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Chapter 8 *Lecture Outline

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1 Chapter 8 *Lecture Outline
*See separate FlexArt PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Chapter 8 Outline Pectoral Girdle Upper Limb Pelvic Girdle Lower Limb
Aging of the Appendicular Skeleton Development of the Appendicular Skeleton

3 Appendicular Skeleton
Figure 8.1

4 Pectoral Girdle Clavicle Scapula Figure 8.2

5 Clavicle S-shaped Articulations medially with manubrium of sternum
laterally with acromion of scapula Figure 8.2

6 Scapula Broad, flat triangle Articulations Other features
three borders, three angles Articulations Lateral: glenoid cavity for head of humerus Other features Posterior: bony ridge = spine Lateral: acromion process Anterior projection: coracoid process

7 Scapula Figure 8.3

8 Upper Limb 30 bones per “arm” Humerus in brachium (upper arm)
Radius and ulna in antebrachium (forearm) 8 carpal bones in wrist 5 metacarpals in palm 14 phalanges in fingers

9 Humerus Proximal features: Head: articulates with scapula
Anatomical and surgical necks Greater and lesser tubercles: for muscle attachment Intertubercular sulcus: for biceps brachii tendon

10 right: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel
Humerus Anterior View Anatomical neck Head Greater tubercle Lesser Intertubercular sulcus Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Shaft Coronoid fossa Radial fossa (a) Right humerus, anterior view Capitulum Trochlea Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 8.4 right: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

11 Humerus Distal features: Shaft
Deltoid tuberosity for attachment of deltoid Medial and lateral epicondyles for muscle attachments Capitulum: round lateral articulation for radius Trochlea: spool-like medial articulation for ulna

12 Humerus Distal fossae (depressions): Anterior Posterior
Radial: lateral depression for radius Coronoid: medial, for anterior ulna Posterior Olecranon: largest, for posterior ulna

13 Humerus – Posterior View
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Head Greater tubercle Anatomical neck Surgicalneck Deltoid tuberosity Radial groove Lateral epicondyle Olecranon fossa Olecranon fossa Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Figure 8.4 Trochlea Trochlea (d) Right humerus, posterior view (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

14 a(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel
Radius and Ulna Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Antebrachial bones parallel to each other in anatomical position, radius is lateral to ulna Olecranon Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid process Head Head Proximal radioulnar joint Neck Tuberosity of ulna Neck Radial tuberosity Shaft Radius Ulna Radius Ulna Interosseous membrane Interosseous borders Distal radioulnar joint Figure 8.5 Head Styloid process Styloid process Styloid process (a) Right radius and ulna, anterior view a(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

15 Radius Proximal features: Head: articulates with capitulum of humerus
Neck: narrowest region Radial tuberosity: for biceps brachii muscle Shaft Distal features: Styloid process: lateral “wrist bump” Ulnar notch: medial dent for head of ulna

16 Ulna Proximal features: Distal features:
Trochlear notch: for trochlea of humerus Olecranon: posterior “elbow bump” for triceps brachii muscle Coronoid process: anterior tip of trochlear notch Radial notch: lateral, for head of radius Distal features: Head: knoblike end Styloid process: posteromedial “wrist bump”

17 (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel
Radius and Ulna Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Olecranon Olecranon Posterior View Head Proximal radioulnar joint Neck Shaft Ulna Radius Ulna Radius Interosseous membrane Interosseous borders Head Head Figure 8.5 Distal radioulnar joint Styloid processes Styloid processes (f) Right ulna and radius, posterior view (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

18 Radius and Ulna (proximal and distal features)
Figure 8.5

19 Carpus 8 “wrist” bones Two rows (1 proximal and 1 distal) of four
Figure 8.6

20 Carpals Proximal Row (lateral to medial) Distal Row
Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Distal Row (lateral to medial) Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate

21 Metacarpals 5 in palm named by Roman numerals I–V from medial to lateral Figure 8.6

22 Phalanges 14 per hand 3 per finger #2–5 Proximal, middle, and distal
2 in pollex (thumb) Proximal and distal Figure 8.6

23 Pelvic Girdle Girdle = right and left ossa coxae
with sacrum and coccyx = the pelvis Figure 8.7

24 Os Coxae The “hip bone” Articulations:
fusion of ilium, ischium, and pubis at 13–15 years of age Articulations: anteriorly with other os coxae posteriorly with the sacrum laterally with femur at acetabulum all three bones of the os coxae contribute to the acetabulum

