 Endochondral Bones Endochondral Bones Bones begin as hyaline cartilage
Form models for future bones These are most bones of the skeleton Are known as endochondral bones

19 Endochondral Ossification
Hyaline cartilage model Primary ossification center Secondary ossification centers Epiphyseal plate Osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Articular cartilage Remnants of epiphyseal plates Secondary ossification center Cartilaginous model Developing periosteum Compact bone developing Spongy bone Epiphyseal plates Blood vessel Medullary cavity Medullary cavity Medullary cavity Compact bone Remnant of epiphyseal plate Epiphyseal plate Calcified cartilage Primary ossification center Secondary ossification center Spongy bone Articular cartilage (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

20 Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. First layer of cells Closest to the end of epiphysis Resting cells Anchors epiphyseal plate to epiphysis Zone of resting cartilage Bone tissue of epiphysis 1 Zone of resting cartilage 2 Zone of proliferating cartilage 3 Zone of hypertrophic cartilage Second layer of cells Many rows of young cells Undergoing mitosis zone of proliferating cartilage 4 Zone of calcified cartilage Ossified bone of diaphysis (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

21 Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Third layer of cells Older cells Left behind when new cells appear Cells enlarging and becoming calcified zone of hypertrophic cartilage Bone tissue of epiphysis 1 Zone of resting cartilage 2 Zone of proliferating cartilage 3 Zone of hypertrophic cartilage Fourth layer of cells Thin Dead cells Calcified extracellular matrix zone of calcified cartilage 4 Zone of calcified cartilage Ossified bone of diaphysis (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer

22 Homeostasis of Bone Tissue
Bone Resorption – action of osteoclasts and parathyroid hormone aka parathormone aka PTH Bone Deposition – action of osteoblasts and calcitonin Occurs by direction of the thyroid and parathyroid glands Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Developing medullary cavity Osteoclast © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc.

23 Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth and Repair
Deficiency of Vitamin A – retards bone development Deficiency of Vitamin C – results in fragile bones Deficiency of Vitamin D – rickets, osteomalacia Insufficient Growth Hormone – dwarfism Excessive Growth Hormone – gigantism, acromegaly Insufficient Thyroid Hormone – delays bone growth Sex Hormones – promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates Physical Stress – stimulates bone growth

24 Bone Function Bones shape, support, and protect body structures

25 Support, Protection, and Movement
Support, Movement & Protection Gives shape to head, etc. Supports body’s weight Protects lungs, etc. Bones and muscles interact When limbs or body parts move

26 Blood Cell Formation Blood Cell Formation Also known as hematopoiesis
Occurs in the red bone marrow

27 Inorganic Salt Storage
Calcium Phosphate Magnesium Sodium Potassium

28 Skeletal Organization
The actual number of bones in the human skeleton varies from person to person Typically there are about 206 bones For convenience the skeleton is divided into the: Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton

29 Divisions of the Skeleton
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Axial Skeleton Skull Spine Rib cage Cranium Skull Face Hyoid Clavicle Scapula Sternum Humerus Ribs Vertebral column Vertebral column Appendicular Skeleton Upper limbs Lower limbs Shoulder girdle Pelvic girdle Hip bone Carpals Sacrum Radius Coccyx Ulna Metacarpals Femur Phalanges Patella T ibia Fibula T arsals Metatarsals Phalanges (a) (b)

30 Skull Is composed of the cranium (brain case) and the facial bones

31 Cranium Frontal Bone (1) Forehead Roof of nasal cavity Roofs of orbits
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal Bone (1) Forehead Roof of nasal cavity Roofs of orbits Frontal sinuses Supraorbital foramen Coronal suture Parietal bone Frontal bone Coronal suture Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone Squamous suture Supraorbital foramen Sphenoid bone T emporal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone Middle nasal concha of the ethmoid bone Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic bone Inferior nasal concha V omer bone Maxilla Mandible Mental foramen

