2Key TermsPopulation Explosion – population crisis, most growth occurring in less developed countries that can’t handle more peopleDemography – study of population characteristicsCrude birth rate and Crude death rate - # of live births per 1,000 people in population; # of deaths per 1,000 people in populationOverpopulation – lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of population of an areaCarrying Capacity – ability of the land to sustain a certain number of peopleEcumene – habitable landUnderpopulated – sparsely populated, some dominated by agriculture or physical barriers
3Population Distribution and Density Arithmetic Density – divides entire population of country by total land area to come up with a population density for the country as a wholePhysiologic Density – more accurate way to measure a country’s population density because only takes into account the land that is being used by humans
45 Main Areas of Population Density/Distribution Around the World East Asia – China, S/N Korea, JapanSouth Asia – India, Pakistan, BangladeshSoutheast Asia – Vietnam, Indonesia, ThailandWestern/Central Europe – extends east to UkraineNortheastern US/Canada
5Population GrowthThomas Malthus – British economist, rate of population was growing faster than agricultural productivityLinear Growth – growth that occurs evenly across each unit of timeExponential Growth – growth as a percentage o fthe total populationNeo-Malthusian –if there are multiple minority groups and no majority group within a population set, the growth rate will eventually resemble the rate of growth of the fastest growing group within the set. (theoretical) The fastest growing group will eventually become a majority of the population.
6Demographic Transition Model Good indicator of what will happen to a society (or country’s) population3 FactorsBirth RateDeath RateTotal Population4 StagesHunting/GatheringAgriculturalIndustrialTertiary (zero population growth rate)
7Population StructurePopulation Pyramid – tool that charts population on a graph, break down population by age, sexSex Ratio – males to females in populationPopulation Projections – use demographic data to determine future populationDependency Ratio – ages 0-14 and over 65 depend on the workforce for supportDemographic Momentum – continued population incrase as a result of a large segment of the population being young
8Birth and Death RatesDemographic Equation – global births minus global deaths and determines population growth rate for the worldInfant Mortality Rate – number of babies that die within the first year of lifeNatality Rate – another term for birth rate - # of live births per 1,000 in the populationEnfranchisement/Suffrage – right to voteDowries – woman’s family must pay the groom’s family for the right to marry the sonDowry Death – groom’s family will kill the bride because of her inability to pay the dowry
9Population Equations and Scientific Methods Doubling Time – number of years that it takes for a country to double its populationEquation:doubling time = 70 divided by growth rateDemographic Momentum – country can slow its growth rate in one of three waysImposing government lawsDecreasing birth rateIncreasing death rate
11J Curve Ian Bremmer – developed j curve J-curve – countries on a scale based on their openness and stabilityMovement of countries on scale depends on economic progress
12Causes of Population Increase 4 Primary FactorsMedical AdvancesQuantity and Quality of foodEthnic and Religious IssuesEconomic Issues
13Causes of Population Decline 3 Major FactorsNatural DisastersWar or Political TurmoilEconomic Issues
14Immigration, Migration, and Refugees Activity Space – when a person’s space is infringed upon, they moveMigration – movement of peopleImmigrant – people who move into a country or regionEmigrants – people who leave a country or regionNet Migration - # of immigrants minus the # of emigrants
15Push and Pull FactorsPull Factors – positive perception about a location that induces a person to move therePush Factors – negative perception about a location that induces a person to move away from that location3 Types of Push and Pull FactorsEconomicPolitical (refugees – people forced to leave country for fear of persecution or death)Environmental – usually voluntaryPlace utility – communities offer incentives to move into the area, tax breaks, etc.
16Additional Types of Migration Intercontinental Migration – movement of people across an ocean or continentDistance Decay – people begin to assimilate into the culture they are presently livingAcculturation – transfer of culturesChain Migration – voluntary, functions to reunite families and culturesInterregional Migration – migration done within a country’s borders, from region to regionInternational Migration – movement between countriesRural to Urban – economic reasons, move off farm and into citiesCyclic Movement – seasonal migration of livestock to areas where food is more availableTranshumance – movement of livestock to higher elevations during the summer to escape the heat in the valley and to lower elevations during the winter to escape the severe cold of the mountainsGravity Model – effective way to determine the relationship between the two urban areas. Suggests the greater sphere of influence a city has on other nearby cities.
17Intervening Obstacles Affect trade and migration between areasPhysical ObstaclesDistance and Cost of TravelCultural Factors (like language)Governmental Restrictions (like quotas)
18Intervening Opportunities Occurs when migrant stops and decides to stay in a location along his/her journey because he/she encounters favorable economic opportunities or environmental amenities along the way
19Forces MigrationSlavery – not all migration is positive, people bought and sold into forced laborTransmigration – removal of people from one place and their relocation somewhere else within a countryCensus – detailed counting of the population