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Subsistence and Bushmeat Poaching in Rural Swaziland Growing populations in Africa have placed increased pressure on natural resources managed by reserves.

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Presentation on theme: "Subsistence and Bushmeat Poaching in Rural Swaziland Growing populations in Africa have placed increased pressure on natural resources managed by reserves."— Presentation transcript:

1 Subsistence and Bushmeat Poaching in Rural Swaziland Growing populations in Africa have placed increased pressure on natural resources managed by reserves. Communities around Reserves object to the idea that their needs come second to wildlife (Abraham, 2010). In many cases the tension Between humans and wildlife management manifests itself as poaching. Poaching in Swaziland is primarily done for subsistence and bushmeat sales (Reilly, 2012). 50% of Swazis do not see poaching as a problem (Hackel, 1990). In contrast, Poachers face harsh consequences when caught (Nkambule, 2009). Introduction Reserve Management Informal research to develop background in Swazi poaching and conservation Expert interviews with government officials and community members to understand actors and relationships Use narrative analysis to determine community and governmental perspectives and relationships between actors Synthesize findings into local and national level cmaps Methodology Mlawula Nature Reserve Managed by the Swaziland National Trust Commission Large poaching problem Surrounded by impoverished Communities of Shewula and Mhlumeni Managed as an integrated Conservation and development Project Active office of community outreach Research Question: What is the relative interplay between subsistence and bushmeat poachers with conservation efforts at Mlawula Nature Reserve? Poachers that come from Shewula to poach in Mlawula are motivated by the profits that can be gained from the bushmeat trade. Subsistence needs are met with help from NGOs but unemployment is still rampant. Bushmeat’s broad appeal means that it is consumed by people in all sector of society, including the courts and police which has lead to corruption In prosecution of poachers. While Mlawula has many ties sharing benefits with the community, other reserves do not, which hurts the collective conservation effort. Mlawula Level Cmap National Level Cmap Driving Forces of Swazi Poaching 1.Rampant rural poverty, as high as 50% in some areas 2.Health perceptions of bushmeat 3.Swazi traditional values which advocate hunting 4.Periods of low food security Big Game parks and the Swaziland National Trust Commission share many of the same ties with the Community and collective Swazi ecosystems. However they do not coordinate conservation efforts Or share any dialogue at a management level. This Cmap shows that despite all of the positive ties The SNTC has formed with surrounding communities, their efforts are hampered by the negative Ties BGP as to surrounding communities. This is due to the inability of local residents to differentiate Between the conservation efforts of the two organizations. Since local populations cannot be Expected to differentiate between the two, outreach and conservation efforts must be cohesive. Analysis of SNTC Outreach Reserves are managed by either the Swaziland National Trust Commission or Big Game Parks, two very different entities. Robin Zeller ENVS 499 Summer, 2013 Bennett, Elizabeth “Bushmeat: A Threat to Animals and Humans.” Wildlife Conservation 109 (3) (June): 68–68. Bryson, Donna “Swazi Activist Mediates Poaching War.” Msnbc.com. Accessed February 24. Fynn, Richard W. S., and Mpaphi C. Bonyongo “Functional Conservation Areas and the Future of Africa’s Wildlife.” African Journal of Ecology 49 (2): 175–188. doi: /j x. Hackel, Jeffrey D “Conservation Attitudes in Southern Africa: A Comparison Between KwaZulu and Swaziland.” Human Ecology 18 (2) (June 1): 203–209. doi: / ——— “Rural Change and Nature Conservation in Africa: A Case Study from Swaziland.” Human Ecology 21 (3) (September 1): 295–312. doi: /BF Hackel, Jeffrey D., and E. Jane Carruthers “Swaziland’s Twentieth Century Wildlife Preservation Efforts: The Present as a Continuation of the Past.” Environmental History Review 17 (3) (October 1): 61–84. doi: / Harrison, David “Development of Tourism in Swaziland.” Annals of Tourism Research 22 (1). “Is There Room for Wildlife as Africa Grapples with Development?” The Ecologist. Accessed June 23. Lindsey, P. A., S. S. Romañach, S. Matema, C. Matema, I. Mupamhadzi, and J. Muvengwi “Dynamics and Underlying Causes of Illegal Bushmeat Trade in Zimbabwe.” Oryx 45 (1): 84–95. Lindsey, P. A., S. S. Romañach, C. J. Tambling, K. Chartier, and R. Groom “Ecological and Financial Impacts of Illegal Bushmeat Trade in Zimbabwe.” Oryx 45 (1): 96–111. NKAMBULE, MFANUKHONA “‘King Gave Me Powers to Shoot to Kill’.” Swaziland News, November 29. Reilly, Mick “Poaching Rife in Swaziland.” Times of Swaziland, November 17. “Swazi Tourism Looks to the Future.” The M&G Online. Accessed April 14. Swaziland Environment Authority “Swaziland State of the Environment.” Yonge Nawe “Wildlife Management Conflicts in Swaziland.” Works Cited


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