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Part Two Reading-Centered Activities 1. In-Class Reading 2. After-Class Reading.

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Presentation on theme: "Part Two Reading-Centered Activities 1. In-Class Reading 2. After-Class Reading."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part Two Reading-Centered Activities 1. In-Class Reading 2. After-Class Reading

2 In-Class Reading Do Animals Have a Culture? Part Two: In-Class Reading Background Information Global Reading Detailed Reading Post-Reading

3 Background Information Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Background Information Chimpanzees Japanese Monkeys

4 1. Chimpanzees Chimpanzees are our closest relatives. They belong to the ape family. They are sociable animals, and live in mixed groups or ‘troops’ in tropical African rainforests. They feed mainly on fruit like bananas and figs, but will also eat seeds, nuts, leaves, insects and sometimes small mammals. Chimps are clever animals, and will make tools from twigs to dig tasty termites out of their mounds. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Background Information ( 黑猩猩 ) To be continued

5 Chimpanzees move around on all fours and it is quite unusual for them to walk upright. They have long powerful arms, with elongated thumbs on their hands. Chimpanzees are very clean animals, and will often groom one other—carefully picking out small ticks from each other's fur, which strengthens bonds within the group. Females give birth to a single baby every three years. A young chimp is carried around by its mother for about four or five months before it begins to take its first steps. Baby chimps love to play, and spend a lot of time chasing, wrestling and tickling each other. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Background Information

6 2. Japanese Monkeys Japanese monkeys are known as the primate species that live in the northern part of the world. They live in the forests, mainly broad-leaved forests in the Honshu excluding Hokkaido and the Ryukyu Islands. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Background Information One striking feature of the adult Japanese monkeys is that their faces and bottoms are red. Their main food item is plants. They sleep on the tree, with the posture of holding each other or sitting alone. They never made nests to sleep, and sleeping sites change everyday. They life span is years. To be continued

7 The society of Japanese monkeys is very interesting. Several adult males compose their society; the number of adult females is nearly three times of adult males, and their children. Basically, females stay in her natal group, on the other hand, most of male leave their group before they become adults. Some of males become solitary male, but in someday, he will join the new group. They continue to move from group to group. So, the basic composition of group is adult females and their children, forming a matrilineal society. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Background Information

8 Global Reading Organization Analysis How to Achieve the Global Understanding of the Text Quickly Pre-Reading Question Part Two: In-Class Reading >>Global Reading Summary

9 1. Pre-Reading Question Work in pairs to decide which of the following are true of animals, excluding humans. Part Two: In-Class Reading >>Global Reading use tools ( ) make tools ( ) cooperate with each other ( ) communicate with spoken words ( ) share knowledge ( ) have emotions ( ) practice religion ( ) T T T T F T F

10 IntroductionPara.1 Presenting the questions: 1) Do animals have a culture as we human beings do? 2) What is culture? BodyPara.2-5 Animals can use and make tools themselves, learn and share behavior and communicate with some forms of language. ConclusionPara.6 There are limits to the culture of animals. Part Two: In-Class Reading >>Global Reading 2. Organization Analysis

11 When you read an article, you should first judge if it is a narration, a description, an argumentation, a story or an ad., etc. The judgment decides the best strategy to read the article so that you can quickly reconstruct its global meaning. For example, if you decide an article is an argument, you might know the basic structure of an argument is “problem—analysis—solution”. Although there are several variations, such as “introduction— problem—analysis—solution—additional comments”, you can still read very fast. Part Two: In-Class Reading >>Global Reading 3. How to Achieve the Global Understanding of the Text Quickly To be continued

12 You can ignore the less important sections and come right to the most important points: the problem and the solution. To check the solution’s validity, you may have a quick look at the analysis. The important information of an article is often contained in the title, the first and the last paragraph of the passage, the first or the last sentence of a paragraph and the indicators like “first…”, “in contrast”, “in conclusion”. Paying attention to the title, the introductory paragraph and the concluding paragraph, the topic sentences of each paragraph and the coherence devices can enable you to get the main idea of the article very quickly. Part Two: In-Class Reading >>Global Reading

13 4. Summary Culture refers to the way of life, customs, beliefs, art, social institutions, etc. of a particular group of people. There is no doubt that human beings have culture. Is culture found just in humans, or do animals have a culture too? That is a question posed by social scientists. Scientific research has revealed that animals do have culture and the cultural characteristics of human beings can also be found in the lives of some animals. For instance, like humans, some animals have the ability to use and make tools, learn and share behavior and even communicate with some forms of language. However, there are limits to the culture of animals. For example, animals can’t form social institutions and communicate abstract ideas.