25 Acetabulum Figure 8.9

26 Ilium Largest of the three fused bones
Superior portion of os coxae and acetabulum Features: Ala: wide, fan-shaped portion Arcuate line: ridge along inferior border of the ala Iliac fossa: large depression on medial surface Anterior, posterior, and inferior gluteal lines: lateral site of muscle attachments

27 (bott):© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel
Ilium Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Iliac crest Iliac crest Ala Anterior gluteal line Iliac fossa Posterior gluteal line Anterior super ioriliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior superior Iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Inferior gluteal line Auricular surface Posterior inferior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Anterior inferior iliac spine Arcuate line Posterior inferior iliac spine Lunate surface Greater sciatic notch Body of ischium Acetabulum Ischial spine Pectineal line Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Superior pubic ramus Lesser sciatic notch Superior pubic ramus Pubic crest Pubic tubercle Body of ischium Ischial tuberosity Pubic tubercle Inferior pubic ramus Symphysial surface Obturator foramen Obturator foramen Ischial tuberosity Ilium Ramus of ischium Ilium Inferior pubic ramus Ramus of ischium Posterior Anterior Iliaccrest Anterior Posterior Iliac crest Ischium Pubis Pubis Ischium Lateral view Ala Medial view Posterior superior iliac spine Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Iliac fossa Posterior superior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Auricular surface Posterior inferior iliac spine Inferior glutealline Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Anterior inferior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Arcuate line Lunate surface Greater sciatic notch Body of ischium Acetabulum Ischial spine Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Pectineal line Superior pubic ramus Lesser sciatic notch Superior pubic ramus Ischial tuberosity Pubic tubercle Body of ischium Pubic crest Pubic tubercle Symphysial surface Inferior pubic ramus Obturator foramen Obturator foramen Ischial tuberosity Ramus of ischium Inferior pubic ramus Ramus of ischium Figure 8.9 (b) Right os coxae, medial view (a) Right os coxae, lateral view (bott):© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

28 Ilium Additional features: Iliac crest: superior ridge
Anterior and posterior, superior and inferior iliac spines: projections along iliac crest Greater sciatic notch: for sciatic nerve entering lower limb Auricular surface: medial articulation with sacrum

29 Ischium Superior/posterior margin of acetabulum Features:
Ischial spine: prominent medial process Ischial tuberosity: rough inferior region that supports weight of body when seated Ischial ramus: bridge from tuberosity to pubis

30 (bottom): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel
Ischium Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Iliac crest Ala Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Anterior super ioriliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Inferior gluteal line Posterior inferior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Lunate surface Body of ischium Acetabulum Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Superior pubic ramus Pubic crest Ischial tuberosity Pubic tubercle Inferior pubic ramus Obturator foramen Ilium Ramus of ischium Posterior Anterior Iliaccrest Ischium Pubis Lateral view Ala Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Inferior glutealline Greater sciatic notch Anterior inferior iliac spine Lunate surface Body of ischium Acetabulum Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Superior pubic ramus Ischial tuberosity Pubic crest Pubic tubercle Inferior pubic ramus Figure 8.9 Obturator foramen Ramus of ischium (a) Right os coxae, lateral view (bottom): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

31 Pubis Anterior region of os coxae Features:
Superior and Inferior rami: struts to acetabulum and ischial ramus Pubic crest: rough ridge on anterosuperior of superior ramus; ends as pubic tubercle Obturator foramen: large space bordered by pubic and ischial rami Pectineal line: ridge on medial surface of pubis continuing from arcuate line of ilium

32 Pubis Figure 8.7

33 True vs. False Pelvis True pelvis: bony basin inferior to pelvic brim containing pelvic organs False pelvis: superior to pelvic brim bound by ilia laterally and abdominal wall anteriorly Pelvic brim: continuous oval ridge formed by pubic crest, pectineal line, arcuate line, and sacral promontory Pelvic inlet: superior entrance to true pelvis, at pelvic brim Pelvic outlet: exit of true pelvis, defined by coccyx, ischial tuberosities, and inferior border of pubic symphysis

34 Features of the Pelvis Figure 8.10

35 Female vs. Male Pelvis Most reliable indicator of the sex of a skeleton is the pelvis, due to the requirements of pregnancy and childbirth Major differences: female ilia laterally flared = wider pelvis female pelvic inlet = wide oval, male’s = heart-shaped female subpubic angle wider, >100º vs. <90º in males

