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Chapter 8 *Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See separate FlexArt PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 *Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See separate FlexArt PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 *Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See separate FlexArt PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.

2 Chapter 8 Outline Pectoral Girdle Upper Limb Pelvic Girdle Lower Limb Aging of the Appendicular Skeleton Development of the Appendicular Skeleton

3 Appendicular Skeleton Figure 8.1

4 Pectoral Girdle Clavicle Scapula Figure 8.2

5 Clavicle S-shaped Articulations –medially with manubrium of sternum –laterally with acromion of scapula Figure 8.2

6 Scapula Broad, flat triangle –three borders, three angles Articulations –Lateral: glenoid cavity for head of humerus Other features –Posterior: bony ridge = spine –Lateral: acromion process –Anterior projection: coracoid process

7 Scapula Figure 8.3

8 Upper Limb 30 bones per “arm” –Humerus in brachium (upper arm) –Radius and ulna in antebrachium (forearm) –8 carpal bones in wrist –5 metacarpals in palm –14 phalanges in fingers

9 Humerus Proximal features: Head: articulates with scapula Anatomical and surgical necks Greater and lesser tubercles: for muscle attachment Intertubercular sulcus: for biceps brachii tendon

10 Humerus Anterior View Figure 8.4 Anatomical neck Head Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Intertubercular sulcus Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Shaft Coronoid fossa Radial fossa Coronoid fossa (a) Right humerus, anterior view Capitulum Trochlea Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Trochlea Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. right: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

11 Humerus Distal features: –Shaft –Deltoid tuberosity for attachment of deltoid –Medial and lateral epicondyles for muscle attachments –Capitulum: round lateral articulation for radius –Trochlea: spool-like medial articulation for ulna

12 Humerus Distal fossae (depressions): Anterior –Radial: lateral depression for radius –Coronoid: medial, for anterior ulna Posterior –Olecranon: largest, for posterior ulna

13 Humerus – Posterior View Figure 8.4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Head Greater tubercle Anatomical neck Surgicalneck Deltoid tuberosity Radial groove Olecranon fossa Lateral epicondyle (d) Right humerus, posterior view Trochlea Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Trochlea Medial epicondyle Olecranon fossa (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

14 Radius and Ulna Antebrachial bones –parallel to each other –in anatomical position, radius is lateral to ulna Figure 8.5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial tuberosity Neck Proximal radioulnar joint Head Neck Radius UlnaRadius Shaft Ulna Interosseous membrane Interosseous borders Styloid process (a) Right radius and ulna, anterior view Styloid process Distal Styloid process Head radioulnar joint Head Tuberosity of ulna a(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

15 Radius Proximal features: –Head: articulates with capitulum of humerus –Neck: narrowest region –Radial tuberosity: for biceps brachii muscle Shaft Distal features: –Styloid process: lateral “wrist bump” –Ulnar notch: medial dent for head of ulna

16 Ulna Proximal features: –Trochlear notch: for trochlea of humerus –Olecranon: posterior “elbow bump” for triceps brachii muscle –Coronoid process: anterior tip of trochlear notch –Radial notch: lateral, for head of radius Distal features: –Head: knoblike end –Styloid process: posteromedial “wrist bump”

17 Radius and Ulna Figure 8.5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Olecranon Head Neck Proximal radioulnar joint RadiusUlna Shaft Radius Interosseous membrane Interosseous borders (f) Right ulna and radius, posterior view Styloid processes Head Distal radioulnar joint Styloid processes Head Ulna (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel Posterior View

18 Radius and Ulna (proximal and distal features) Figure 8.5

19 Carpus 8 “wrist” bones –Two rows (1 proximal and 1 distal) of four Figure 8.6

20 Carpals Proximal Row (lateral to medial) 1.Scaphoid 2.Lunate 3.Triquetrum 4.Pisiform Distal Row (lateral to medial) 5.Trapezium 6.Trapezoid 7.Capitate 8.Hamate

21 Metacarpals 5 in palm –named by Roman numerals I–V from medial to lateral Figure 8.6

22 Phalanges 14 per hand –3 per finger #2–5 Proximal, middle, and distal –2 in pollex (thumb) Proximal and distal Figure 8.6

