2Upper Extremity Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius and Ulna Carpals, MetacarpalsPhalanges
3Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Consists of scapula and clavicleClavicle articulates with sternum (sternoclavicular joint)Clavicle articulates with scapula (acromioclavicular joint)Scapula held in place by muscle onlyUpper limb attached to pectoral girdle at shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
4Clavicle (collarbone) S-shaped bone with two curvesmedial curve convex anteriorly/lateral one concave anteriorlyExtends from sternum to scapula above 1st ribFracture site is junction of curvesLigaments attached to clavicle stabilize its position.
5Clavicle (collar bone) Sternal extremity: end that articulates with the sternum.Acromional extremity: end that articulates with the scapula.Body: center portion of clavicle.
6Posterior Surface of Scapula Triangular flat bone found in upper back regionScapular spine ends as acromion processa sharp ridge widening to a flat processGlenoid cavity forms shoulder joint with head of humerusSupraspinous & infraspinous fossa for muscular attachments
7Scapula ( shoulder blade) Superior Border: Upper marginVertebral Border: Margin toward vertebral columnAxillary Border: Lateral margin ( towards the humerus )Spine: Sharp ridge running diagonally across posterior surface of shoulder blade.Acromion process: Slightly flaring projection at lateral end of scapular spine; may be felt as tip of shoulder; articulates with clavicle.Coracoid process: Projection on anterior surface from upper border of bone; may be felt in groove between deltoid and pectoralis major muscle.
8Anterior Surface of Scapula Subscapular fossa filled with muscleCoracoid process for muscle attachment
9Scapula cont.Glenoid cavity: Arm SocketScapular notch: Notch between the Superior border and the Coracoid process.Infraspinous Fossa: Surface area below the spine on the Dorsal surface.Supraspinous Fossa: surface area above the spine on the dorsal surface.Supraglenoid tubercle: process above the glenoid cavity.
10Scapula cont. Infraglenoid tubercle: process below the glenoid cavity. Superior angle: angle formed between the superior border and the vertebral border.Inferior angle: angle formed between the axillary and vertebral borders.
11Upper Extremity Each upper limb = 30 bones Joints humerus within the armulna & radius within the forearmcarpal bones within the wristmetacarpal bones within the palmphalanges in the fingersJointsshoulder (glenohumeral), elbow, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, interphalangeal
12Humerus upper armHead : Smooth , hemispherical enlargement at proximal end of humerus.Anatomical neck: Oblique groove just below head.Greater tubercle: Rounded projection lateral to head on anterior surface.Lesser tubercle: Prominent projection on anterior surface just below anatomical neck.
13Humerus cont.Surgical Neck: Region just below tubercles, so called because of its liability to fracture.Deltoid tuberosity: V-shaped, rough area about midway down the shaft where Deltoid muscle inserts.
14Humerus --- Proximal End Part of shoulder jointHead & anatomical neckGreater & lesser tubercles for muscle attachmentsIntertubercular sulcus or bicipital grooveSurgical neck is fracture siteDeltoid tuberosityShaft
15Humerus (distal end)Lateral Epicondyle: rough projection at the lateral side of distal end of humerus.Medial Epicondyle: rough projection on the medial side of distal end of humerus.Capitulum: Rounded knob below lateral epicondyle: articulates with head of Radius.Trochlea: Projection on distal end of humerus with a deep depression through the center, resembles a pulley.
16Humerus cont.Olecranon Fossa: Depression on posterior surface just above trochlea; receives the olecranon process of ulna when lower arm extends.Coronoid Fossa: Depression on anterior surface above Trochlea receives coronoid process of ulna in flexion of lower arm.
17Humerus --- Distal End Forms elbow joint with ulna and radius Capitulumarticulates with head of radiusTrochleaarticulation with ulnaOlecranon fossaposterior depression for olecranon process of ulnaMedial & lateral epicondylesattachment of forearm muscles
18Radius (bone on thumb side of forearm) Head of Radius: Disk shaped process forming proximal end of radius articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna.Radial tuberosity: Roughened projection on ulna side, short distance below head.Neck of Radius: constricted portion below the head.
19Radius cont.Styloid Process of Radius: Protuberance at distal end on lateral surface.