32 Cranium Parietal Bones (2) Side walls of cranium Roof of cranium
Sagittal suture Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Parietal bone Frontal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone External acoustic meatus Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process

33 Cranium Occipital Bone (1) Back of skull Base of cranium
Foramen magnum Occipital condyles Lambdoidal suture Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Incisive foramen Palatine process of maxilla Zygomatic bone Median palatine suture Frontal bone Palatine bone Sphenoid bone Zygomatic arch Greater palatine foramen Vomer bone Foramen lacerum Mandibular fossa Foramen ovale Styloid process Foramen spinosum External acoustic meatus Carotid canal Jugular foramen Stylomastoid foramen Occipital condyle Foramen magnum Mastoid foramen Lambdoid suture Temporal bone Condylar canal Occipital bone

34 Cranium Temporal Bones (2) Side walls of cranium Floor of cranium
Floors and sides of orbits Squamous suture External acoustic meatus Mandibular fossa Mastoid process Styloid process Zygomatic process Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Parietal bone Frontal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone External acoustic meatus Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process

35 Cranium Sphenoid Bone (1) Base of cranium Sides of skull
Floors and sides of orbits Sella turcica Sphenoid sinuses Lesser wing Optic canal Greater wing Foramen rotundum Foramen spinosum (a) Sella turcica Foramen ovale Transverse section Lesser wing Greater wing Superior orbital fissure Foramen rotundum Lateral pterygoid plate (b) Medial pterygoid plate

36 Cranium Ethmoid Bone (1) Roof and walls of nasal cavity
Floor of cranium Wall of orbits Cribiform plates Perpendicular plate Superior and middle nasal conchae Ethmoid sinuses Crista galli Perpendicular plate Crista galli Crista galli Superior nasal concha Cribriform plate Ethmoidal sinuses Middle nasal concha T ransverse section Orbital surface Perpendicular plate (a) (b)

37 Facial Skeleton Maxillary Bones (2) Upper jaw Anterior roof of mouth
Floors of orbits Sides of nasal cavity Floors of nasal cavity Alveolar processes Maxillary sinuses Palatine process Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Parietal bone Frontal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone External acoustic meatus Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process

38 Facial Skeleton Frontal sinus Ethmoidal sinuses Sphenoidal sinus
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal sinus Ethmoidal sinuses Sphenoidal sinus Maxillary sinus

39 Facial Skeleton Palatine Bones (2)
‘L’ shaped bones located behind the maxillae Posterior section of hard palate Floor of nasal cavity Lateral walls of nasal cavity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Perpendicular portion Coronal section Horizontal portion

40 Facial Skeleton Zygomatic Bones (2) Prominences of cheeks
Lateral walls of orbits Floors of orbits Temporal process Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Parietal bone Frontal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone External acoustic meatus Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process

41 Facial Skeleton Lacrimal Bones (2) Nasal Bones (2)
Medial walls of orbits Groove from orbit to nasal cavity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Parietal bone Frontal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Nasal Bones (2) Bridge of nose Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Occipital bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone External acoustic meatus Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Maxilla Mandibular condyle Styloid process Mental foramen Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mandible Coronoid process

42 Facial Skeleton Vomer Bone (1) Inferior portion of nasal septum
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Temporal bone Frontal bone Parietal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus Lambdoid suture Nasal bone Occipital bone Crista galli Internal acoustic meatus Cribriform plate Ethmoid bone Perpendicular plate (nasal septum) Jugular foramen Sella turcica Inferior nasal concha Palatine process of maxilla Hypoglossal canal Styloid process Foramen magnum Maxilla Sphenoidal sinus Mastoid process Palatine bone Vomer bone Mandible Alveolar processes