23 Pelvic Girdle Girdle = right and left ossa coxae –with sacrum and coccyx = the pelvis Figure 8.7

24 Os Coxae The “hip bone” –fusion of ilium, ischium, and pubis at 13–15 years of age Articulations: –anteriorly with other os coxae –posteriorly with the sacrum –laterally with femur at acetabulum all three bones of the os coxae contribute to the acetabulum

25 Acetabulum Figure 8.9

26 Ilium Largest of the three fused bones Superior portion of os coxae and acetabulum Features: –Ala: wide, fan-shaped portion –Arcuate line: ridge along inferior border of the ala –Iliac fossa: large depression on medial surface –Anterior, posterior, and inferior gluteal lines: lateral site of muscle attachments

27 Ilium Figure 8.9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (bott):© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel Iliac crest Ala Anterior gluteal line Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior gluteal line Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Body of ischium Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ilium Anterior Pubis Posterior Ischium Lateral view Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Body of ischium Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity (a) Right os coxae, lateral view Ramus of ischium Obturator foramen Superior pubic ramus Pubic crest Pubic tubercle Inferior pubic ramus Lunate surface Acetabulum Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Inferior glutealline Iliaccrest Ala Ramus of ischium Obturator foramen Superior pubic ramus Inferior pubic ramus Pubic crest Pubic tubercle Anterior super ioriliac spine Inferior gluteal line Anterior inferior iliac spine Lunate surface Acetabulum Iliac crest Iliac fossa Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Arcuate line Posterior superior Iliac spine Auricular surface Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Body of ischium Ischial tuberosity Ramus of ischium Iliac crest Posterior superior iliac spine Iliac fossa Auricular surface Posterior inferior iliac spine Ramus of ischium Greater sciatic notch Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Body of ischium (b) Right os coxae, medial view Pectineal line Superior pubic ramus Symphysial surface Obturator foramen Inferior pubic ramus Ilium AnteriorPosterior IschiumPubis Medial view Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Arcuate line Inferior pubic ramus Symphysial surface Obturator foramen Pectineal line Superior pubic ramus Pubic tubercle Ischial tuberosity Pubic tubercle

28 Ilium Additional features: –Iliac crest: superior ridge –Anterior and posterior, superior and inferior iliac spines: projections along iliac crest –Greater sciatic notch: for sciatic nerve entering lower limb –Auricular surface: medial articulation with sacrum

29 Ischium Superior/posterior margin of acetabulum Features: –Ischial spine: prominent medial process –Ischial tuberosity: rough inferior region that supports weight of body when seated –Ischial ramus: bridge from tuberosity to pubis

30 Ischium Figure 8.9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Iliac crest Ala Anterior gluteal line Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior gluteal line Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Body of ischium Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ilium Anterior Pubis Posterior Ischium Lateral view Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Body of ischium Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity (a) Right os coxae, lateral view Ramus of ischium Obturator foramen Superior pubic ramus Pubic crest Pubic tubercle Inferior pubic ramus Lunate surface Acetabulum Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Inferior glutealline Iliaccrest Ala Ramus of ischium Obturator foramen Superior pubic ramus Inferior pubic ramus Pubic crest Pubic tubercle Anterior super ioriliac spine Inferior gluteal line Anterior inferior iliac spine Lunate surface Acetabulum (bottom): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

31 Pubis Anterior region of os coxae Features: –Superior and Inferior rami: struts to acetabulum and ischial ramus –Pubic crest: rough ridge on anterosuperior of superior ramus; ends as pubic tubercle –Obturator foramen: large space bordered by pubic and ischial rami –Pectineal line: ridge on medial surface of pubis continuing from arcuate line of ilium

32 Pubis Figure 8.7

33 True vs. False Pelvis True pelvis: bony basin inferior to pelvic brim containing pelvic organs False pelvis: superior to pelvic brim bound by ilia laterally and abdominal wall anteriorly –Pelvic brim: continuous oval ridge formed by pubic crest, pectineal line, arcuate line, and sacral promontory Pelvic inlet: superior entrance to true pelvis, at pelvic brim Pelvic outlet: exit of true pelvis, defined by coccyx, ischial tuberosities, and inferior border of pubic symphysis