14 Detailed Reading Debate Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Passage Reading Understanding Sentences Word Study

15 Do Animals Have a Culture? Lately, social scientists have begun to ask if culture is found just in humans, or if some animals have a culture too. When we speak of culture, we mean a way of life a group of people have in common. Culture includes the beliefs and attitudes we learn. 1 It is the patterns of behavior that help people to live together. It is also the patterns of behavior that make one group different from another group.humansa way of life It is the patterns of behavior that help people to live together. It is also the patterns of behavior that make one group different from another group. Our culture lets us make up for having lost our strength, claws, long teeth, and other defenses. Instead, we use tools, cooperate with one another, and communicate with language. But these aspects of human behavior, or “culture”, can also be found in the lives of certain animals.defenses Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

16 We used to think that the ability to use tools was the dividing line between human beings and other animals. Lately, however, we have found that this is not the case. Chimpanzees can not only use tools but actually make tools themselves. This is a major step up from simply picking up a handy object and using it. 2 For example, chimpanzees have been seen stripping the leaves off a branch, then putting it into a termite nest. When the termites bite at the stick, the chimpanzee removes it and eats them off the end—like our use of a fork.case For example, chimpanzees have been seen stripping the leaves off a branch, then putting it into a termite nest. For some time we thought that although human beings learned their culture, animals could not be taught such behavior. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

17 Or even if they could learn, they would not teach one another in the way humans do. This, too, has proven to be untrue. 3 A group of Japanese monkeys was studied at the Kyoto University Money Center in Japan. They were given sweet potatoes by scientists who wanted to attract them to the shore of an island. One day a young female began to wash her sweet potato to get rid of the sand. 4 This practice soon spread throughout the group. It became learned behavior, not from humans but from other monkeys. Now almost all the monkeys who have not come into contact with this group do not. Thus there is a “cultural” difference among animals.proven A group of Japanese monkeys was studied at the Kyoto University Money Center in Japan. This practice soon spread throughout the group. We have ruled out tool use and invention as ways of telling animal behavior from human behavior. telling Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

18 We have also ruled out the learning and sharing of behavior. Yet we still have held onto the last feature—language. But even the use of language can no longer separate human culture from animal culture. Attempts to teach apes to speak have failed. However, this is because apes do not have the proper vocal organs. But teaching them language has been very successful if we are willing to accept other forms than just the spoken word. Two psychologists trained a chimpanzee named Washoe to use Standard American Sign Language. This is the same language used by deaf people. In this language, “talk” is made through gestures, and not by spelling out words with individual letters. By the time she was five years old, Washoe had a vocabulary of 130 signs.Attempt Sign Language Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

19 Also, she could put them together in new ways that had not been taught her originally. This means she could create language and not just mimic it. She creates her own sentences that have real meaning. This has allowed two-way talk. It permits more than one-way command and response.originallymimic Of course, there are limits to the culture of animals. As far as we know, no ape has formed social institutions such as religion or law. Also, some chimpanzees may be able to learn sign language, but this form of language is limited in its ability to communicate abstract ideas. Yet with a spoken language we can communicate our entire culture to anyone else who knows that language. 5 Perhaps the most important thing is that the line dividing us from them is not as clear as we used to think.limit Perhaps the most important thing is that the line dividing us from them is not as clear as we used to think. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

20 Understanding Sentences 1. It is the patterns of behavior that help people to live together. It is also the patterns of behavior that make one group different from another group. 正是人们的行为模式促使他们生活在一起,也正是人 们的行为模式把不同的群体区分开来。 In these two sentences the subject the patterns of behavior is emphasized. Notice this kind of sentence structure: It + be + 要强调 部分 + that ( 或 who, which) + 句子其它部分。 Translation Comments Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading To be continued

21 1) It was the ease with which the burglars got into the house that worried her. 2) It was a key that/which I found in his pocket. 3) It was Tom who/that met your sister in the zoo yesterday. 4) It was in the zoo that Tom met your sister yesterday. 5) It was yesterday that Tom met your sister in the zoo. Examples Understanding Sentences Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