43 Facial Skeleton Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)
Extend from lateral walls of nasal cavity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Temporal bone Frontal bone Parietal bone Squamous suture Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus Lambdoid suture Nasal bone Occipital bone Crista galli Internal acoustic meatus Cribriform plate Ethmoid bone Perpendicular plate (nasal septum) Jugular foramen Sella turcica Inferior nasal concha Palatine process of maxilla Hypoglossal canal Styloid process Foramen magnum Maxilla Sphenoidal sinus Mastoid process Palatine bone Vomer bone Mandible Alveolar processes

44 Facial Skeleton Mandible Bone (1) Lower jaw Body Ramus
Mandibular condyle Coronoid process Alveolar process Mandibular foramen Mental foramen Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronoid process Coronoid process Mandibular foramen Mandibular condyle Ramus Alveolar border Mandibular foramen Body Mental foramen Body Alveolar arch (a) (b)

45 Infantile Skull Fontanels – fibrous membranes
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal suture (metopic suture) Frontal bone Anterior fontanel Sagittal suture Posterior fontanel (b)

46 Vertebral Column The vertebral column, or spinal column, consists of many vertebrae separated by cartilaginous intervertebral discs.

47 Vertebral Column Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12)
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacral (4-5 fused segments) Sacrum is fused bone Coccygeal (3-4 fused segments) Coccyx is fused bone Cervical curvature Cervical vertebrae Vertebra prominens Rib facet Thoracic vertebrae Thoracic curvature Intervertebral Intervertebral foramina Lumbar vertebrae Lumbar curvature Sacrum Sacral curvature Coccyx (a) (b)

48 Vertebral Column Cervical curvature Thoracic curvature
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cervical curvature Thoracic curvature Lumbar curvature Sacral curvature Rib facets Vertebral prominens Intervertebral discs (IVD) Intervertebral foramina (IVF) Cervical curvature Cervical vertebrae Vertebra prominens Rib facet Thoracic vertebrae Thoracic curvature Intervertebral Intervertebral foramina Lumbar vertebrae Lumbar curvature Sacrum Sacral curvature Coccyx (a) (b)

49 Typical Vertebrae Includes the following parts: Vertebral body
Pedicles Lamina Spinous process Transverse processes Vertebral foramen Facets

50 Cervical Vertebrae Atlas – 1st; supports head
Axis – 2nd; dens pivots to turn head Transverse foramina Bifid spinous processes Vertebral prominens – useful landmark Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Facet that articulates with occipital condyle Posterior Vertebral foramen Transverse process Facet that articulates with dens (odontoid process) of axis Transverse foramen Anterior Atlas (a) Anterior articular facet for atlas Spinous process Dens Spinous process Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Body Inferior articular process Transverse process Dens (odontoid process) Axis (b) (c)

51 Facet for tubercle of rib Superior articular process
Thoracic Vertebrae Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior articular process Long spinous processes Rib facets Pedicle Transverse process Facet for tubercle of rib Body Intervertebral notch Superior articular process Body Inferior articular process Spinous process Transverse process (a) Inferior articular process Spinous process Lamina Intervertebral disc Transverse process Facet for tubercle of rib Superior articular process Vertebral foramen Spinous process Anterior Pedicle Body (b) Posterior (c)

52 Lumbar Vertebrae Large bodies Thick, short spinous processes
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spinous process Lamina Superior articular process Transverse process Pedicle Vertebral foramen Body (c) Lumbar vertebra

53 Sacrum 4-5 fused segments Median sacral crest
Posterior sacral foramina Posterior wall of pelvic cavity Sacral promontory aka base Area toward coccyx is the apex Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sacral promontory Superior articular process Sacral canal Auricular surface Sacrum Tubercle of median sacral crest Posterior sacral foramen Sacral hiatus Anterior sacral foramen Coccyx (a) (b)

54 Coccyx Aka tailbone 3-4 fused segments
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sacral promontory Superior articular process Sacral canal Auricular surface Sacrum Tubercle of median sacral crest Posterior sacral foramen Sacral hiatus Anterior sacral foramen Coccyx (a) (b)

55 Thoracic Cage The thoracic cage includes the ribs, the thoracic vertebrae, the sternum, and the costal cartilages that attach the ribs to the sternum.