34 Features of the Pelvis Figure 8.10

35 Female vs. Male Pelvis Most reliable indicator of the sex of a skeleton is the pelvis, due to the requirements of pregnancy and childbirth Major differences: –female ilia laterally flared = wider pelvis –female pelvic inlet = wide oval, male’s = heart-shaped –female subpubic angle wider, >100º vs. <90º in males

36 Female vs. Male Pelvis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anterior View FeaturesFemale CharacteristicMale Characteristic Table 8.1 Sex Differences Between the Female and Male Pelves Male PelvisFemale PelvisView Medial View General Appearance General Width Superior Inlet Acetabulum Greater Sciatic Notch Ilium Obturator Foramen Subpubic Angle Body of Pubis Preauricular Sulcus Sacrum Coccyx Tilt of Pelvis Ischiopubic Ramus Ischial SpineRarely projects into pelvic outlet Narrow and sharp Frequently rotated inward, projects into pelvic outlet Broad and fl at Anterior tilt to superior end of pelvis Narrow greater sciatic notch Triangular pubic body Large, oval obturator foramen Narrow subpubic angle Rectangular pubic body Triangular obturator foramen Preauricular sulcus Wide greater sciatic notch Wide subpubic angle More massive; more robust processes, more prominent muscle markings Less massive; gracile processes, less prominent muscle markings Hips are wider, more flared Spacious, wide, and oval Smaller Wide and shallow Shallow: Does not project far above sacroiliac joint Smaller and triangular Broader, more convex, usually greater than 100 degrees Longer, more rectangular Usually present Shorter and wider; flatter sacral curvature Posterior tilt Hips are narrower and more vertically oriented, less flared Heart-shaped Larger Narrow and U-shaped, deep Deep: Projects farther above sacroiliac joint Larger and oval Narrow, V-shaped, usually less than 90 degrees Shorter, triangular Usually absent Narrower and longer; more curved (greater sacral curvature) Vertical Superior end of pelvis relatively vertical a-b: © David Hunt/ Smithsonian Institution; c-d: © L. Bassett/ Visuals Unlimited

37 Lower Limb 30 bones per “leg” –femur in the femoral region (thigh) –patella (kneecap) in the patellar region –tibia and fibula in the crural region (leg) –7 tarsals in ankle and proximal foot –5 metatarsals in sole of foot –14 phalanges in the toes

38 Femur Longest, strongest, and heaviest bone in the body Proximal features: –Head: articulates with os coxae at acetabulum –Fovea: dent in head for ligament to acetabulum –Neck: constricted region just distal to head –Greater and lesser trochanters: massive processes for attachment of powerful hip and thigh muscles

39 Femur Figure 8.11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Greater trochanter Neck Head Fovea Greater trochanter Lesser trochanter Intertrochanteric line Head Fovea Neck Shaft (b) Right femoral head, medial view Medial condyle (c) Right femur, inferior view Lateral condyle Intercondylar fossa Patellar surface Shaft Medial condyle Medial epicondyle Adductor tubercle Lateral epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Lateral condyle (a) Right femur, anterior view Medial condyle Patellar surface Patellar surface Lateral condyle Medial epicondyle Adductor tubercle Head Greater trochanter Neck Intertrochanteric crest Lesser trochanter Shaft a(right), b,c: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel Anterior View

40 Femur Additional features: –Intertrochanteric line: anterior between trochanters marking the distal edge of the hip capsule –Gluteal tuberosity: posterior rough region for attachment of the gluteus maximus muscle –Linea aspera: ridge on posterior shaft for attachment of many thigh muscles –Distally, linea aspera splits into medial and lateral supracondylar lines

41 Femur Figure 8.11 Posterior view

42 Femur Distal features: –Medial and lateral condyles: smooth, rounded articular surfaces –Medial and lateral epicondyles: projections just superior to the condyles –Intercondylar fossa: deep posterior depression that separates the condyles –Patellar surface: smooth anterior region between condyles where patella articulates with the femur

43 Patella The “kneecap” –Triangular with broad superior border and inferiorly pointed apex –Articulates with patellar surface of femur Figure 8.12Figure 8.13

