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The West between Wars (1919-1939). Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security A Weak League of Nations The Treaty of.

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Presentation on theme: "The West between Wars (1919-1939). Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security A Weak League of Nations The Treaty of."— Presentation transcript:

1 The West between Wars (1919-1939)

2 Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security A Weak League of Nations The Treaty of Versailles League of Nations Woodrow Wilson US French Demands Reparations Germany Total amount German annual installment payments The Weimar Republic 1921 Ruhr Valley


4 Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability Inflation in Germany Policy of passive resistance Strike to protest French occupation Adds to the growing inflation German mark worthless An International Commission Charles Dawes Dawes Plan The Treaty of Locarno Foreign Ministers of: Germany- Gustav Stresemann France - Aristide Briand Sign of real peace? League of Nations Kellogg-Briand Pact

5 Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability The Great Depression Causes of the Great Depression Two factors Series of downturns US Stock Market US bank loans to Germany 1928 – pull money out of Germany 1929 – US stock market crashes American investors 1931- The Creditanstalt Bank Responses to the Depression 1932 (Worst year) Governments Led to serious political effects: Increased government activity in the economy Renewed interest in Marxism Marx’s prediction

6 Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability Democratic States End of World War I Woodrow Wilson - “keep the world safe for democracy” Seemed to be true in 1919 Democratic governments Returning to the norms Germany Weimar Republic Economic problems No tradition of democracy France Strongest power on the European continent Financial problems More balanced economy Economic instability then led to political effects 6 different cabinets were formed Popular Front Government The French New Deal Collective bargaining

7 Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability Great Britain Heavy Industries Great Depression The Labour Party Conservatives John Maynard Keynes Deficit spending Austrian School of Economics: Ludwig von Mises Friedrich von Hayek The United States 1932- Franklin Delano Roosevelt New Deal Public Works programs The Works Progress Administration (WPA) Welfare System Social Security Act

8 Section 2: The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

9 The Rise of Dictators Totalitarian State Democracy short lived Italy, Germany, Soviet Union Totalitarian State Minds and hearts Achieved this goal – modern technology Limited Collective will

10 Section 2: The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes Fascism in Italy Suffered severe economic problems Middle class Early 1920’s – Benito Mussolini 1919 –Fascio di Combattimento Fascism – glorifies the state By 1922 – movement was growing Treaty of Versailles Nationalism 1922 – March on Rome – Mussolini and his Black Shirts Victor Emanuel III New laws passed: Right to stop any publication PM was made the head of the government Police were given unlimited power Catholicism was made the state religion Lateran Pacts OVRA “Il Duce” The Fascist State Totalitarian OVRA Mass media Propaganda “Mussolini is always right” Created youth groups The family

11 Section 2: The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes A New Era in the USSR Lenin’s New Economic Policy War communism “Down with Lenin and horse flesh. Bring back the Czar and pork” Industrial production New Economic Policy (NEP) The Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialists Republics – USSR or Soviet Union Industrialization Lenin will die in 1924 Politburo Leon Trotsky & Other group The Rise of Stalin Trotsky and Joseph Stalin Trotsky - Commissar of War Stalin - Party General Secretary Five-Year Plans 1928 Stalin will end the NEP He will launch his first Five-Year Plan Five-Years Plans – set economic goals for a five-year period Cost of Stalin’s Program Massive industrial expansion needed workers Government used propaganda Collectivization of Agriculture Peasants resisted Stalin Stalin will control the party The Great Purge

12 Section 2: The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes Authoritarian States in the West Authoritarian Eastern Europe After WWI: Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary Parliamentary Systems failed: No tradition Mostly rural and agrarian Large landowners Ethnic Conflicts Land owners, churches, and the middle class Spain The Second Republic Rivalries Francisco Franco Youngest general in Europe Coup in 1936 Spanish Civil War Foreign intervention s Guernica Popular Front 1939 –Madrid Franco will establish a dictatorship The impact of the civil war

13 Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany

14 Hitler and His Views Adolf Hitler Early Hitler April 20, 1889 School –Vienna Basic social and political ideas: Racism Nationalist Propaganda and terror Western Front during WWI Germany German Worker’s Party 1921 National Socialist German Worker’s Party – NSDAP – or Nazi SA, Storm Troopers, or the Brownshirts Beer Hall Putsch Mein Kampf or My Struggle Social Darwinian theory of struggle Lebensraum “ living space”

15 Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany Rise of Nazism Mass politics and not revolt National party Reichstag “ The Nazi’s rose to power on the empty stomachs of the German people” The Nazis Take Control President Hindenburg & Reichstag Hitler to take control and lead Hitler - Chancellor Reichstag Fire Enabling Act The constitution Hitler - dictatorship Nazis Purged Concentration Camps Nazis Hindenburg - 1934 Totalitarian state Fuhrer or “leader”

16 Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany The Nazi State, 1933-1939 Hitler’s totalitarian state Aryan Racial State Reichs: Holy Roman Empire and German Empire 1871-1918. Third Reich Used terror Controlled institutions Hitler Youth The State and Terror Schutzstaffeln, (“Guard Squadrons”) the SS Heinrich Himmler Terror and Ideology Economics and Spectacles Economics Too solve the unemployment problem: Unemployment Spectacles Used grand events The Nuremberg Party Rallies

17 Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany Women and Nazism Men’s Role Women’s Role Employment opportunities “Get ahold of pots and pans and broom and you’ll sooner find a groom” Anti-Semitic Policies Long tradition Nuremberg Laws defined who was considered a Jew German citizenship Civil rights Forbade marriages Teach or take part in the Arts Yellow Stars of David Kristallnacht November 9, 1938 After Kristallnacht:

18 Section 4: Cultural and Intellectual Trends

19 Mass Culture and Leisure Marconi’s Mass production of Radios Movies Quo Vadis – Italy Birth of a Nation – America Use of Radio and Movies for Propaganda Radio and Movies For political purpose Films Impact Joseph Goebbels Propaganda Ministry The Uses of Leisure More leisure time Professional sporting events and Travel Mass Leisure Kraft durch Freude

20 Section 4: Cultural and Intellectual Trends Arts and Science Despair and uncertainty Art: Nightmares and New Visions “the world does not make sense, so why should art?” The Dada movement Dadaist Revolted Hannah Hoch – photomontage Surrealism Portraying the unconscious Salvador Dali Nazis set out to create a new art form Literature: the Search for the Unconscious “Stream of consciousness” James Joyce - Ulysses Hermann Hess –Siddhartha and Steppenwolf The Heroic Age of Physics Albert Einstein Ernest Rutherford – “ heroic age of physics” The new physics – undermined the physics of Newton Werner Heisenberg - The uncertainty principle Heisenberg’s theory The theory’s emphasis on randomness



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