56 b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD
Thoracic Cage Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Jugular notch (suprasternal notch) Ribs (12) Sternum Thoracic vertebrae (12) Costal cartilages Supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs Protects viscera Role in breathing Sternal angle Thoracic vertebra 1 Clavicular notch 2 3 Manubrium True ribs (vertebrosternal ribs) 4 5 Body Sternum 6 7 Xiphoid process 8 Ribs Vertebrochondral ribs 9 False ribs Costal cartilage 10 1 1 Floating ribs (vertebral ribs) 12 (a) (b) b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD

57 b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD
Ribs Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Jugular notch (suprasternal notch) Humans have 12 pairs of ribs: True ribs (7) False ribs (5), of which: Floating (2) Sternal angle Thoracic vertebra 1 Clavicular notch 2 3 Manubrium True ribs (vertebrosternal ribs) 4 5 Body Sternum 6 7 Xiphoid process 8 Ribs There are some anomalies: Cervical ribs Lumbar ribs Vertebrochondral ribs 9 False ribs Costal cartilage 10 1 1 Floating ribs (vertebral ribs) 12 (a) (b) b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD

58 Rib Structure Shaft Head – posterior end; articulates with vertebrae
Tubercle – articulates with vertebrae Costal cartilage – hyaline cartilage Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Neck Head T ubercle Anterior end Shaft Costal groove (a) Spinous process Facet T ubercle Neck Head Facet Shaft Anterior end (sternal end) (b)

59 b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD
Sternum Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Jugular notch (suprasternal notch) Three (3) parts of the sternum: Manubrium Body Xiphoid process Sternal angle Thoracic vertebra 1 Clavicular notch 2 3 Manubrium True ribs (vertebrosternal ribs) 4 5 Body Sternum 6 7 Xiphoid process 8 Ribs Vertebrochondral ribs 9 False ribs Costal cartilage 10 1 1 Floating ribs (vertebral ribs) 12 (a) (b) b: © Victor B. Eichler, PhD

60 Pectoral Girdle Also known as the shoulder girdle Clavicles Scapulae
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Also known as the shoulder girdle Clavicles Scapulae Supports upper limbs True shoulder joint is simply the articulation of the humerus and scapula Acromion process Acromial end Sternal end Clavicle Head of humerus Coracoid process Sternum Costal cartilage Scapula Rib Humerus Ulna Radius (a)

61 Clavicles Articulate with manubrium
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Articulate with manubrium Articulate with scapulae (acromion process) A-C joint Acromion process Acromial end Sternal end Clavicle Head of humerus Coracoid process Sternum Costal cartilage Scapula Rib Humerus Ulna Radius (a)

62 Scapulae Spine Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa Acromion process
Coracoid process Glenoid fossa or cavity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior border Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Acromion process Acromion process Coracoid process Supra- glenoid tubercle Spine Glenoid cavity Glenoid cavity Subscapular fossa Infra- glenoid tubercle Supraspinous fossa Lateral (axillary) border Infraspinous fossa Medial (vertebral) border (a) (b) (c)

63 Upper Limb Humerus Radius Ulna (Interosseous membrane) Carpals
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Humerus Radius Ulna (Interosseous membrane) Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Humerus Humerus Olecranon process Olecranon fossa Head of radius Neck of radius Ulna (c) Radius Ulna Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges (a) Hand (palm anterior) (b) Hand (palm posterior) (d) d: © Martin Rotker

64 Humerus Head Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Anatomical neck
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Head Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Capitulum Trochlea Coronoid fossa Olecranon fossa Greater tubercle Head Greater tubercle Intertubercular groove Anatomical neck Surgical neck Lesser tubercle Deltoid tuberosity Coronoid fossa Olecranon fossa Lateral epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Capitulum Trochlea (a) (b)