44 Tibia and Fibula 2 bones in the leg –parallel to each other –tibia is medial to fibula Figure 8.13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Tibia Medial malleolus Inferior articular surface (a) Right tibia and fibula, anterior view Lateral malleolus Fibula Articular facet Head Neck Medial malleolus Anterior border TibiaFibula Shaft Interosseous borders Neck Tibial tuberosity Medial condyleLateral condyle Superior tibiofibular joint Head Lateral condyle Intercondylar eminence Medial condyle Lateral malleolus Inferior articular surface Inferior tibiofibular joint a(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

45 Tibia Medial bone in crural region Proximal features: –Medial and lateral condyles: smooth surfaces for articulation with femur –Fibular articular facet: articulation site for head of fibula under lateral condyle

46 Tibia- Posterior View Figure 8.13 (e) Right knee joint, posterior view Intercondylar eminence Intercondylar fossa Lateral condyles FibulaTibia Medial condyles Femur © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

47 Tibia Other features: –Tibial tuberosity: rough anterior projection inferior to condyles; can be palpated just inferior to the patella; for attachment of patellar ligament –Tibial border: ridge along anterior surface extending from tuberosity distally; the “shin” –Medial malleolus: inferiormost prominent medial process; “ankle bump” –Articular surface: inferior surface articulates with the talus

48 Tibia- Posterior View Figure 8.13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

49 Fibula Long, thin, lateral crural bone –Not weight-bearing Features: –proximal head with flat articular facet for articulation with the tibia –narrow neck and slender shaft –distal end expands into lateral malleolus

50 Fibula Figure 8.13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

51 Articulation of Head of Fibula with Tibia Figure 8.13 Posterior View

52 Tarsus 7 bones form ankle and proximal foot –Calcaneus: largest; forms the heel –Talus: superior-most; weight- bearing; articulates with tibia –Navicular –Cuneiforms: medial, intermediate and lateral –Cuboid

53 Tarsals Figure 8.14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. I V I V I V I V Distal phalanx of hallux Proximal phalanx of hallux (great toe) Distal phalanx Middle phalanx II III IV II III IV II III IV III II (b) Right foot, inferior view Calcaneus Tarsals Phalanges Medial cuneiform Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Talus Tarsals Metatarsals Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Calcaneus Lateral cuneiform Cuboid Talus Navicular Medialcuneiform Intermediate cuneiform (Sesamoid bones for flexor hallucis brevis tendons) Phalanges (a) Right foot, superior view Calcaneus Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Proximal phalanx Metatarsals Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Proximalphalanx Calcaneus Talus Tarsals TalusTarsals Cuboid Navicular Medial cuneiform Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Metatarsals Distal phalanx of hallux Phalanges Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Proximal phalanx Phalanges Proximal phalanx of hallux (great toe) Metatarsals Intermediate cuneiform Medial cuneiform Lateral cuneiform a(right), b(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

54 Metatarsals 5 bones in sole of foot Articulations: –proximally with tarsals –distally with phalanges Identified by Roman numerals I–V from medial to lateral

55 Phalanges 14 bones per foot –3 phalanges per toes 2–5 Proximal, middle, and distal –Great toe (hallux) only 2 Proximal and distal

56 Foot Bones Figure 8.14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. I V I V I V I V Distal phalanx of hallux Proximal phalanx of hallux (great toe) Distal phalanx Middle phalanx II III IV II III IV II III IV III II (b) Right foot, inferior view Calcaneus Tarsals Phalanges Medial cuneiform Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Talus Tarsals Metatarsals Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Calcaneus Lateral cuneiform Cuboid Talus Navicular Medialcuneiform Intermediate cuneiform (Sesamoid bones for flexor hallucis brevis tendons) Phalanges (a) Right foot, superior view Calcaneus Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Proximal phalanx Metatarsals Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Proximalphalanx Calcaneus Talus Tarsals TalusTarsals Cuboid Navicular Medial cuneiform Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Metatarsals Distal phalanx of hallux Phalanges Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Middle phalanx Proximal phalanx Phalanges Proximal phalanx of hallux (great toe) Metatarsals Intermediate cuneiform Medial cuneiform Lateral cuneiform a(right), b(right): © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Photo by Christine Eckel

57 Foot Arches To prevent pinching of muscles, nerves, and blood vessels feet do not rest flat on floor Three major arches: –Medial: from heel to hallux; highest arch –Lateral: from heel to 5th toe; lowest arch –Transverse: perpendicular to other arches; along distal row of tarsals

58 Foot Arches Figure 8.15


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