Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Soft Starter Technology

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Soft Starter Technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Soft Starter Technology
Applying SMC’s to maximize investments and energy efficiency

2 RAOTM - Topic Title: Practical applications of Soft Starter technology for improved performance and energy management Description: Increase your technical competency and understanding of the latest Soft Starter technology, and find out how SMC's can be applied to maximize your investment and energy efficiency. This session will include a brief overview on technology, recent advancements, application examples and considerations, use of the SMC Application Wizards, and an overview of the Allen Bradley SMC portfolio.

3 Agenda Understand Soft Starter Technology Recent Advancements
Application Examples and Considerations Application Wizards Allen Bradley SMC Portfolio

4 AC Motor Control Basics

5 Reduced Voltage Starter Background
Pre 1980’s RVS Types Auto Transformer Part Winding Wye-Delta (Star-Delta) Primary Resistance Primary Inductance Wound Rotor Today’s RVS Solid State RVS Voltage controlled through use of SCR’s (Silicon Controlled Rectifiers) 6 Back to Back SCR’s SCR triggered “ON” by energizing the Gate Microprocessor monitors and controls when SCR’s fire SCR Gate Electromechanical  Solid State

6 Solid State Starting Basics
SCR Control Using SCR’s in an “opposed” (back to back) configuration, the full sine wave of the AC power can be controlled. By controlling when an SCR is fired in the cycle, the output voltage can be controlled. The result is sometimes called a Notch. VIN SCR Gate VOUT Gate Signal A B

7 Soft Motor Starting Basics
Typical Motor Starting Curve Starting Torque (Lock rotor torque) Break-down torque Full Voltage Starting Characteristics Starting Current ~6xFLA Pull-up torque 180% Full load torque 100% 100% Speed -%RPM High starting torque can cause damage to the mechanical system. High current can cause problems in the electrical system 7

8 Soft Motor Starting Basics
Physics of Reduced Voltage and Motor Torque If you reduce voltage by 50%, the result is a 75% reduction in motor torque. (.5)2 = .25 or 25% of Locked Rotor Torque 180% Percentage of Full Rated Torque Full Voltage Torque 100% Reduced Voltage Torque Percentage of Full Speed 100%

9 Soft Motor Starting Basics
Example 600% 510% %FLA (amps) 100% 100% Voltage 300% Torque (ftlb) 72% 85% Voltage Full Load 25% 50% Voltage 100% Speed -RPM Current Torque required by the load Torque

10 Reasons for Soft Motor Starting
Minimize mechanical damage of system components and product Belts, Gears, Drive Shafts and Keyways Reduced Product Spillage Water Hammer and Mechanical Vibration Better Energy “Management” Limit in-rush current Optimize the size of transformers/generators/switch gear Meet Power Company Requirements / Rebate programs Manage Control under Power Distribution Limitations Energy Cost Reduction (Peak Demand Charges)

11 Agenda Understand Soft Starter Technology Recent Advancements
Application Examples and Considerations Application Wizards Allen Bradley SMC Portfolio

12 Electromechanical vs. Solid State
Solid State delivers greater flexibility Allow for the starting current/torque to be optimized versus standard reduced voltage starter types Example Star-Delta reduced voltage starter is fixed at 300% current/33% Torque Solid State insures minimal amount of energy to accelerate motor even if the load only requires 25% torque. SS eliminates transitions due to electromechanical limitations Open or Closed transitions Open disconnects motor from line voltage, Closed maintains connection to line Both cause current surges during start

13 Advantages of Solid State Control
Enhanced Control Options Advanced Start/Stop control User Programmability and settings Scalable setting for the critical nature of application Local, Manual, Automatic Modes Inherent Diagnostics Current, Voltage, Power and Energy Monitoring/protection Faults and Alarms (some based on real time clock) Controller Event logs and Snapshot (what happened right before a fault) Lowest Installed Cost with Network Integration Ease of Communication Linkage (i.e. multi protocol, AOP’s) Localized I/O and Control Wire Reductions

14 2 Phase Vs. 3 Phase Control Comparison
2 Phase Control Advantages Lower initial cost Smaller overall total size 2 Phase Control Disadvantages Higher Peak Currents/Imbalance Regardless of control methodology Increased Heating Increased Vibration during Starting 2 Phase 3 Phase 3 Phase control provides superior performance on every start!

