Presentation on theme: "Soft Starter Technology"— Presentation transcript:
1Soft Starter Technology Applying SMC’s to maximize investments and energy efficiency
2RAOTM - TopicTitle: Practical applications of Soft Starter technology for improved performance and energy management Description: Increase your technical competency and understanding of the latest Soft Starter technology, and find out how SMC's can be applied to maximize your investment and energy efficiency. This session will include a brief overview on technology, recent advancements, application examples and considerations, use of the SMC Application Wizards, and an overview of the Allen Bradley SMC portfolio.
5Reduced Voltage Starter Background Pre 1980’s RVS TypesAuto TransformerPart WindingWye-Delta (Star-Delta)Primary ResistancePrimary InductanceWound RotorToday’s RVSSolid State RVSVoltage controlled through use of SCR’s (Silicon Controlled Rectifiers)6 Back to Back SCR’sSCR triggered “ON” by energizing the GateMicroprocessor monitors and controls when SCR’s fireSCRGateElectromechanical Solid State
6Solid State Starting Basics SCR ControlUsing SCR’s in an “opposed” (back to back) configuration, the full sine wave of the AC power can be controlled.By controlling when an SCR is fired in the cycle, the output voltage can be controlled. The result is sometimes called a Notch.VINSCRGateVOUTGate SignalAB
7Soft Motor Starting Basics Typical Motor Starting CurveStarting Torque(Lock rotor torque)Break-downtorqueFull VoltageStarting CharacteristicsStarting Current~6xFLAPull-up torque180%Full loadtorque100%100%Speed -%RPMHigh starting torque can cause damage to the mechanical system.High current can cause problems in the electrical system7
8Soft Motor Starting Basics Physics of Reduced Voltage and Motor TorqueIf you reduce voltage by 50%, the result is a 75% reduction in motor torque.(.5)2 = .25 or 25% of Locked Rotor Torque180%Percentageof Full RatedTorqueFull Voltage Torque100%Reduced Voltage TorquePercentage of Full Speed100%
9Soft Motor Starting Basics Example600%510%%FLA(amps)100%100% Voltage300%Torque(ftlb)72%85% VoltageFull Load25%50% Voltage100%Speed -RPMCurrentTorque required by the loadTorque
10Reasons for Soft Motor Starting Minimize mechanical damage of system components and productBelts, Gears, Drive Shafts and KeywaysReduced Product SpillageWater Hammer and Mechanical VibrationBetter Energy “Management”Limit in-rush currentOptimize the size of transformers/generators/switch gearMeet Power Company Requirements / Rebate programsManage Control under Power Distribution LimitationsEnergy Cost Reduction (Peak Demand Charges)
12Electromechanical vs. Solid State Solid State delivers greater flexibilityAllow for the starting current/torque to be optimized versus standard reduced voltage starter typesExample Star-Delta reduced voltage starter is fixed at 300% current/33% TorqueSolid State insures minimal amount of energy to accelerate motor even if the load only requires 25% torque.SS eliminates transitions due to electromechanical limitationsOpen or Closed transitionsOpen disconnects motor from line voltage, Closed maintains connection to lineBoth cause current surges during start
13Advantages of Solid State Control Enhanced Control OptionsAdvanced Start/Stop controlUser Programmability and settingsScalable setting for the critical nature of applicationLocal, Manual, Automatic ModesInherent DiagnosticsCurrent, Voltage, Power and Energy Monitoring/protectionFaults and Alarms (some based on real time clock)Controller Event logs and Snapshot (what happened right before a fault)Lowest Installed Cost with Network IntegrationEase of Communication Linkage (i.e. multi protocol, AOP’s)Localized I/O and ControlWire Reductions
142 Phase Vs. 3 Phase Control Comparison 2 Phase Control AdvantagesLower initial costSmaller overall total size2 Phase Control DisadvantagesHigher Peak Currents/ImbalanceRegardless of control methodologyIncreased HeatingIncreased Vibration during Starting2 Phase3 Phase3 Phase control provides superior performance on every start!