22 2. For example, chimpanzees have been seen stripping the leaves off a branch, then putting it into a termite nest. 例如,有人看到黑猩猩把 树叶扯掉,将树枝伸进白 蚁巢穴。 Notice the perceptive verb see used in this sentence. Perceptive verbs, such as feel, hear, overhear, listen to, notice, observe, see, watch, smell are usually followed by noun phrase plus bare infinitives or the present participles. Translation Comments Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading To be continued Understanding Sentences

23 1) I saw him leave a few minutes ago. 2) The suspect was seen entering the building. 3) She felt his arms go round her. 4) She overheard them discussing pay rises. 5) Can you smell something burning? Examples Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text Understanding Sentences

24 3. A group of Japanese monkeys was studied at the Kyoto University Monkey Center in Japan. Translation 日本京都大学猿猴研究中心对一组日本猴作过研究。 “ a group of + 复数名词 ” 作主语时, 谓语动词可以用 单数形式也可以用复数形式, 这主要看说话人的出发 点,如果把这个 group 作为整体看, 说话人会用单 数谓语。 Examples Comments 1) A group of pilgrims is visiting Mecca. 一批朝圣者正在游览麦加。 2) A group of us are going to the theatre this evening. 我们中有些人今晚要去戏院看戏。 Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text Understanding Sentences

25 4. The practice soon spread throughout the group. Translation Examples 这一做法马上传遍了整个猴群。 The word “practice” is here used as a noun, meaning “the way something is usually done, a habit”. In this sentence, it refers to washing the sweet potato to get rid of the sand. 1) It is not considered good practice to reveal clients’ names. 2) It’s common practice in many countries for pupils to repeat a year if their grades are low. Comments Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text Understanding Sentences

26 5. Perhaps the most important thing is that the line dividing us from them is not as clear as we used to think. Translation Comments 也许最重要的一点是,人和动物的分界线并不像我们 过去认为的那样清清楚楚。 The noun clause that begins with the word “that” functions in this sentence as predictive clause. The word “that” can not be omitted here. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading To be continued Understanding Sentences

27 1) An essential thing to remember is that people with backgrounds different from your own can broaden your conversational material and your thinking. 2) The fact is that these long-term memories are very accurate in detail and can be compared to a movie in the brain. Examples Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text Understanding Sentences

28 Word Study humans also human beings, the human race, man, mankind, humankind 人类 Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text Dogs can hear much better than humans. Humans are equal in the eyes of the law.

29 Word Study a way of life also a way of living, lifestyle the behavior, habits, customs etc. that are typical of a particular society or person 生活方式 Regular exercise is part of a healthy way of life. The tribe’s traditional way of life is under threat. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

30 defense n. 1.[C] weapon, barrier, etc. used for defending or protecting 用于保卫或保护的武器,屏障等 The immune system is the body’s defense against infection. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading 2.[U] defending from attack; fighting against attack 保护;保卫 They committed themselves to the defense of human rights. To be continued

31 Politicians are skilled at defending themselves against their critics. How can you defend such behavior? defend v. 1. protect sb./sth. from harm; guard sb./sth. 保护;保卫 All our officers are trained to defend themselves against knife attack. We need to defend against military aggression. 2.act, speak or write in support of sb./sth. 为支持某人/某 事而行动,说话或写文章 Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

32 case n. [C] (usually singular) a situation that exists, esp. as it affects a particular person or group 实情,情况 It may be the case that the scheme will need more money. We tend to think of these people as untrustworthy, but that is not the case. Changing men’s and women’s traditional roles is not easy, but in our case it has been helpful. In this case, several solutions could be tried. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

33 prove v. 1. turn out to be; be seen or found to be 显现出是;被发现是 The promotions proved to be a turning point in his career. The old methods proved best after all. 2. show that sth. is true or certain by means of argument or evidence 证明;证实 To prove his point, he mentioned several other experiments which had produced similar results. They hope this new evidence will prove her innocence. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

34 practice n. [U] way of doing sth. that is common or habitual 惯例;常规 It is the practice in Britain to drive on the left. It’s common practice in many countries for pupils to repeat a year if their grades are low. I had coffee after dinner, as is my usual practice. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

35 spread v. 1. to become known about or used by more and more people; to tell a lot of people about sth. 传播;蔓延 The news spread like wildfire. Words spread quickly and soon a crowd had gathered. Andy loves spreading rumors about his colleagues. Word Study 2. to affect more people or a larger area 传染 The disease spread rapidly amongst the poor. The cancer had spread to her liver. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading To be continued