15 Advances in Starting/Stopping Modes
SMC-50 “Patented” Linear Acceleration Starting Mode Simplest Starting Mode Lowest starting current profile per start Regardless of loading condition Ideal for any application Provides control over both torque and speed Unmatched motor starting performance Selected start time closer to actual than any other stating method*

16 Starting Performance – Comparison
Linear Accel vs. Traditional Soft Start: Centrifugal Pump Load High Torque Pulse/Surge and water hammer 2 Sec/Div = 3 Sec total 2 Sec/Div = ~10 Sec Higher Peak Current Current more stable and less disruptive to power system Time Parameter Settings: = Start Time: 10 second

17 Starting Performance – Comparison
Linear Accel vs. Traditional Soft Start: High Inertia Load Torque Pulse/Mechanical Wear and Tear 2 Sec/Div = ~10 Sec 2 Sec/Div = ~6 Sec Higher Peak Current Current more stable and less disruptive to power system Time Parameter Settings: =Start Time: 10 second

18 SMC Soft Starters Power and Energy Management
Green Initiatives Allow users to qualify for Energy focused based rebates and discount programs Help reduce energy consumption and waste Facility wide information enablement via Intelligent Motor Control Sustainability and Sustainable Production Deliver a return on investment with scalable products Reduced downtime and maintenance costs Energy Savings Reduce the total “amount” of energy consumed (Energy Saver in SMC-50) Reduce the total “cost” of energy

19 Soft Starters and Energy Management
Reduction of the peak inrush of a motor (i.e. peak current) Reduces the peak demand charges Charges are determined by utility based on the peak energy usage Advantages of Controlled Demand Allows for the facility to optimize/maximize distribution Smaller genset’s or transformers (incl. feeders… wires etc.) Allows the power company optimize/maximize distribution Possible reduced installation cost based on system demands Scalable Performance SMC Flex and SMC-50 Provide advanced Power and Energy Monitoring Measurement it = manage it Visibility = helps provide business case support for future process and product improvements

20 Agenda Understand Soft Starter Technology Recent Advancements
Application Examples and Considerations Application Wizards Allen Bradley SMC Portfolio

21 Motor Starting Comparison
Full Voltage (DOL) Simplest Starting Solution Full torque applied to motor Mechanical wear ~6x inrush current Peak demand charges Limited Functionality Unless used with advanced Overload Finite Mechanical Life Contacts will wear out No Starting Choices SMC Soft Start Simple Starting and Stopping Limited Control at various speeds Reduced torque and current during starting Simple to adjust and setup Reduced installation costs Smaller footprint No need for harmonic/EMC mitigation Highly efficient when running at full speed Energy Saver Performance for light loads Up to 15 different starting modes VFD/Drive Complete Continuous Control at any Speed Full torque at any speed without sacrificing current Highly efficient motor and application performance More complex setup and install Larger footprint Impact on Power Quality Application Considerations Motors types Lead Lengths Wire Type Ambient Conditions Unlimited Starting possibilities when sized properly

22 Selecting a Starting Method
When do I specify a drive versus a soft starter? Speed Control is required Consistent Acceleration and Deceleration (New SMC-50 exception) High starting torque required Continuous Feedback (critical position control) Custom starting and stopping maneuvers Faster stopping with Dynamic braking options Drive can hold rotor at zero speed Undersized or closely matched motor or power source

23 Why Use SMC Controllers? Minimize Operating Costs, Reduce Down time
Problem: Belts, gears and machinery can be damaged by across-the-line starting SMC: Lengthens system life by reducing mechanical stress during starting– Reduces DOWN Time Helps reduce/eliminate PMO on equipment No need to replace damaged parts Minimal production loss Breakdown Torque 180% 100% Percentage of Full Load Torque Percentage of Full Speed High torque can cause physical damage to the mechanical system.

24 Why Use SMC Controllers? Minimize Operating Costs, Reduce Down time
Problem: Power company restrictions on incoming line current, or you pay the penalty Weak power lines cannot handle high inrush currents, causing brown outs or excessive line disturbances, which in turn cause other processes to shut down SMC Solution: Current Limit starting minimizes the amount of inrush current, meeting power company restrictions and lowering peak demand charges Process shut down and brown outs are minimized by reducing the amount of current drawn during starting 600% 100% Percentage of Full Load Current Percentage of Full Speed

25 How to apply SMC Controllers
Determine the main reason for using reduced voltage? Mechanical? Power Limitations? Simplicity? Select the best solid state control mode Soft Start Soft Stop Current Limit Soft Start/CL with Kick Start Pump Control Torque Control Linear Acceleration/Deceleration Special Modes Dual Ramp Full Voltage Slow Speed Custom Starting Profiles Smart Motor Braking Combination of profiles

26 Standard Starting Methods
Current Limit Primarily used to limit line disturbances Constant or very lightly loaded motor Good on high inertia applications Bandmills, Fans, Centrifuge, Ball Mill, Washers……… Soft Start Primarily used to limit mechanical stress Constant or exponentially increasing loads Compressors, Pumps, Conveyors Soft Start/Current Limit with Kick Start Kick Start is needed to overcome static condition Example: Cold system components, loaded conveyor Full Voltage Not a common Starting mode. NOTE: Full voltage required to accelerate the motor may be a sign of other problems (i.e. Initial Torque of > 90%) Used as a Solid State Contactor for High cycle rates 26

27 Standard Starting Methods
Pump Control Legacy version of torque control optimized for centrifugal loads Simple to apply but some considerations Exponentially increasing load such as Compressors, Pumps, Conveyors Torque Control Similar to Pump Control performance but applicable for all load types More difficult to apply but yields higher level of performance Linear Acceleration/Deceleration Simplest starting, lowest current , most consistent starting time per start regardless of load

28 “Pump Control” in SMC-Flex & SMC-50
Designed for Centrifugal Pumps Applications lightly loaded at zero speed Reduces surges (water hammer) caused by uncontrolled acceleration and deceleration Can eliminate the need for specialized flow control valves Ease of pump configuration Provides control without the use of sensors or feedback devices “Pump Control” Compared to Linear Acceleration No advantage, other than legacy migration “Pump Control” Compared to Torque Control Easier to set up and optimized for centrifugal pumps Not intended for Positive Displacement Pumps Full Load required at zero speed Variable Speed typically required to control flow

29 SMC-Flex & 50 Pump Control
Soft Start DOL Start Excess energy/power Torque Full Load Pump Start The traditional across the line start provides excessive torque for motor acceleration. The red hashed area is excess torque. This results in rapid pump acceleration, pressure surges, and cavitation. A soft start profile reduces the amount of excess torque, but as the speed increases, so does the available torque out of the motor. This is still not an optimal solution. With a pump start profile the SMC analyzes motor variables and controls motor torque until the pump reaches full load. This conserves energy and prevents unwanted surges during start. Pump System Speed Full Speed 29

30 SMB™ Smart Motor Braking SMC Flex and SMC-50
The SMB™ Smart Motor Braking is designed to stop a motor quickly No additional hardware or feedback devices are required Automatic zero speed shut off is integrated into the controller

31 SMB™ Smart Motor Braking SMC Flex and SMC-50 Considerations
How fast do you want to brake? Rule of thumb: It will take you at least 1.5 times as long to brake a motor as it will to start (3 to 4 times is more typical) How much power can you use for braking? Rule of thumb: Anything more than about 300% can play havoc with power systems and cause nuisance tripping or worse. Can the power system handle the demands of braking current for the entire duration of the stop? How consistent does the brake time need to be? A good power supply is critical to consistent braking Good line Voltage regulation is the key to successful braking!

32 SMB™ Common Concerns/Questions
Braking is hard on the motor? True, Braking… regardless of the method, is hard on the motor windings Noise is common during braking? True, moans and groans of all kinds can be heard in a motor during braking Braking produces increased Harmonic distortion? True, the SMC produces some harmonic distortion during starting and stopping, however the levels are insignificant (typically < 10% of the fundamental) SMB is a good alternative for Critical braking? False, SMB is not intended to be used for E-Stop scenarios. To many variables are involved which can alter the performance of this feature The SMB option damages motors? False, Braking is hard, but we can not create more energy then what the motor demands. Motor damage is typically caused by incorrect settings or normal wear and tear Smart Motor Braking is an exact science? False, Most applications are dialed in via trial and error