65 Radius Lateral forearm bone Head Radial tuberosity Styloid process
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lateral forearm bone Head Radial tuberosity Styloid process Trochlear notch Olecranon process Coronoid process Head of radius Olecranon process Radial tuberosity Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch Radius (b) Ulna Head of ulna Styloid process Styloid process Ulnar notch of radius (a)

66 Ulna Medial forearm bone Trochlear notch Olecranon process
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Medial forearm bone Trochlear notch Olecranon process Coronoid process Styloid process Trochlear notch Olecranon process Coronoid process Head of radius Olecranon process Radial tuberosity Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch Radius (b) Ulna Head of ulna Styloid process Styloid process Ulnar notch of radius (a)

67 Wrist and Hand Carpal Bones (16 total bones) Metacarpal Bones (10)
Scaphoid Lunate Triquetral Pisiform Hamate Capitate Trapezoid Trapezium Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Radius Scaphoid Ulna Scaphoid Lunate Capitate Capitate Hamate Trapezoid Trapezoid Triquetrum Trapezium Trapezium Pisiform Carpals (carpus) 1 1 Metacarpals (metacarpus) 5 5 2 4 4 2 3 3 Metacarpal Bones (10) Proximal phalanx Phalangeal Bones (28) Proximal phalanx Middle phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Phalanges Distal phalanx (a) (b)

68 Pelvic Girdle Coxal Bones (2) Supports trunk of body Protects viscera
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coxal Bones (2) Supports trunk of body Protects viscera Forms pelvic cavity Sacral canal Ilium Sacrum Sacral hiatus Coccyx Ischium Obturator foramen (b) Pubis Sacroiliac joint Ilium Sacral promontory Sacrum Acetabulum Pubis Pubic tubercle Symphysis pubis Ischium Pubic arch (a) c: © Martin Rotker (c)

69 Hip Bones Also known as the coxae: Acetabulum
There are three (3) bones: 1. Ilium Iliac crest Iliac spines Greater sciatic notch 2. Ischium Ischial spines Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity 3. Pubis Obturator foramen Symphysis pubis Pubic arch Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Iliac crest Iliac fossa Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Ilium Ilium Anterior inferior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Obturator foramen Greater sciatic notch Acetabulum Obturator foramen Ischium Ischial spine Pubis Pubic crest Ischium Lesser sciatic notch Pubis Pubic tubercle Ischial tuberosity (a) (b)

70 Greater and Lesser Pelves
Greater Pelvis Lumbar vertebrae posteriorly Iliac bones laterally Abdominal wall anteriorly Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Flared ilium Sacral promontory Pelvic brim Symphysis pubis Lesser Pelvis Sacrum and coccyx posteriorly Lower ilium, ischium, and pubic bones laterally and anteriorly (a) Female pelvis Pubic arch Sacral promontory Sacral curvature (b) Male pelvis Pubic arch

71 Differences Between Male Female Pelves
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Female pelvis Iliac bones more flared Broader hips Pubic arch angle greater More distance between ischial spines and ischial tuberosities Sacral curvature shorter and flatter Lighter bones Why? Flared ilium Sacral promontory Pelvic brim Symphysis pubis (a) Female pelvis Pubic arch Sacral promontory Sacral curvature (b) Male pelvis Pubic arch

72 Lower Limb Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Femur Femur Patella Fibula T ibia (c) Lateral view Patella Fibula Femur Tibia Lateral condyle Medial condyle Fibula T ibia T arsals (d) Posterior view Metatarsals Phalanges (b)

73 Femur Longest bone of body Head Fovea capitis Neck Greater trochanter
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Longest bone of body Head Fovea capitis Neck Greater trochanter Lesser trochanter Linea aspera Condyles Epicondyles Fovea capitis Neck Head Greater trochanter Gluteal tuberosity Lesser trochanter Linea aspera Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Medial condyle Lateral condyle Intercondylar fossa Patellar surface (a) (b)

