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Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)1 Lecture 4 Active Filter (Part I) Introduction of passive and active filter Categories of filter –Low pass,

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Presentation on theme: "Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)1 Lecture 4 Active Filter (Part I) Introduction of passive and active filter Categories of filter –Low pass,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)1 Lecture 4 Active Filter (Part I) Introduction of passive and active filter Categories of filter –Low pass, high pass, band-pass, band stop (notch) Butterworth/chebyshev/Bessel response Poles and multiple stages Transfer Function Bode Plot

2 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)2 Book references Microelectronic Circuits Analysis and Design, By Muhammad H. Rashid (PWS Publishing Company) Microelectronic Circuit Design, By Richard C. Jaeger and Travis N. Blalock (Mc Graw Hill) Introduction to Filter Theory, By David E. Johnson (Prentice Hall)

3 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)3 Passive Filters made up of passive components - resistors, capacitors and inductors no amplifying elements (- transistors, op-amps, etc) no signal gain 1 st order - design is simple (just use standard equations to find resonant frequency of the circuit) 2 nd order - complex equations require no power supplies not restricted by the bandwidth limitations of the op-amps can be used at very high frequencies can handle larger current or voltage levels than active devices buffer amplifiers might be required

4 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)4 Passive elements : Inductor BIG PROBLEM! high accuracy (1% or 2%), small physical size, or large inductance values are required ?? standard values of inductors are not very closely spaced difficult to find an off-the-shelf inductor within 10 percent of any arbitrary value adjustable inductors are used tuning such inductors to the required values is time- consuming and expensive for larger quantities of filters inductors are often prohibitively expensive

5 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)5 Active Filter no inductors made up of op-amps, resistors and capacitors provides virtually any arbitrary gain generally easier to design high input impedance prevents excessive loading of the driving source low output impedance prevents the filter from being affected by the load at high frequencies is limited by the gain-bandwidth of the op-amps easy to adjust over a wide frequency range without altering the desired response

6 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)6 Categories of Filters Low-pass response High-pass response Low Pass Filters: pass all frequencies from dc up to the upper cutoff frequency. High Pass Filters: pass all frequencies that are above its lower cutoff frequency

7 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)7 Categories of Filters Band Pass ResponseBand Stop Response Band Pass Filters: pass only the frequencies that fall between its values of the lower and upper cutoff frequencies. Band Stop (Notch) Filters: eliminate all signals within the stop band while passing all frequencies outside this band.

8 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)8 Filter Response Characteristics

9 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)9 Bessel Characteristic Flat response in the passband. Role-off rate less than 20dB/decade/pole. Phase response is linear. Used for filtering pulse waveforms without distorting the shape of the waveform.

10 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)10 Butterworth Characteristic Very flat amplitude, A v(dB), response in the passband. Role-off rate is 20dB/decade/pole. Phase response is not linear. Used when all frequencies in the passband must have the same gain. Often referred to as a maximally flat response.

11 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)11 Chebyshev Characteristic Overshoot or ripples in the passband. Role-off rate greater than 20dB/decade/pole. Phase response is not linear - worse than Butterworth. Used when a rapid roll- off is required.

12 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)12 Pole A pole is nothing more than an RC circuit – n-pole filter  contains n-RC circuit.

13 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)13 Single-Pole Low/High-Pass Filter Low Pass Filter High Pass Filter

14 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)14 Two-Pole (Sallen-Key) Filters Low Pass Filter High Pass Filter

15 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)15 Three-Pole Low-Pass Filter

16 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)16 Two-Stage Band-Pass Filter BW = f 2 – f 1 Q = f 0 / BW

17 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)17 Multiple-Feedback Band-Pass Filter

18 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)18 Band-Stop (Notch) Filter The notch filter is designed to block all frequencies that fall within its bandwidth. The circuit is made up of a high pass filter, a low-pass filter and a summing amplifier. The summing amplifier will have an output that is equal to the sum of the filter output voltages. Block diagram Frequency response

19 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)19 Notch filter

20 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)20 Transfer function H(j  )

21 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)21 Frequency transfer function of filter H(j  )

22 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)22 Passive single pole low pass filter where or where

23 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)23   0   V o  =  V i   max. value   ∞   V o  = 0  min. value   V o  = ??

24 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)24 Decibel (dB) By Definition: (1) Power Gain in dB :(2) Voltage Gain in dB: (P=V 2 /R)

25 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)25 Cascaded System

26 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)26 Bode Plot (single pole)  For  >>  o Single pole low-pass filter

27 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)27 For octave apart, For decade apart,

28 Ref:080222HKNEE3110 Active Filter (Part 1)28 Bode plot (Two-pole)


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