33 SMC Special Application Considerations
Multi-Motor Applications Mechanically Coupled (Transmission, direct gear drive, Conveyors) Single SMC for multiple motors Separate Overload protection required Not Mechanically Coupled (No physical connection) Separate SMC’s per motor One SMC Not Recommended Reduced Performance and adjustability Too much variability in motor characteristics Cost advantage with Adj.Freq. Drive, but less with SMC

34 SMC Special Application Considerations
Power Source Sizing Guidelines Ideally, the source would be sized for a full voltage start. (Somewhat impractical today) When sizing for use with a generator it is critical that the generator is able to stay in proper regulation under starting or braking loads. Rule of thumb: Avoid sizing the supply for anything less the 300% of the motors FLA. SCR Fusing for SCR Protection (Very Fast Acting Semiconductor type fuse) Limited usefulness with SMC-Flex and SMC-3, due to bypass operation Use is not suggested in High Inertia, Braking, or Pump stop applications (Applications with Start times > 30 seconds) due to potential for nuisance tripping Can be used to achieve Type 2 Coordination in some cases See SMC Wizard – Short Circuit Protection (SCPD) Wizard for further guidance

35 SMC Special Application Considerations
Power Factor Correction Capacitors Line side only - locating load side can damage the SCR Ideally PFCC are brought in with up-to-speed contact Dynamic Correction can be responsible for nuisance line fault’s Transient/Cyclic Spikes of Current Due to Load Variation Examples: Rock Crushers, Wood Chippers, Band Saws, etc. With the SMC-Flex & SMC-3, Spikes 120% of controller max frame rating causes the bypass to drop in and out…NOTE: If this is happening a lot, the SMC is likely under sized for the application Insure the FLA adjustment/programming is correct for the motor operation SMC-3 and Soft Stop For best operation try to size SMC-3 mid range per Selection Guide/Catalog

36 Sizing the starter for the application
Selection guides are correct for 90% of applications (Pumps, Fans, Compressors) Simply choose based on voltage, horsepower, current and insure that the motor FLA fits the SMCs operating range 10% of applications may require a closer look Application Analysis: Load with potential high starting inertia or minimal load Flywheel, chippers, grinders, braking, retrofits, running vs. starting req. etc. Thermal Analysis may be required to determine proper size for the following: Extended starting or stopping times (>30 sec) Aggressive Duty Cycle (> 10 times/hr) Operation in elevated (above 50C) ambient temperatures LRA > 600% (i.e. High efficiency motors, NEMA Design A) Solution to Assist: SMC “Estimation Wizard”

37 Agenda Understand Soft Starter Technology Recent Advancements
Application Examples and Considerations Application Wizards Allen Bradley SMC Portfolio

38 SMC Application Wizards
Why use the Wizards (eTools)? To provide a better Estimation to the applicability of a SMC-3, SMC Flex and SMC-50 product to a given set of motor & load operating requirements.

39 SMC Application eTool’s
Thermal Wizard Used for simple/quick analysis of SMC capabilities from a thermal perspective Short Circuit Protection Device Used to guide selection of branch circuit protection components i.e. fuse or circuit breaker size bypass and isolation sizing Application Wizard Used for advanced modeling of the complete system including SMC thermal capabilities and motor/load starting characteristics Wizards Available from: ProposalWorks “Tools” pull-down or from:

40 SMC Application eTool’s
SMC Applications built for mobile phones and tablets Cross platform support with all major mobile operating systems iOS, Blackberry, and Android HTML 5 based applications Allows for ease of use and updating Can run like any standalone mobile application Almost fully offline capable Do an App Search for Rockwell Automation

41 Agenda Understand Soft Starter Technology Recent Advancements
Application Examples and Considerations Application Wizards Allen Bradley SMC Portfolio

42 Solid State Power Control Portfolio
SMC™-50 SMC™ Flex Performance / Functionality SMC™ Dialog SMC™-3 SSC 5 25 100 200 500 800 1000 1600 Ampere Rating (Line and Delta) *Dialog supports line configuration only

43 Allen-Bradley SMC Contemporary Offering
SMC™ Flex SMC™-50 Hybrid Power Structure Hybrid Power Structure Solid State Power Structure