15Advances in Starting/Stopping Modes SMC-50 “Patented” Linear Acceleration Starting ModeSimplest Starting ModeLowest starting current profile per startRegardless of loading conditionIdeal for any applicationProvides control over both torque and speedUnmatched motor starting performanceSelected start time closer to actual than any other stating method*
16Starting Performance – Comparison Linear Accel vs. Traditional Soft Start: Centrifugal Pump LoadHigh Torque Pulse/Surge and water hammer2 Sec/Div= 3 Sec total2 Sec/Div = ~10 SecHigher Peak CurrentCurrent more stable and less disruptive to power systemTimeParameter Settings: = Start Time: 10 second
17Starting Performance – Comparison Linear Accel vs. Traditional Soft Start: High Inertia LoadTorque Pulse/Mechanical Wear and Tear2 Sec/Div = ~10 Sec2 Sec/Div = ~6 SecHigher Peak CurrentCurrent more stable and less disruptive to power systemTimeParameter Settings: =Start Time: 10 second
18SMC Soft Starters Power and Energy Management Green InitiativesAllow users to qualify for Energy focused based rebates and discount programsHelp reduce energy consumption and wasteFacility wide information enablement via Intelligent Motor ControlSustainability and Sustainable ProductionDeliver a return on investment with scalable productsReduced downtime and maintenance costsEnergy SavingsReduce the total “amount” of energy consumed(Energy Saver in SMC-50)Reduce the total “cost” of energy
19Soft Starters and Energy Management Reduction of the peak inrush of a motor (i.e. peak current)Reduces the peak demand chargesCharges are determined by utility based on the peak energy usageAdvantages of Controlled DemandAllows for the facility to optimize/maximize distributionSmaller genset’s or transformers (incl. feeders… wires etc.)Allows the power company optimize/maximize distributionPossible reduced installation cost based on system demandsScalable PerformanceSMC Flex and SMC-50 Provide advanced Power and Energy MonitoringMeasurement it = manage itVisibility = helps provide business case support for future process and product improvements
21Motor Starting Comparison Full Voltage (DOL)Simplest Starting SolutionFull torque applied to motorMechanical wear~6x inrush currentPeak demand chargesLimited FunctionalityUnless used with advanced OverloadFinite Mechanical LifeContacts will wear outNo Starting ChoicesSMC Soft StartSimple Starting and StoppingLimited Control at various speedsReduced torque and current during startingSimple to adjust and setupReduced installation costsSmaller footprintNo need for harmonic/EMC mitigationHighly efficient when running at full speedEnergy Saver Performance for light loadsUp to 15 different starting modesVFD/DriveComplete Continuous Control at any SpeedFull torque at any speed without sacrificing currentHighly efficient motor and application performanceMore complex setup and installLarger footprintImpact on Power QualityApplication ConsiderationsMotors typesLead LengthsWire TypeAmbient ConditionsUnlimited Starting possibilities when sized properly
22Selecting a Starting Method When do I specify a drive versus a soft starter?Speed Control is requiredConsistent Acceleration and Deceleration (New SMC-50 exception)High starting torque requiredContinuous Feedback (critical position control)Custom starting and stopping maneuversFaster stopping with Dynamic braking optionsDrive can hold rotor at zero speedUndersized or closely matched motor or power source
23Why Use SMC Controllers? Minimize Operating Costs, Reduce Down time Problem:Belts, gears and machinery can be damaged by across-the-line startingSMC:Lengthens system life by reducing mechanical stress during starting– Reduces DOWN TimeHelps reduce/eliminate PMO on equipmentNo need to replace damaged partsMinimal production lossBreakdown Torque180%100%Percentageof Full LoadTorquePercentage of Full SpeedHigh torque can causephysical damage to themechanical system.