36 tell A from B to be able to see how one person or thing is different from another 将 ······ 和 ······ 区分开来,辨别 How can you tell a fake handbag from the real one? Can you tell Tom from his twin brother? The ducks looked exactly alike. How could you tell which was which. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading also distinguish A from/and B Back to the text

37 attempt n. the act of trying to do sth., esp. sth. difficult 试图;企图; 尝试 The protesters made no attempt to resist arrest. She passed her driving test at the first attempt. v. try to do sth., esp. sth. difficult 试图;尝试; 努力 Weather conditions prevented them from attempting the jump. The fox attempted to reach the grapes but failed. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

38 Sign Language language e.g. for deaf and dumb people, using gestures instead of words 手语 sign and signal can be used with very similar meanings. Both words can mean a movement or sound made to tell someone something: Don’t move until I give the sign/signal. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading sign/signal To be continued

39 They can also mean something that indicates something exists or may happen, but a sign is usually something that you can find or see, while signal is used for something that is done intentionally or that suggests you should take some action: early signs of the disease ◊ the first signs of spring ◊ danger/warning signals ◊ Local people regarded the president’s visit as a clear signal of his support. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading With other meanings, one of these words can be used: a road sign ◊ a dollar sign ◊ a faint radio signal ◊ The train waited while the signals were on red. Back to the text

40 originally adv. in the beginning, before other things happened or before things changed 最初;起先;本来 The family originally came from France. The building was originally used as a prison. We originally intended to stay for just a few days. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

41 mimic v. mimicked, mimicking 1.to copy the way someone speaks or behaves, esp. in order to make people laugh 戏弄性模仿 He could mimic all the teacher’s accents. 2.to behave or operate in exactly the same way as sth. or someone else 模仿 Europe should not try to mimic Japan: we have to find our own path to successful modernization. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

42 limit n. 1.(also limits) the greatest possible amount of sth. that can exist or be obtained 限度;极限 the limits of human knowledge Our finances are already stretched to the limit. (=We don’t have any extra money.) He’d reached the limit of his patience. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading To be continued

43 There is a limit on/to the time you have to take the test. She set/imposed a limit on how much he spent on clothes. The check must not exceed the limit set by the banker’s card. 2.[C] the greatest or lease amount, number, speed etc. that is allowed 允许或可能的限度;限量 Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading To be continued

44 a 55mph speed limit The time limit for making claims is three months. There is no age limit for applications. His blood alcohol level was 50% above the legal limit. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading To be continued

45 cf. limitation n. [C] (usually plural) qualities that stop someone or sth. from being as good or as effective as you wish they could be: weakness 局限性 Despite the limitations of the survey, it did suggest some general trends. It’s a good little car, but it has its limitations. Word Study Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the text

46 Directions: The class will be divided into four groups and debate whether animals have a culture. Try to find convincing points to support your argument. Do you think animals have a culture? Debate Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Sample

47 Post-Reading ● Translation Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading ● Word Formation ● Noun or Verb ● Blank Filling ● Word Choice

48 Directions: Work in pairs to complete each of the following sentences with an appropriate word derived from or related to the one in brackets. 1) Do you have a dictionary ? (hand) 2) We are all products of the influences of our societies. (culture) 3) What he said is ; he’s lying. (true) 4) His in God gave him hope during difficult times. (believe) 1. Word Formation handy cultural untrue belief Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading To be continued

49 5) I want to be a because I like biology and chemistry. (science) 6) A result brings happiness. (success) 7) The two groups battled because of their ________ differences. (religion) 8) The wall was once an important part of the city’s. (defend) 9) He pulled with all his but the rock would not move. (strong) 10) We talked about various problems, such as homelessness and education. (society) scientist successful religious defense strength social Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading

50 Directions: Each word in the box can be used both as a noun and as a verb. Complete each pair of the following sentences with an appropriate word from the box. In each pair, the word is used as a noun in one sentence and verb in the other. Change the form if necessary. Check the answers with your partner. 1)A. He borrowed the money up to the that the bank allowed. B. Having so little money to spend on an apartment does you in your choice. contact limit form attempt command 2. Noun or Verb limit Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading To be continued