44 SMC Family Choosing a Power Platform
Hybrid Solid State AC53-B Smaller Total Footprint Less External Wiring Optimized Thermal Management Easy Product Selection Lower Total Installed Cost True Solid State AC53-A Ideal for Harsh Environmental Conditions Higher SCCR ratings Phase Rebalance/Energy Saver Capability Higher operations/hour Scalable Thermal Ratings Hybrid Solid State (Integral Bypass) 2 Thyristors per phase (6 total) Thermal Mass Small Stirring Fans Integral Shorting or “Bypass” Contactor True Solid State Larger finned heat sinks & fans Optional external bypass contactors Ability to replace contactor Ability to size contactor AC1 or AC3

45 SMC Family Choosing a Power Platform
Internal Bypass (SMC-3, SMC Flex) Ideal for small spaces Smallest total footprint Easy selection and application Lowest total installed cost Solid State (SMC-50, SMC Dialog, SMC Plus) Ideal for critical performance in tough environmental conditions Allows for Specialized Control External Bypass offers operational flexibility and redundancy Hybrid Power Structure Solid State Power Structure

46 SMC Family Choosing the control for your application
Which control modes are required? SMC-50, Flex & SMC-3 Soft Start Soft Stop Current Limit Soft with Kick Start SMC-50, SMC-Flex Pump Control Slow Speed Dual Ramp Full Voltage Starting Smart Motor Braking Linear Accel/Decel (SMC-50 Only) Torque Control (SMC-50 Only) Allen-Bradley offers three solid state reduced voltage starter families. All families offer typical soft starting and stopping modes. While the SMC-50 and Flex offer more advanced control functions as well as power metering and communication options as well as RSLogix 5000 Add-on profiles which expedite programming and configuration. The SMC Flex / 50 also offer power metering features as well as communication options enhancing configuration, control and data collection capabilities!

47 SMC™-3 Overview Compact Series 4 Starting/Stopping Modes
Hybrid design (internal bypass contacts) Simplified DIP and Rotary Set-up Din Rail Mountable through 85 amps 4 Starting/Stopping Modes Soft-start, Soft-stop, Current Limit, Kick Start Basic Diagnostics The SMC-3 is the contemporary component class series of SMC product line. This simple design integrates dip switch programmability, overload protection, and basic diagnostics into a compact package. This solution is ideal for low cost soft starting. Compact design provides 3 phase control, increased intelligence, and unmatched performance. Motor and system diagnostics and an electronics overload with adjustable trip class help reduce downtime and protect assets. Hybrid Power Structure

48 SMC-3 can be applied to both line and delta connected applications!
SMC™-3 Overview Line Ratings Frame 1 (3 A, 9 A,16 A, 19 A, 25 A, 30 A, 37 A) Frame 2 (43 A, 60 A, 85 A) Frame 3 (108 A, 135 A) Frame 4 (201 A, 251 A) Frame 5 (317 A, 361 A, 480 A) Delta Ratings 3 … 831 amps Two line voltage ratings 200…480V or 50/60 Hertz Two control voltage 24V AC/DC or 100…240V AC 0…50°C Operating temperature The SMC-3 line has a wide range of current handling capabilities, allowing for it to be applied to fractional HP through 400 HP motors. This range includes 5 frame sizes allowing for 1 amp through 480 amps. The latest feature to be added to this product line is the ability to do both line connection and delta connection in the same controller. SMC-3 can be applied to both line and delta connected applications!

49 SMC™ Flex - Overview Modular Class
Hybrid design (internal bypass contacts) Built-In LCD and Keypad 9 Start/Stopping Modes 3 slow-speed modes Smart Motor Braking Enhanced Diagnostics and Protection functions Modular design features 3 phase control, advanced intelligence, performance and diagnostics, communications flexibility, modular control module/power modules/fan assembly for a cost effective package. Hybrid Power Structure

50 SMC™ Flex - Overview Specifications Starting Modes Soft-Start
Line Ratings 5….1250 Amps Delta Ratings 8…1600 Amps Three Voltage Ratings /60 Hz /60 Hz 230 – 50/60 Hz Control Voltage Ratings VAC or 24V AC/DC 0 - 50° C Operating Temperature Soft-Start With selectable Kick Start Soft-Stop Current Limit Start Full Voltage Preset Slow Speed Linear Speed Acceleration Feedback Device Required Dual Ramp Pump Control (optional)