24Why Use SMC Controllers? Minimize Operating Costs, Reduce Down time Problem:Power company restrictions on incoming line current, or you pay the penaltyWeak power lines cannot handle high inrush currents, causing brown outs or excessive line disturbances, which in turn cause other processes to shut downSMC Solution:Current Limit starting minimizes the amount of inrush current, meeting power company restrictions and lowering peak demand chargesProcess shut down and brown outs are minimized by reducing the amount of current drawn during starting600%100%Percentageof Full LoadCurrentPercentage of Full Speed
25How to apply SMC Controllers Determine the main reason for using reduced voltage?Mechanical?Power Limitations?Simplicity?Select the best solid state control modeSoft StartSoft StopCurrent LimitSoft Start/CL with Kick StartPump ControlTorque ControlLinear Acceleration/DecelerationSpecial ModesDual RampFull VoltageSlow SpeedCustom Starting ProfilesSmart Motor BrakingCombination of profiles
26Standard Starting Methods Current LimitPrimarily used to limit line disturbancesConstant or very lightly loaded motorGood on high inertia applicationsBandmills, Fans, Centrifuge, Ball Mill, Washers………Soft StartPrimarily used to limit mechanical stressConstant or exponentially increasing loadsCompressors, Pumps, ConveyorsSoft Start/Current Limit with Kick StartKick Start is needed to overcome static conditionExample: Cold system components, loaded conveyorFull VoltageNot a common Starting mode.NOTE: Full voltage required to accelerate the motor may be a sign of other problems (i.e. Initial Torque of > 90%)Used as a Solid State Contactor for High cycle rates26
27Standard Starting Methods Pump ControlLegacy version of torque control optimized for centrifugal loadsSimple to apply but some considerationsExponentially increasing load such as Compressors, Pumps, ConveyorsTorque ControlSimilar to Pump Control performance but applicable for all load typesMore difficult to apply but yields higher level of performanceLinear Acceleration/DecelerationSimplest starting, lowest current , most consistent starting time per start regardless of load
28“Pump Control” in SMC-Flex & SMC-50 Designed for Centrifugal PumpsApplications lightly loaded at zero speedReduces surges (water hammer) caused by uncontrolled acceleration and decelerationCan eliminate the need for specialized flow control valvesEase of pump configurationProvides control without the use of sensors or feedback devices“Pump Control” Compared to Linear AccelerationNo advantage, other than legacy migration“Pump Control” Compared to Torque ControlEasier to set up and optimized for centrifugal pumpsNot intended for Positive Displacement PumpsFull Load required at zero speedVariable Speed typically required to control flow
29SMC-Flex & 50 Pump Control Soft StartDOL StartExcess energy/powerTorqueFullLoadPump StartThe traditional across the line start provides excessive torque for motor acceleration. The red hashed area is excess torque. This results in rapid pump acceleration, pressure surges, and cavitation.A soft start profile reduces the amount of excess torque, but as the speed increases, so does the available torque out of the motor. This is still not an optimal solution.With a pump start profile the SMC analyzes motor variables and controls motor torque until the pump reaches full load. This conserves energy and prevents unwanted surges during start.Pump SystemSpeedFull Speed29
30SMB™ Smart Motor Braking SMC Flex and SMC-50 The SMB™ Smart Motor Braking is designed to stop a motor quicklyNo additional hardware or feedback devices are requiredAutomatic zero speed shut off is integrated into the controller
31SMB™ Smart Motor Braking SMC Flex and SMC-50 Considerations How fast do you want to brake?Rule of thumb: It will take you at least 1.5 times as long to brake a motor as it will to start (3 to 4 times is more typical)How much power can you use for braking?Rule of thumb: Anything more than about 300% can play havoc with power systems and cause nuisance tripping or worse.Can the power system handle the demands of braking current for the entire duration of the stop?How consistent does the brake time need to be?A good power supply is critical to consistent brakingGood line Voltage regulation is the key to successful braking!