51 2) A. If you’re already in with the school, it will be easier to discuss any difficulties. B. Is there a phone number where I can you? 3) A. The prisoner was shot while to escape. B. He failed to set a new record, but it was a good. 4) A. He the dog to leave the house. B. The army is under the king’s direct. 5) A. Swimming is an excellent of exercise. B. The leader of the winning party has been invited to a government. contact attempting attempt commanded command form Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading

52 Directions: Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word or phrase from the box. Change the form if necessary. 1) She made a(n) to the right with her hand to show the direction of the park. 2) His work enormous interest in England. 3) Professor Brown’s books are very and are hard to read. 3. Blank Filling remove create feature rule out abstract invention gesture response individual make up for gesture created/has created Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading To be continued abstract

53 4) Each animal is weighed and measured before being set free. 5) Books had to be written by hand before the of printing. 6) The island’s chief is its beauty. 7) We drove as fast as we could, trying to lost time. 8) The waiter our plates from the table. individual invention feature make up for removed Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading To be continued remove create feature rule out abstract invention gesture response individual make up for

54 9) The manager’s ( 回答; 答复 ) to our plan was encouraging. 10) We can’t ( 排除 ) the possibility that she was murdered by her husband. response rule out Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading remove create feature rule out abstract invention gesture response individual make up for

55 Directions: Work in pairs to decide which of the italicized words or phrases fits the sentence best. 4. Word Choice 1) This detergent will remove/move all stains from your clothes. [ 辨析 ] remove: take something away from a place move: change position or place 2) She has just accepted/received the invitation to the film star’s fiftieth birthday party, I don’t know if she will accept/receive it. [ 辨析 ] receive an invitation: get an invitation accept an invitation: say yes to an invitation √ √ √ Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading To be continued

56 3) Do you allow/agree your children to cross the street by themselves? [ 辨析 ] allow: let someone do something agree: have the same opinion 4) I have later/lately received a number of letters about this problem. [ 辨析 ] lately: recently later: a time after the present time √ √ Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading To be continued

57 [ 辨析 ] shore: the land along the edge of a sea, lake or wide river beach: an area of sand or small stones beside the sea or other area of water 6) The math teacher taught/trained algebra in five classed each day. [ 辨析 ] train: give someone knowledge needed to do a job teach: provide instruction in a particular subject √ Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading To be continued 5) The boat was about a mile off the beach/shore when the engine suddenly died. √

58 7) I studied the mysterious object/subject that fell from the sky. [ 辨析 ] object: something that can be seen and touched subject: something that is discussed, examined or researched [ 辨析 ] attack: try to hurt or defeat using violence attract: draw somebody towards them 8) These flowers are brightly colored in order to attack/attract butterflies. √ √ Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading

59 5. Translation Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and expressions in brackets. Check your translation with your partner’s. 1) 我过去常去看电影,但现在再也没有时间了。 I used to go the cinema/movies a lot, but I never have the time now. 2) 两个工人互相合作修理破裂的管子。 The two workers cooperated with each other to fix the broken pipe. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading To be continued

60 3) 这是一种残忍的做法,应该马上停止。 (… practice which…) This is a cruel practice which should be stopped immediately. 4) 你的工作哪一方面最困难,哪一方面最有益? (aspect) What aspect of your job/work is (the) most difficult, and what aspect is (the) most rewarding? 5) 有些人认为他很粗野,但情况并非如此。 (the case) Some people think he is rude, but that’s not the case. 6) 我会尽我所能帮忙,但我所能做的也很有限。 (a limit to) I’ll help as much as I can, but there is a limit to what I can do. End of In-Class Reading Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading Go to After-Class Reading

61 —I think animals have a culture. We can easily find facts to support this. For example, animals of the same species can communicate with each other, with language unknown to us humans. Besides, animals such as chimpanzees can use and make tools to get food, and monkeys are found to be able to learn and share behavior. Surely, animals don’t have any religion or law. But this cannot prove that they don’t have a culture, but shows that their culture is different from ours or there are limits to their culture. Sample Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading To be continued

62 —I don’t think animals have a culture. Culture is a very broad term. It covers many aspects such as politics, economics, literature, law and religion. Although apes can use sign language after they are trained, generally speaking, the language that animals have is quite simple. It’s true that scientists observed the sharing behavior among certain monkeys. It is known to all that there are many species of animals and that they differ greatly in their intelligence. So how can we draw the conclusion that animals have a culture only because some animals are able to use and invent tools, communicate with sign language, or share knowledge? Even if animals have a so-called culture, there are limits to their culture. Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading Back to the topic Back to the topic


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