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Population and Migration

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1 Population and Migration
AP Human Geography

2 Key Terms Population Explosion – population crisis, most growth occurring in less developed countries that can’t handle more people Demography – study of population characteristics Crude birth rate and Crude death rate - # of live births per 1,000 people in population; # of deaths per 1,000 people in population Overpopulation – lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of population of an area Carrying Capacity – ability of the land to sustain a certain number of people Ecumene – habitable land Underpopulated – sparsely populated, some dominated by agriculture or physical barriers

3 Population Distribution and Density
Arithmetic Density – divides entire population of country by total land area to come up with a population density for the country as a whole Physiologic Density – more accurate way to measure a country’s population density because only takes into account the land that is being used by humans

4 5 Main Areas of Population Density/Distribution Around the World
East Asia – China, S/N Korea, Japan South Asia – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh Southeast Asia – Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand Western/Central Europe – extends east to Ukraine Northeastern US/Canada

5 Population Growth Thomas Malthus – British economist, rate of population was growing faster than agricultural productivity Linear Growth – growth that occurs evenly across each unit of time Exponential Growth – growth as a percentage o fthe total population Neo-Malthusian –if there are multiple minority groups and no majority group within a population set, the growth rate will eventually resemble the rate of growth of the fastest growing group within the set. (theoretical) The fastest growing group will eventually become a majority of the population.

6 Demographic Transition Model
Good indicator of what will happen to a society (or country’s) population 3 Factors Birth Rate Death Rate Total Population 4 Stages Hunting/Gathering Agricultural Industrial Tertiary (zero population growth rate)

7 Population Structure Population Pyramid – tool that charts population on a graph, break down population by age, sex Sex Ratio – males to females in population Population Projections – use demographic data to determine future population Dependency Ratio – ages 0-14 and over 65 depend on the workforce for support Demographic Momentum – continued population incrase as a result of a large segment of the population being young

8 Birth and Death Rates Demographic Equation – global births minus global deaths and determines population growth rate for the world Infant Mortality Rate – number of babies that die within the first year of life Natality Rate – another term for birth rate - # of live births per 1,000 in the population Enfranchisement/Suffrage – right to vote Dowries – woman’s family must pay the groom’s family for the right to marry the son Dowry Death – groom’s family will kill the bride because of her inability to pay the dowry

9 Population Equations and Scientific Methods
Doubling Time – number of years that it takes for a country to double its population Equation: doubling time = 70 divided by growth rate Demographic Momentum – country can slow its growth rate in one of three ways Imposing government laws Decreasing birth rate Increasing death rate

10 Historical and Global Perspectives

11 J Curve Ian Bremmer – developed j curve
J-curve – countries on a scale based on their openness and stability Movement of countries on scale depends on economic progress

12 Causes of Population Increase
4 Primary Factors Medical Advances Quantity and Quality of food Ethnic and Religious Issues Economic Issues

13 Causes of Population Decline
3 Major Factors Natural Disasters War or Political Turmoil Economic Issues

14 Immigration, Migration, and Refugees
Activity Space – when a person’s space is infringed upon, they move Migration – movement of people Immigrant – people who move into a country or region Emigrants – people who leave a country or region Net Migration - # of immigrants minus the # of emigrants

15 Push and Pull Factors Pull Factors – positive perception about a location that induces a person to move there Push Factors – negative perception about a location that induces a person to move away from that location 3 Types of Push and Pull Factors Economic Political (refugees – people forced to leave country for fear of persecution or death) Environmental – usually voluntary Place utility – communities offer incentives to move into the area, tax breaks, etc.

16 Additional Types of Migration
Intercontinental Migration – movement of people across an ocean or continent Distance Decay – people begin to assimilate into the culture they are presently living Acculturation – transfer of cultures Chain Migration – voluntary, functions to reunite families and cultures Interregional Migration – migration done within a country’s borders, from region to region International Migration – movement between countries Rural to Urban – economic reasons, move off farm and into cities Cyclic Movement – seasonal migration of livestock to areas where food is more available Transhumance – movement of livestock to higher elevations during the summer to escape the heat in the valley and to lower elevations during the winter to escape the severe cold of the mountains Gravity Model – effective way to determine the relationship between the two urban areas. Suggests the greater sphere of influence a city has on other nearby cities.

17 Intervening Obstacles
Affect trade and migration between areas Physical Obstacles Distance and Cost of Travel Cultural Factors (like language) Governmental Restrictions (like quotas)

18 Intervening Opportunities
Occurs when migrant stops and decides to stay in a location along his/her journey because he/she encounters favorable economic opportunities or environmental amenities along the way

19 Forces Migration Slavery – not all migration is positive, people bought and sold into forced labor Transmigration – removal of people from one place and their relocation somewhere else within a country Census – detailed counting of the population

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