32SMB™ Common Concerns/Questions Braking is hard on the motor?True, Braking… regardless of the method, is hard on the motor windingsNoise is common during braking?True, moans and groans of all kinds can be heard in a motor during brakingBraking produces increased Harmonic distortion?True, the SMC produces some harmonic distortion during starting and stopping, however the levels are insignificant (typically < 10% of the fundamental)SMB is a good alternative for Critical braking?False, SMB is not intended to be used for E-Stop scenarios. To many variables are involved which can alter the performance of this featureThe SMB option damages motors?False, Braking is hard, but we can not create more energy then what the motor demands. Motor damage is typically caused by incorrect settings or normal wear and tearSmart Motor Braking is an exact science?False, Most applications are dialed in via trial and error
33SMC Special Application Considerations Multi-Motor ApplicationsMechanically Coupled (Transmission, direct gear drive, Conveyors)Single SMC for multiple motorsSeparate Overload protection requiredNot Mechanically Coupled (No physical connection)Separate SMC’s per motorOne SMC Not RecommendedReduced Performance and adjustabilityToo much variability in motor characteristicsCost advantage with Adj.Freq. Drive, but less with SMC
34SMC Special Application Considerations Power Source Sizing GuidelinesIdeally, the source would be sized for a full voltage start. (Somewhat impractical today)When sizing for use with a generator it is critical that the generator is able to stay in proper regulation under starting or braking loads.Rule of thumb: Avoid sizing the supply for anything less the 300% of the motors FLA.SCR Fusing for SCR Protection (Very Fast Acting Semiconductor type fuse)Limited usefulness with SMC-Flex and SMC-3, due to bypass operationUse is not suggested in High Inertia, Braking, or Pump stop applications (Applications with Start times > 30 seconds) due to potential for nuisance trippingCan be used to achieve Type 2 Coordination in some casesSee SMC Wizard – Short Circuit Protection (SCPD) Wizard for further guidance
35SMC Special Application Considerations Power Factor Correction CapacitorsLine side only - locating load side can damage the SCRIdeally PFCC are brought in with up-to-speed contactDynamic Correction can be responsible for nuisance line fault’sTransient/Cyclic Spikes of Current Due to Load VariationExamples: Rock Crushers, Wood Chippers, Band Saws, etc.With the SMC-Flex & SMC-3, Spikes 120% of controller max frame rating causes the bypass to drop in and out…NOTE: If this is happening a lot, the SMC is likely under sized for the applicationInsure the FLA adjustment/programming is correct for the motor operationSMC-3 and Soft StopFor best operation try to size SMC-3 mid range per Selection Guide/Catalog
36Sizing the starter for the application Selection guides are correct for 90% of applications (Pumps, Fans, Compressors)Simply choose based on voltage, horsepower, current and insure that the motor FLA fits the SMCs operating range10% of applications may require a closer lookApplication Analysis: Load with potential high starting inertia or minimal loadFlywheel, chippers, grinders, braking, retrofits, running vs. starting req. etc.Thermal Analysis may be required to determine proper size for the following:Extended starting or stopping times (>30 sec)Aggressive Duty Cycle (> 10 times/hr)Operation in elevated (above 50C) ambient temperaturesLRA > 600% (i.e. High efficiency motors, NEMA Design A)Solution to Assist: SMC “Estimation Wizard”
38SMC Application Wizards Why use the Wizards (eTools)?To provide a better Estimation to the applicability of a SMC-3, SMC Flex and SMC-50 product to a given set of motor & load operating requirements.