51 SMC™-50 Product Overview
Scalable Series Solid State Power Structure NO Integral bypass like SMC-3 or SMC-Flex Built-In HIM Cradle and PC port 15 Start/Stopping Modes 3 slow-speed modes Smart Motor Braking Advanced Diagnostics and Protection functions Full power and energy management, Real Time Clock, Event Log Designed for customer flexibility – 3 phase control and scalable options help maximize the total motor control investment. Advanced monitoring and protection, superior communication capabilities and energy saver modes help increase operating efficiencies and reduce downtime. Solid State Power Structure

52 SMC™-50 Product Overview
Benefits of a Fully Solid State Power Structure (no integral bypass) Improved performance in high vibration applications Performance not impacted by environmental debris Longer life (no mechanical life limits) Scalable thermal ratings Higher SCCR ratings 100 Ka Fuses 65 Ka Breaker

53 Thank You! Find More Information on SMC Products Visit us @

54 Back-Up Slides

55 SMC™-50 Modes of Operation
Starting Modes Stopping / Specialty Modes Soft Start Current Limit w/ Kick Start Pump Control “Enhanced” Slow Speed: 1% to 15% Patented Sensor-less Linear Acceleration* Consistent ramp up time (no tachometer required) Optimizes energy consumption Torque Control Full Voltage Dual Ramp w/ Kick Start Coast Soft Stop Smart Motor Braking (SMB) Linear Deceleration External Braking Control Pump Control Motor Winding Heater Energy Saver Phases back voltage sensing lighter loads Emergency Run NEW! NEW! NEW! NEW! NEW! NEW! *SMC Flex provides Linear Acceleration Start, however it requires a tachometer for speed feedback

56 SMC™-50 Modes of Operation Linear Speed
“Patented” Sensor-less Linear Acceleration Starting Mode Accomplished via Advanced Motor Speed Estimation Algorithm No external feedback required - reduces cost and potential for failure Provides exacting motor acceleration control under varying load conditions Simplest to Setup 2 Parameters Required to configure: Ramp Time and Initial Torque (used as reference) Reduces/eliminates the need for the Dual Ramp mode Always uses the minimum amount of energy needed to accelerate the motor in the time requested (regardless of the loading condition)

57 SMC™-50 Modes of Operation Torque Control
Torque Control can be used to control the maximum torque developed by the motor independent of motor speed Provides a torque ramp from an initial starting torque level to a maximum torque level Mode also provides simple starting performance (Kick start available as an option) Controlling torque does not allow control over speed of acceleration like Linear Accel. Torque Control algorithms are useful for basic applications (pumps, compressors) Basic Setup Parameters: Ramp Time, Starting Torque, Max Torque(M), Rated Torque(M) and Rated Speed Settings(M) (M) = motor rated value

58 SMC™-50 Modes of Operation Comparison Example
Linear Accel vs. Torque (Pump) Start: Pump Load 2 Sec/Div = 10 Sec total 2 Sec/Div = 5 Sec total Higher Peak Current Time NOTEs: - Actual Start time difference of Linear versus torque mode - Smoother torque curve for Linear versus torque mode - Lower peak current with Linear Acceleration mode Parameter Settings: =Start Time: 10 second Motor load = approx 65% of FLA

59 SMC’s Differentiated by Innovation
Broadest offering of Features/Performance/Functionality in a Soft Start Advanced Starting/Stopping Performance (Linear Mode) “True” 3 Phase Control Solid State or Hybrid Performance and Reliability Simple to Advanced Fault, Power, and Energy Monitoring Improved Troubleshooting, Diagnostics Accuracy and time stamping High Fault SCCR ratings with Fuses and Standard Breakers Special Modes Slow Speed, Motor Winding Heater, Energy Saver, Phase Rebalance, DeviceLogix Standard features cover multiple dedicated devices Power Monitors, Scopes, ETM’s, Motor Winding Heaters, DC Brake… etc. Standard Open and Enclosed offerings

Download ppt "Soft Starter Technology"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google