36 Female vs. Male Pelvis Table 8.1
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Table 8.1 Sex Differences Between the Female and Male Pelves View Female Pelvis Male Pelvis Medial View Preauricular sulcus Wide greater sciatic notch Narrow greater sciatic notch Anterior View Rectangular pubic body Triangular pubic body Triangular obturator foramen Large, oval obturator foramen Wide subpubic angle Narrow subpubic angle Features Female Characteristic Male Characteristic General Appearance Less massive; gracile processes, less prominent muscle markings More massive; more robust processes, more prominent muscle markings General Width Hips are wider, more flared Hips are narrower and more vertically oriented, less flared Superior Inlet Spacious, wide, and oval Heart-shaped Acetabulum Smaller Larger Greater Sciatic Notch Wide and shallow Narrow and U-shaped, deep Ilium Shallow: Does not project far above sacroiliac joint Deep: Projects farther above sacroiliac joint Obturator Foramen Smaller and triangular Larger and oval Subpubic Angle Broader, more convex, usually greater than 100 degrees Narrow, V-shaped, usually less than 90 degrees Body of Pubis Longer, more rectangular Shorter, triangular Preauricular Sulcus Usually present Usually absent Sacrum Shorter and wider; flatter sacral curvature Narrower and longer; more curved (greater sacral curvature) Coccyx Posterior tilt Vertical Tilt of Pelvis Anterior tilt to superior end of pelvis Superior end of pelvis relatively vertical Ischiopubic Ramus Narrow and sharp Broad and fl at Ischial Spine Rarely projects into pelvic outlet Frequently rotated inward, projects into pelvic outlet a-b: © David Hunt/ Smithsonian Institution; c-d: © L. Bassett/ Visuals Unlimited

37 Lower Limb 30 bones per “leg” femur in the femoral region (thigh)
patella (kneecap) in the patellar region tibia and fibula in the crural region (leg) 7 tarsals in ankle and proximal foot 5 metatarsals in sole of foot 14 phalanges in the toes

38 Femur Longest, strongest, and heaviest bone in the body
Proximal features: Head: articulates with os coxae at acetabulum Fovea: dent in head for ligament to acetabulum Neck: constricted region just distal to head Greater and lesser trochanters: massive processes for attachment of powerful hip and thigh muscles

39 Femur Anterior View Figure 8.11
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Greater trochanter Neck Head Anterior View trochanter Greater Head Fovea Fovea Greater trochanter Neck Intertrochanteric line Neck Lesser trochanter Intertrochanteric crest Lesser trochanter Shaft (b) Right femoral head, medial view Head Shaft Patellar surface Shaft Lateral condyle Intercondylar fossa Medial condyle (c) Right femur, inferior view Lateral epicondyle Adductor tubercle Adductor tubercle Lateral epicondyle epicondyle Medial Medial epicondyle Figure 8.11 Lateral condyle Lateral condyle Patellar surface Medial condyle Patellar surface Medial condyle (a) Right femur, anterior view a(right), b,c: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

40 Femur Additional features:
Intertrochanteric line: anterior between trochanters marking the distal edge of the hip capsule Gluteal tuberosity: posterior rough region for attachment of the gluteus maximus muscle Linea aspera: ridge on posterior shaft for attachment of many thigh muscles Distally, linea aspera splits into medial and lateral supracondylar lines

41 Femur Posterior view Figure 8.11

42 Femur Distal features:
Medial and lateral condyles: smooth, rounded articular surfaces Medial and lateral epicondyles: projections just superior to the condyles Intercondylar fossa: deep posterior depression that separates the condyles Patellar surface: smooth anterior region between condyles where patella articulates with the femur

43 Patella The “kneecap” Triangular with broad superior border and inferiorly pointed apex Articulates with patellar surface of femur Figure 8.12 Figure 8.13

44 a(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel
Tibia and Fibula Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2 bones in the leg parallel to each other tibia is medial to fibula Intercondylar eminence Lateral condyle Medial condyle Lateral condyle Medial condyle Articular facet Superior tibiofibular joint Head Head Tibial tuberosity Neck Neck Anterior border Fibula Tibia Fibula Tibia Shaft Interosseous borders Figure 8.13 Inferior tibiofibular joint Medial malleolus malleolus Lateral Inferior articular surface malleolus Lateral Inferior articular surface Medial malleolus (a) Right tibia and fibula, anterior view a(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

45 Tibia Medial bone in crural region Proximal features:
Medial and lateral condyles: smooth surfaces for articulation with femur Fibular articular facet: articulation site for head of fibula under lateral condyle

46 Tibia- Posterior View Figure 8.13 (e) Right knee joint, posterior view
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (d) Right tibia and fibula, posterior view Lateral malleolus Medial malleolus Fibular notch Inferior tibiofibularjoint Tibia Intercondylar eminence condyle Lateral Superior Head Neck Fibula Interosseous borders Shaft Fibular articular facet Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (e) Right knee joint, posterior view Intercondylar eminence fossa Lateral condyles Fibula Tibia Medial Femur © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel Figure 8.13 (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