39SMC Application eTool’s Thermal WizardUsed for simple/quick analysis of SMC capabilities from a thermal perspectiveShort Circuit Protection DeviceUsed to guide selection of branch circuit protection componentsi.e. fuse or circuit breaker sizebypass and isolation sizingApplication WizardUsed for advanced modeling of the complete system including SMC thermal capabilities and motor/load starting characteristicsWizards Available from:ProposalWorks “Tools” pull-down or from:
40SMC Application eTool’s SMC Applications built for mobile phones and tabletsCross platform support with all major mobile operating systemsiOS, Blackberry, and AndroidHTML 5 based applicationsAllows for ease of use and updatingCan run like any standalone mobile applicationAlmost fully offline capableDo an App Search for Rockwell Automation
42Solid State Power Control Portfolio SMC™-50SMC™ FlexPerformance / FunctionalitySMC™ DialogSMC™-3SSC52510020050080010001600Ampere Rating (Line and Delta)*Dialog supports line configuration only
43Allen-Bradley SMC Contemporary Offering SMC™ FlexSMC™-50Hybrid Power StructureHybrid Power StructureSolid State Power Structure
44SMC Family Choosing a Power Platform Hybrid Solid State AC53-BSmallerTotal FootprintLessExternal WiringOptimized Thermal ManagementEasy Product SelectionLower TotalInstalled CostTrue Solid State AC53-AIdeal for Harsh Environmental ConditionsHigher SCCR ratingsPhase Rebalance/Energy Saver CapabilityHigher operations/hourScalable Thermal RatingsHybrid Solid State (Integral Bypass)2 Thyristors per phase (6 total)Thermal MassSmall Stirring FansIntegral Shorting or “Bypass” ContactorTrue Solid StateLarger finned heat sinks & fansOptional external bypass contactorsAbility to replace contactorAbility to size contactor AC1 or AC3
45SMC Family Choosing a Power Platform Internal Bypass (SMC-3, SMC Flex)Ideal for small spacesSmallest total footprintEasy selection and applicationLowest total installed costSolid State (SMC-50, SMC Dialog, SMC Plus)Ideal for critical performance in tough environmental conditionsAllows for Specialized ControlExternal Bypass offers operational flexibility and redundancyHybrid Power StructureSolid State Power Structure
46SMC Family Choosing the control for your application Which control modes are required?SMC-50, Flex & SMC-3Soft StartSoft StopCurrent LimitSoft with Kick StartSMC-50, SMC-FlexPump ControlSlow SpeedDual RampFull Voltage StartingSmart Motor BrakingLinear Accel/Decel (SMC-50 Only)Torque Control (SMC-50 Only)Allen-Bradley offers three solid state reduced voltage starter families. All families offer typical soft starting and stopping modes. While the SMC-50 and Flex offer more advanced control functions as well as power metering and communication options as well as RSLogix 5000 Add-on profiles which expedite programming and configuration.The SMC Flex / 50 also offer power metering features as well as communication options enhancing configuration, control and data collection capabilities!
47SMC™-3 Overview Compact Series 4 Starting/Stopping Modes Hybrid design (internal bypass contacts)Simplified DIP and Rotary Set-upDin Rail Mountable through 85 amps4 Starting/Stopping ModesSoft-start, Soft-stop, Current Limit, Kick StartBasic DiagnosticsThe SMC-3 is the contemporary component class series of SMC product line. This simple design integrates dip switch programmability, overload protection, and basic diagnostics into a compact package. This solution is ideal for low cost soft starting.Compact design provides 3 phase control, increased intelligence, and unmatched performance. Motor and system diagnostics and an electronics overload with adjustable trip class help reduce downtime and protect assets.Hybrid Power Structure
48SMC-3 can be applied to both line and delta connected applications! SMC™-3 OverviewLine RatingsFrame 1 (3 A, 9 A,16 A, 19 A, 25 A, 30 A, 37 A)Frame 2 (43 A, 60 A, 85 A)Frame 3 (108 A, 135 A)Frame 4 (201 A, 251 A)Frame 5 (317 A, 361 A, 480 A)Delta Ratings3 … 831 ampsTwo line voltage ratings200…480V or 50/60 HertzTwo control voltage24V AC/DC or 100…240V AC0…50°C Operating temperatureThe SMC-3 line has a wide range of current handling capabilities, allowing for it to be applied to fractional HP through 400 HP motors. This range includes 5 frame sizes allowing for 1 amp through 480 amps. The latest feature to be added to this product line is the ability to do both line connection and delta connection in the same controller.SMC-3 can be applied to both line and delta connected applications!