20Ulna & Radius --- Proximal End Ulna (on little finger side)trochlear notch articulates with humerus & radial notch with radiusolecranon process forms point of elbowRadius (on thumb side)head articulates with capitulum of humerus & radial notch of ulnatuberosity for muscle attachment
21Ulna bone on little finger side of forearm Olecranon Process: ElbowSemilunar Notch: curved notch between olecranon process and coronoid process into which the trochlea fits.Coronoid Process: Projection on anterior surface of proximal end of ulnaRadial Notch: curved notch lateral and inferior to semilunar notch: head of radius fits into this cavity.
22Ulna cont.Styloid Process of ulna: Sharp protuberance at distal end, can be seen from outside on posterior surface.
23Elbow Joint Articulation of humerus with ulna and radius Ulna articulates with trochlea of humerusRadius articulates with capitulum of humerusInterosseous membrane between ulna & radius provides site for muscle attachment
24Ulna and Radius - Distal End Ulna --styloid processhead separated from wrist joint by fibrocartilage discRadiusforms wrist joint with scaphoid, lunate & triquetrumforms distal radioulnar joint with head of ulna
258 Carpal Bones (wrist) Proximal row - lat to med scaphoid - boat shapedlunate - moon shapedtriquetrum - 3 cornerspisiform - pea shapedDistal row - lateral to medialtrapezium - four sidedtrapezoid - four sidedcapitate - large headhamate - hooked processCarpal tunnel--tunnel of bone & flexor retinaculum
26Carpals Wrist bonesProximal Row: little finger to thumb pisiform, triquetrum, lunate, & scaphoid.Distal Row: hamate, capitate, trapezoid, & trapezium.
27Metacarpals form framework of palm of hand Numbered from Thumb to little fingerI, II, III, IV, V
28Phalanges miniature long bones of fingers Fingers: Proximal, Middle, & Distal PhalanxThumb: Proximal & Distal Phalanx only.
29Metacarpals and Phalanges 5 total----#1 proximal to thumbbase, shaft, headknuckles (metacarpophalangeal joints)Phalanges14 total: each is called phalanxproximal, middle, distal on each finger, except thumb
31Pelvic Girdle and Hip Bones Pelvic girdle = two hipbones united at pubic symphysisarticulate posteriorly with sacrum at sacroiliac jointsEach hip bone = ilium, pubis, and ischiumfuse after birth at acetabulumBony pelvis = 2 hip bones, sacrum and coccyx
32Ischium and Pubis Ischium Pubis ischial spine & tuberosity lesser sciatic notchramusPubisbodysuperior & inferior ramuspubic symphysis is pad of fibrocartilage between 2 pubic bones
33Pelvis(Coxal Bone) Ilium: Upper flaring portion Ischium: Lower, posterior portionPubic bone (pubis): Medial, anterior sectionAcetabulum: Hip socket; formed by union of ilium, ischium, and pubis.Iliac Crest: upper, curving boundary of ilium
34Pelvis cont. Iliac spines: A. Anterior superior: Prominent projection at anterior end of iliac crest; can be flelt externally as “point” of hip.B. Anterior inferior: Less prominent projection short distance below anterior superior spine.
35Pelvis cont. C. Posterior superior: At posterior end of iliac crest. D. Posterior inferior: Just below posterior superior spine.Greater Sciatic Notch: Large notch on posterior surface of ilium just below posterior inferior spine.
36Pelvis cont.Spine of Ischium: pointed projection just above tuberosity.Obtuator foramen: large hole in anterior surface of os coxa; formed by pubis and ischium; largest foramen in body.Ischial Tuberosity: Large rough, quadrilaterial process forming inferior part of ischium.
37Pelvis cont. Ramus of Ischium: Lower part of Ischium Superior Ramus of Pubis: Part of pubis lying between symphysis and acetabulum; forms upper part of obturator foramen.Inferior Ramus of Pubis: Part extending dowwn from symphysis unites with ischium.Pubis: lower part of pelvis.
38Ilium Iliac crest and iliac spines for muscle attachment Iliac fossa for muscle attachmentGluteal lines indicating muscle attachmentSacroiliac joint at auricular surface & iliac tuberosityGreater sciatic notch for sciatic nerve
39Pelvis cont. Pubic tubercle: Rounded process at end of crest Pubic crest: Upper margin of superior ramus.