47 Tibia Other features: Tibial tuberosity: rough anterior projection inferior to condyles; can be palpated just inferior to the patella; for attachment of patellar ligament Tibial border: ridge along anterior surface extending from tuberosity distally; the “shin” Medial malleolus: inferiormost prominent medial process; “ankle bump” Articular surface: inferior surface articulates with the talus

48 (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel
Tibia- Posterior View Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (d) Right tibia and fibula, posterior view Lateral malleolus Medial malleolus Fibular notch Inferior tibiofibularjoint Tibia Intercondylar eminence condyle Lateral Superior Head Neck Fibula Interosseous borders Shaft Fibular articular facet Figure 8.13 (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

49 Fibula Long, thin, lateral crural bone Features: Not weight-bearing
proximal head with flat articular facet for articulation with the tibia narrow neck and slender shaft distal end expands into lateral malleolus

50 (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel
Fibula Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (d) Right tibia and fibula, posterior view Lateral malleolus Medial malleolus Fibular notch Inferior tibiofibularjoint Tibia Intercondylar eminence condyle Lateral Superior Head Neck Fibula Interosseous borders Shaft Fibular articular facet Figure 8.13 (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

51 Articulation of Head of Fibula with Tibia
Posterior View Figure 8.13

52 Tarsus 7 bones form ankle and proximal foot
Calcaneus: largest; forms the heel Talus: superior-most; weight-bearing; articulates with tibia Navicular Cuneiforms: medial, intermediate and lateral Cuboid

53 Tarsals Figure 8.14 I II III I II IV III IV V V II I III II I III IV
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Distal phalanx of hallux Distal phalanx of hallux Distal phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Middle phalanx Proximal phalanx of hallux (great toe) Proximal phalanx Phalanges Phalanges Proximal phalanx Proximal phalanx of hallux (great toe) I II III I II IV III IV V Metatarsals V Metatarsals Medial cuneiform cuneiform Medial cuneiform Intermediate Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Navicular Lateral cuneiform Navicular Cuboid Cuboid Talus Tarsals Talus Tarsals Calcaneus Calcaneus (a) Right foot, superior view Distal phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Middle phalanx Phalanges Phalanges Proximalphalanx Proximal phalanx (Sesamoid bones for flexor hallucis brevis tendons) II I Metatarsals III II I Metatarsals III IV IV V V Medial cuneiform Medialcuneiform cuneiform Lateral Intermediate cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Cuboid Navicular Cuboid Navicular Tarsals Tarsals Talus Talus Calcaneus Calcaneus Figure 8.14 a(right), b(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel (b) Right foot, inferior view

54 Metatarsals 5 bones in sole of foot Articulations:
proximally with tarsals distally with phalanges Identified by Roman numerals I–V from medial to lateral

55 Phalanges 14 bones per foot 3 phalanges per toes 2–5
Proximal, middle, and distal Great toe (hallux) only 2 Proximal and distal

56 Foot Bones Figure 8.14 I II III I II IV III IV V V II I III II I III
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Distal phalanx of hallux Distal phalanx of hallux Distal phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Middle phalanx Proximal phalanx of hallux (great toe) Proximal phalanx Phalanges Phalanges Proximal phalanx Proximal phalanx of hallux (great toe) I II III I II IV III IV V Metatarsals V Metatarsals Medial cuneiform cuneiform Medial cuneiform Intermediate Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Navicular Lateral cuneiform Navicular Cuboid Cuboid Talus Tarsals Talus Tarsals Calcaneus Calcaneus (a) Right foot, superior view Distal phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Middle phalanx Phalanges Phalanges Proximalphalanx Proximal phalanx (Sesamoid bones for flexor hallucis brevis tendons) II I Metatarsals III II I Metatarsals III IV IV V V Medial cuneiform Medialcuneiform cuneiform Lateral Intermediate cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Cuboid Navicular Cuboid Navicular Tarsals Tarsals Talus Talus Figure 8.14 Calcaneus Calcaneus a(right), b(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel (b) Right foot, inferior view

57 Foot Arches To prevent pinching of muscles, nerves, and blood vessels feet do not rest flat on floor Three major arches: Medial: from heel to hallux; highest arch Lateral: from heel to 5th toe; lowest arch Transverse: perpendicular to other arches; along distal row of tarsals

58 Foot Arches Figure 8.15


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