49SMC™ Flex - Overview Modular Class Hybrid design (internal bypass contacts)Built-In LCD and Keypad9 Start/Stopping Modes3 slow-speed modesSmart Motor BrakingEnhanced Diagnostics and Protection functionsModular design features 3 phase control, advanced intelligence, performance and diagnostics, communications flexibility, modular control module/power modules/fan assembly for a cost effective package.Hybrid Power Structure
50SMC™ Flex - Overview Specifications Starting Modes Soft-Start Line Ratings5….1250 AmpsDelta Ratings8…1600 AmpsThree Voltage Ratings/60 Hz/60 Hz230 – 50/60 HzControl Voltage RatingsVAC or 24V AC/DC0 - 50° C Operating TemperatureSoft-StartWith selectable Kick StartSoft-StopCurrent Limit StartFull VoltagePreset Slow SpeedLinear Speed AccelerationFeedback Device RequiredDual RampPump Control (optional)
51SMC™-50 Product Overview Scalable SeriesSolid State Power StructureNO Integral bypass like SMC-3 or SMC-FlexBuilt-In HIM Cradle and PC port15 Start/Stopping Modes3 slow-speed modesSmart Motor BrakingAdvanced Diagnostics and Protection functionsFull power and energy management, Real Time Clock, Event LogDesigned for customer flexibility – 3 phase control and scalable options help maximize the total motor control investment. Advanced monitoring and protection, superior communication capabilities and energy saver modes help increase operating efficiencies and reduce downtime.Solid State Power Structure
52SMC™-50 Product Overview Benefits of a Fully Solid State Power Structure(no integral bypass)Improved performance in high vibration applicationsPerformance not impacted by environmental debrisLonger life (no mechanical life limits)Scalable thermal ratingsHigher SCCR ratings100 Ka Fuses65 Ka Breaker
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55SMC™-50 Modes of Operation Starting ModesStopping / Specialty ModesSoft StartCurrent Limit w/ Kick StartPump Control“Enhanced” Slow Speed: 1% to 15%Patented Sensor-less Linear Acceleration*Consistent ramp up time (no tachometer required)Optimizes energy consumptionTorque ControlFull VoltageDual Ramp w/ Kick StartCoastSoft StopSmart Motor Braking (SMB)Linear DecelerationExternal Braking ControlPump ControlMotor Winding HeaterEnergy SaverPhases back voltage sensing lighter loadsEmergency RunNEW!NEW!NEW!NEW!NEW!NEW!*SMC Flex provides Linear Acceleration Start, however it requires a tachometer for speed feedback
56SMC™-50 Modes of Operation Linear Speed “Patented” Sensor-less Linear Acceleration Starting ModeAccomplished via Advanced Motor Speed Estimation AlgorithmNo external feedback required - reduces cost and potential for failureProvides exacting motor acceleration control under varying load conditionsSimplest to Setup2 Parameters Required to configure: Ramp Time and Initial Torque (used as reference)Reduces/eliminates the need for the Dual Ramp modeAlways uses the minimum amount of energy needed to accelerate the motor in the time requested (regardless of the loading condition)
57SMC™-50 Modes of Operation Torque Control Torque Control can be used to control the maximum torque developed by the motor independent of motor speedProvides a torque ramp from an initial starting torque level to a maximum torque levelMode also provides simple starting performance (Kick start available as an option)Controlling torque does not allow control over speed of acceleration like Linear Accel.Torque Control algorithms are useful for basic applications (pumps, compressors)Basic Setup Parameters:Ramp Time, Starting Torque, Max Torque(M), Rated Torque(M) and Rated Speed Settings(M)(M) = motor rated value
58SMC™-50 Modes of Operation Comparison Example Linear Accel vs. Torque (Pump) Start: Pump Load2 Sec/Div= 10 Sec total2 Sec/Div= 5 Sec totalHigher Peak CurrentTimeNOTEs:- Actual Start time difference of Linear versus torque mode- Smoother torque curve for Linear versus torque mode- Lower peak current with Linear Acceleration modeParameter Settings: =Start Time: 10 secondMotor load = approx 65% of FLA
59SMC’s Differentiated by Innovation Broadest offering of Features/Performance/Functionality in a Soft StartAdvanced Starting/Stopping Performance (Linear Mode)“True” 3 Phase ControlSolid State or Hybrid Performance and ReliabilitySimple to Advanced Fault, Power, and Energy MonitoringImproved Troubleshooting, Diagnostics Accuracy and time stampingHigh Fault SCCR ratings with Fuses and Standard BreakersSpecial ModesSlow Speed, Motor Winding Heater, Energy Saver, Phase Rebalance, DeviceLogixStandard features cover multiple dedicated devicesPower Monitors, Scopes, ETM’s, Motor Winding Heaters, DC Brake… etc.Standard Open and Enclosed offerings