74 Patella Aka kneecap Anterior surface of the knee joint
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Aka kneecap Anterior surface of the knee joint Flat sesamoid bone located in the quadriceps tendon Femur Femur Patella Fibula T ibia (c) Lateral view Patella Fibula Femur Tibia Lateral condyle Medial condyle Fibula T ibia T arsals (d) Posterior view Metatarsals Phalanges (b)

75 Tibia Aka shin bone Medial to fibula Condyles Tibial tuberosity
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Aka shin bone Medial to fibula Condyles Tibial tuberosity Anterior crest Makes the medial malleolus Intercondylar eminence Lateral condyle Medial condyle Tibial tuberosity Head of fibula Anterior crest Fibula Tibia Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus

76 Fibula Lateral to tibia Long, slender Head Makes the lateral malleolus
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lateral to tibia Long, slender Head Makes the lateral malleolus Non-weight bearing Intercondylar eminence Lateral condyle Medial condyle Tibial tuberosity Head of fibula Anterior crest Fibula Tibia Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus

77 Foot Tarsal Bones (14) Metatarsal Bones (10) Phalanges (28) Calcaneus
Talus Navicular Cuboid Lateral (3rd) cuneiform Intermediate (2nd) cuneiform Medial (1st) cuneiform Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fibula Tibia T alus Medial cuneiform Navicular Metatarsals (metatarsus) Calcaneus Metatarsal Bones (10) Phalanges Calcaneal tuberosity Phalanges (28) Proximal Middle Distal Tarsals (tarsus) (b)

78 Foot Calcaneus Talus Tarsals (tarsus) Navicular Cuboid
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Calcaneus Talus Tarsals (tarsus) Navicular Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Medial cuneiform 5 4 3 1 Metatarsals (metatarsus) 2 Proximal phalanx Middle phalanx Distal phalanx Phalanges (a)

79 Lifespan Changes Decrease in height at about age 30
Calcium levels fall Bones become brittle Osteoclasts outnumber osteoblasts Spongy bone weakens before compact bone Bone loss rapid in menopausal women Hip fractures common Vertebral compression fractures common

80

81 Joints Articulations of bones Functions of joints
Hold bones together Allow for mobility Ways joints are classified Functionally Structurally Slide 5.43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

82 Functional Classification of Joints
Synarthroses – immovable joints Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints Diarthroses – freely moveable joints Slide 5.44 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

83 Structural Classification of Joints
Fibrous joints Generally immovable Cartilaginous joints Immovable or slightly moveable Synovial joints Freely moveable Slide 5.45 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

84 Fibrous Joints Bones united by fibrous tissue – synarthrosis or largely immovable. Figure 5.27d, e Slide 5.46 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

85 Cartilaginous Joints – mostly amphiarthrosis
Bones connected by cartilage Examples Pubic symphysis Intervertebral joints Figure 5.27b, c Slide 5.47 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

86 Synovial Joints Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity
Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity Figure 5.27f–h Slide 5.48 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

87 Features of Synovial Joints- Diarthroses
Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid Ligaments reinforce the joint Slide 5.49 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

88 Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint
Bursae – flattened fibrous sacs Lined with synovial membranes Filled with synovial fluid Not actually part of the joint Tendon sheath Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon Slide 5.50 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

89 The Synovial Joint Slide 5.51 Figure 5.28
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

90 Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape
Figure 5.29a–c Slide 5.52a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

91 Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape
Figure 5.29d–f Slide 5.52b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

92 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints
Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon sheaths Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints Over 100 different types The most widespread crippling disease in the United States Slide 5.53 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

93 Clinical Forms of Arthritis
Osteoarthritis Most common chronic arthritis Probably related to normal aging processes Rheumatoid arthritis An autoimmune disease – the immune system attacks the joints Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints Often leads to deformities Slide 5.54a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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96 Clinical Forms of Arthritis
Gouty Arthritis Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of urate crystals from the blood Can usually be controlled with diet Slide 5.54b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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