7Brain caseImage G shows Guattari, or a “classic” Homo neanderthalensis skull. Image H shows Homo sapiens
8Bone densityLeft: Thick walled bones are characteristic of Homo neanderthalensis; indicating a higher bone density.Right: Thin walled bones are characteristic of Homo sapiens; indicating less bone density.
9Questions to be answered: bone density Were Homo neanderthalensis exposed to more traumatic environments?
10Bone DensityPercentage distributions of traumatic lesions by anatomical region for Neanderthals without DJD vs. Recent human clinical samples
11Bone DensityFigure shows the combined cortical thickness of the humerus; anteroposterior and mediolateral views of Homo neanderthals, early Homo sapiens, and modern Homo sapiens.
12MandibleHomo neanderthalensis skull and mandible from the Smithsonian
13Why the Mandible?In modern H. sapiens, the ascending mandibular ramus are in two processes, the coronoid and condylar process, and separated by a deep notch.In Neanderthals, the coronoid appears larger and more elevated than the condylar process, with a shallow notch in between.
14Methods Traced the mandibular notch of each specimen. While using the Condylar and Coronoid Processes as fixed points.
15Mandibular TracingOutline of mandibular notch in the Neanderthal, top arrow.Mean outline of 250 modern human specimens, bottom arrow.
16DiscussionMandibular ramus is a truly diagnostic character for Neanderthals.Analysis shows Neanderthals face and braincase clearly indicate the species’ unique taxonomic status.
17Rak et al concluded that based on the mandibular ramus, Homo neanderthalensis forms a side branch that evolved differently from the modern human.Led to the conclusion that Neanderthals do not play a role in our biological ancestry.
18Thoracic Cavity Neanderthals have a longer and wider sternum Longer and curved clavicles giving them a deeper and wider chest
19Case Study Weinstein: used results found by other researchers 2 Neanderthals, 2 early modern humans, and 4 human skeletons from the Andes.Comparing the thorax of human fossils to NeanderthalsAlso to see if higher altitudes made a difference
20Significance of the hyper-barrel-shaped thorax of the Neanderthal Two main factors:Enhanced respiratory volume and aerobic capacities that function as adaptations to elevated activity levelsAdaptations to cold climates
21Comparisons to the Andes Rib length and respiratory area are larger in the Neanderthal sample than the human fossils found in the AndesEarly human fossils had reduced rib measurements and a narrower thoracic cavity
23Results The large thorax was an advantage to both factors Large thorax reduced surface area to body mass, which reduces body heat lost to the environmentLarge thorax also allowed for great lung capacity and ventilation which was needed for high physical activity and high metabolic rates
24Difficulties in the Study? Finding full or near full ribcages to do studies onLow sample sizesMore data will allow for a better understanding
25Daily Energy Requirements Sorenson and LeonardEstimated their total energy expenditure by calculating their basal metabolic ratesNeanderthals ranged from kcal/dayModern human populations ranged from /- 607 kcal/dayNeanderthals had higher energy requirements daily
26Future ResearchComparing the thickness of the braincase for both species. The head trauma that H. neanderthalensis’ displayed may increase the density of the skull.Comparing rib measurements: including lengths, cross sections, muscle rigidity, and degree of curvature
27Works CitedHowells W. (1975) Neanderthal man: facts and figures. Paleoanthropology: morphology and paleoecology. Paris: Mouton. 389–407.Rak, Y. et al. (2002) Does Homo neanderthalensis Play a Role in Modern Human Ancestry? The Mandibular Evidence. Am J Phys Anthropol 119:Humphrey, L.T., M.C. Dean, C.B. Stringer. (1999) Morphological variation in great ape and modern human mandibles. J. Anat. 195:Itzhak-Ben, S., Smith, P., Bloom, R.A. (1988) Radiographic Study of the Humerus in Neanderthals and Homo sapiens sapiens. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 77:Berger, T.D., Trinkaus, E. (1995) Patterns of Trauma among the Neanderthals. Journal of Archaeological Science. 22:Bookstein, F., Schafer, K., Prossinger, H., Seidler, H., Fieder, M., Stringer, C., Weber, G.W., Arsuaga, J.L., Slice, D.E., Rohlf, F.J., Recheis, W., Mariam, A,J., Marcus, L.F. (1999) Comparing Frontal Cranial Profiles in Archaic and Modern Homo by Morphometric Analysis. The Anatomical Record (New Anat.) 257:Folger, T. (1997) Strong Bones, and Thus Dim-witted? Discover Magazine.Denning, K. (2006, November 6). Humanity’s Journeys. Retrieved April fromWeinstein, K. (2008) Thoracic morphology in Near Eastern Neandertals and early modern humans compared with recent modern humans from high and low altitudes. Journal of Human Evolution. 54: