Presentation on theme: "ENGINEERING DESIGNS-CANAL STRUCTURES GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES"— Presentation transcript:
1ENGINEERING DESIGNS-CANAL STRUCTURES GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES TRAINING PROGRAMME ONENGINEERING DESIGNS-CANAL STRUCTURESGENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLESCanal Falls or DropsBY ROUTHU SATYANARAYANA CHIEF ENGINEER (Retired.) FORMER ADVISOR, GOVERNMENT OF A.P
3Canal Falls or Drops 1. Vertical drops. Introduction: Canal fall or drop:A structure designed to secure lowering of the water surface in a canal and to dissipate safely the surplus energy so liberated, which otherwise scour the bed and banks of the canalNecessity:Velocity in a canal is a function of the slope of the canal. There is a limit for the velocity, so that the canal bed can neither be scoured nor silted up. Hence there is a limiting surface slope in the canal.The slope of the country, where the canal system has to run will naturally be steeper than the surface slope the canal system that has to come up. To bring the velocity with in the permissible velocities, falls or drops are introduced at suitable locations.Falls are combined with regulators, bridges, and escapes.Classification or Type of Falls/Drops:1. Vertical drops.2. Glacis fallsStraight Glacis with baffle (Inglis fall)Straight Glacis without baffle
4Canal Falls or Drops 3. Trapezoidal Notch falls Required Basic Data: 4. Well type, Cylinder Falls or Well Syphons.5. Ogee falls (with and without raised crest)6. Stepped falls7. Meter and non-meter fallsRequired Basic Data:Site plan with contours showing the flow direction.Hydraulic particulars of the canal both upstream and downstreamCross sections of the canal with levels, such as BL, FSL, TBL, GL, marked on the CS.TPs Particulars, taken up to hard strata or to a minimum depth of 2m below CBL or ground level which ever deeper with soil classification.Bearing capacity of the foundation strata.
5Canal Falls or Drops Hydraulic design: Structural Design: Fixation of crest:Throat width of drop wall,Linear water wayDesign of Stilling Basin:Invert level of the cisternLength of the basinLevel of end sillAnd other components.Design of drop wall.Transition lengths on upstream and downstream.Check for Scour depthCheck for exit gradientCheck for apron thickness due to uplift.Structural Design:Design of body wallDesign of stilling basinDesign of wings, returns.
6Canal Falls or Drops Trapezoidal Notch Fall: It consists of number of trapezoidal notches constructed in a high crest wall across the channel with a smooth entrance and a flat circular lip projected down stream from each notch to spread out the falling jet.The notches could be designed to maintain the normal water depths in u/s at any two discharges, as the variation at intermediate value is small.There would neither be drawdown nor heading up of water, as the channel approaches the fall. These falls are Simpler, economical and popular.Design – Trapezoidal Notch:The crest level of the fall normally is u/s bed level,The total linear water way should not be more than the bed width of the canal on the d/s side.The discharge for one notch is computed and the number of notches designed by trial and error method considering full supply discharge and half supply discharge...
7Canal Falls or Drops Discharge formula: Q = 2.25 [L + 0.4nH] H3/2 WhereQ = discharge per notch in cumecsn = a constantL= Bottom width of notchH = Depth of water.Top width of notch =L+ n.H and the thickness of pier notch >0.5H
8Canal Falls or Drops Glacis fall: Straight Glacis fall: It is a modern fall, a Straight glacis generally with a slope 2:1 is provided after a raised crest.The hydraulic jump occurs on the glacis causing sufficient hydraulic jump.Suitable up to 60 cumecs and 1.5m drop.Baffle falls or Inglis falls: (used for flumed)For all discharges and for the drops more than 1.5m.These drops are flumed.These drops can be meters.Design principles:The following are main components:1. Up stream approach2. Clear width of the Throat (Bt), normally down stream bed width.3. Down stream glacis4. Down stream expansion5. Down stream Energy Dissipation.
9Canal Falls or Drops Energy Dissipation : Cistern: It is the portion of the fall on the d/s side of the crest, where the surplus energy is being destroyed. It consists of:Sloping glacis (if any).The cisternRoughness devices and the deflectors to deflect the high velocities.Cistern:The object is three fold:To reduce the intensity of impact of the dropping jet against the d/s floor.Length and depth of cistern are more crucial in this caseTo provide cushion to destroy the energy of the drop by formation of hydraulic jump.In a sloping glacis a reverse curve at the lower end to turn the hypercritical jet to horizontal to a horizontal before it impinges against the sub critical flow of the lower channel, thus creating an hydraulic jump.Thus the invert level of the cistern be kept at 1.25 times below the d/s energy line(Ef2) or a minimum 300mm below d/s bed level.The length of cistern be 5Ef2 to 6Ef2To produce reverse flow by providing suitable end wall to ensure an impact in the cistern
10Canal Falls or Drops Cistern without impact: In case the hydraulic jump occurs on the glacis the energy dissipation will be incomplete and additional roughening devices such as friction blocks, end sill, deflectors etc.,Cistern without impact:In this case hydraulic jump does not form, in case high drowning ratio and low falls.
11Canal Falls or Drops Glacis fall: Minimum fluming ratio: Drop height Fluming ratio1. Up to 1m 66%2. 1m to 3m 75%3. Above 3m 85%4. Maximum Bed width (d/s bed)Coefficient of discharge:Discharge over the crest Q = C Bt D3/2WhereC= Coefficient of dischargeDischarge in Cumecs Value of C0.06 to0.31 to1.51 toOverD = Head over the crest.Crest level = u/s TEL- DCrest level should not > 0.4 d ( where d=u/s FSD)Length of crest = 2/3 x D
12Canal Falls or Drops Down stream Glacis: Baffle Platform: When there are piers Bt will be reduced as (Bt - 0.2nH), where n= No. of piers.Crest length = 2/3 D and for vertical falls it should be 0.55 D1/2, a minimum 0.5m.Down stream Glacis:1. D/S slope 2:1 can be increased to 1:12. If baffle platform is introduced the slope can further be increased to 2/3:1Baffle Platform:It is a low weir constructed at the end of cistern, working on the principle of horizontal impact for energy dissipation.The jump is held stable on a horizontal platform by means of baffle wall.To head up water to upstream to form hydraulic jump.To with stand the impact of the high velocity jet to dissipate the energy.Fixing Sill Level:Sill level of the platform = Down stream FSL-d’xWhere d’x = Hx+ dx- HLdx = 0.985d0.52.HxHL= K0.52. HxHL = Actual height of dropK = Bed width of canal on d/s/ Over all width of wall
13Canal Falls or Drops Baffle wall: Cistern: Height of Baffle wall (hb) = dc-d2Wheredc = (q2/g)1/3 and d2 = (q) 0.89 (Hx) -0.35q = discharge per meter width.Thickness of baffle wall = 2/3 hbLength of Baffle plat form = 5.25 hbCistern:The platform below the baffle wall up to the deflector wall is known as the cistern.Depth of cistern = 0.1 times down stream FSD and should not <300mm/150mmCistern length 5 dxThe baffle plot form should join the toe of glacis with a radius D and to the baffle wall withradius R = 2/3 hbDeflector wall: Deflector walls of height one tenth of d/s FSD provided at the down stream end of the cistern.
14Canal Falls or Drops Well Type or Syphon Well drops: It consists of well with pipe or an RCC box at its bottom, carrying water from inlet well to a downstream well or a Cistern.Down stream well is necessary if the discharge is greater than 0.29 cumecs and the fall is > 1.8mThe water falls in to the inlet well through a trapezoidal notch constructed in the steining of the well.Simple vertical Drop:It is a simple fall broad crested weir with high raised sill, The nappe impinges into the water cushion belowThere is no hydraulic jump and the energy dissipation is brought about by the turbulent diffusion, as the high velocity jet enters the deep pool of water down stream.The discharge is computed using the formula:Q in cumecs = 1.66L.d3/2WhereL is the bed width on d/s side and dis depth of water above crest in m.