40Pelvis Pelvis = sacrum, coccyx & 2 hip bones Pelvic brim sacral promontory to symphysis pubisseparates false from true pelvisfalse pelvis holds only abdominal organsInlet & outletPelvic axis = path of babies head
41Female and Male Skeletons larger and heavierlarger articular surfaceslarger muscle attachmentsFemale pelviswider & shallowerlarger pelvic inlet & outletmore space in true pelvispubic arch >90 degrees
43Lower Extremity Each lower limb = 30 bones Joints femur and patella within the thightibia & fibula within the legtarsal bones in the footmetatarsals within the forefootphalanges in the toesJointship, knee, ankleproximal & distal tibiofibularmetatarsophalangeal
44Femur and Patella Femur (thighbone) Patella longest & strongest bone in bodyhead articulates with acetabulum (attached by ligament of head of femur)neck is common fracture sitegreater & lesser trochanters, linea aspera, & gluteal tuberosity-- muscle attachmentsmedial & lateral condyles articulate with tibiapatellar surface anteriorly between condylesPatellatriangular sesamoidincreases leverage of quadriceps femoris tendon
45Femur Thigh bone; largest bone in body Head: rounded upper end of bone; fits into acetabulum.Neck: Constricted portion just below head.Greater Trochanter: Protuberance located inferiorly and laterally to head.Lesser Trochanter: Small protuberance located inferiorly and medially to greater.
46Femur cont.Intertorchanteric line: Line extending between greater and lesser trochanter.Condyles: Large, rounded bulges at distal end of femur, one medial and one lateral.Epicondyles: Blunt projections from the sides of the condyles; one on the medial aspect and on the lateral aspect.Adductor tubercle: Small projection just above medial condyle; marks termination of medial supracondylar ridge.
47Femur cont.Trochlea: Smooth depression between condyles on anterior surface; articulates with patella.Intercondyloid fossa: Deep depression between condyles on posterior surface; cruciate ligaments that help bind femur to tibia lodge in this notch.
48PatellaKneecap; largest sesamoid bone of the body; embedded in tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle.
49Tibia and Fibula Tibia Fibula medial & larger bone of leg weight-bearing bonelateral & medial condylestibial tuberosity for patellar lig.proximal tibiofibular jointmedial malleolus at ankleFibulanot part of knee jointmuscle attachment onlylateral malleolus at ankle
50Tibia Shin boneCondyles: bulging prominences at proximal end of tibia; upper surfaces concave for articulation with femur.Intercondylar eminence: Upward projection on articular surface between condyles.Crest: Sharp ridge on anterior surface.Tibial tuberosity: Projection in midline on anterior surface.
51Tibia cont.Medial malleolus: Rounded downward projection at distal end of tibia; forms prominence on medial surface of ankle.
52Fibula Long, slender bone of lateral side of lower leg Lateral malleolus: Rounded prominence at distal end of fibula; forms proninence on lateral surface of ankle.Head: Prominence on proximal end of Fibula; articulates with lateral surface of tibia.This is the non weight bearing bone of the lower leg.
53Tarsus Proximal region of foot (contains 7 tarsal bones) Talus = ankle bone (articulates with tibia & fibula)Calcaneus - heel boneCuboid, navicular & 3 cuneiforms
54Tarsals bones that form heel and proximal or posterior half of foot. Calcaneus: heel boneTalus: Uppermost of tarsals; articulates with tibia and fibula; boxed in by medial and lateral malleolus.Navicular: articulates with the talus and cuneiforms I, II, & III
55Tarsals cont.Cuneiforms: form arch of foot; Numbered I,II, & III; articulate with navicular and MetatarsalsCuboid: forms side of ankle; articulates with calcaneus and IV & V Metatarsals.
56Metatarsus and Phalanges midregion of the foot5 metatarsals (1 is most medial)each with base, shaft and headPhalangesdistal portion of the footsimilar in number and arrangement to the handbig toe is hallux
57Metatarsals Long bones of the foot Numbered like the metacarpals of the hand.I - big toe through V - little toe
58PhalangesMiniature long bones of the toes; two in each great toe; three in other toes.
59Arches of the Foot Function distribute body weight over footyield & spring back when weight is liftedLongitudinal arches along each side of footTransverse arch across midfoot regionnavicular, cuneiforms & bases of metatarsals
60Clinical Problems Flatfoot Clawfoot Hip fracture weakened ligaments allow bones of medial arch to dropClawfootmedial arch is too elevatedHip fracture1/2 million/year in USosteoporosisarthroplasty