Presentation on theme: "Book II Unit 14. Contents Text One Pre-reading I. Warm-up questions II. Background information While-reading I. Structural analysis II. Comprehension."— Presentation transcript:
Book II Unit 14
Contents Text One Pre-reading I. Warm-up questions II. Background information While-reading I. Structural analysis II. Comprehension questions III. Language points IV. Difficult sentences Post-reading I. Grammatical items II. Translation exercises III. Oral activities IV. Writing practice Text Two I. Questions for comprehension II. Language points
Text I---The Wedding Story Pre-reading I. Warm-up question 1. What do you think marriage means in one’s life? 2. Many people still believe in the statement that marriage is a life-long commitment. Do you agree or not?
II. Background information Wedding Customs Associated with Various Religions 1. Christian Customs Most Christian churches give some form of blessing to a marriage; the wedding ceremony typically includes some sort of pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship. A church wedding is a ceremony presided over by a Christian priest or pastor. Ceremonies are based on reference to God, and are frequently embodied into other church ceremonies such as Mass.
2. Hindu Customs Hindu ceremonies are usually conducted totally or at least partially in Sanskrit, the language of the Hindu scriptures. The wed- ding celebrations may last for several days and they can be extremely diverse, depend- ing upon the region, denomination and caste. On the wedding day, the bride and the bridegroom garland each other in front of the guests. Most guests witness only this short ceremony and then socialize, have food and leave. The religious part (if applicable) comes hours later, witnessed by close friends and relatives.
In cases where a religious ceremony is present, a Brahmin (Hindu priest) arranges a sacred yajna (fire-sacrifice), and the sacred fire (Agni) is considered the prime witness (sākshī) of the marriage. He chants mantras from the Vedas and subsidiary texts while the couple are seated before the fire. The most important step is saptapadi or saat phere, wherein the bride and the groom, hand-in-hand, encircle the sacred fire seven times, each circle representing a matrimonial vow. Then the groom marks the bride's forehead with vermilion (sindoor) and puts a gold necklace (mangalsutra) around her neck. Several other rituals may precede or follow these afore- mentioned rites. Then the bride formally departs from her blood-relatives to join the groom's family.
3. Jewish Customs A traditional Jewish wedding usually follows this format Before the ceremony, the couple formalize a written ketubah (marriage contract), specifying the obligations of husband to the wife and contingencies in case of divorce. The ketubah is signed by two witnesses and later read under the chuppah. The couple is married under a wedding canopy (chuppah), signifying their new home together. The chuppah can be made from a piece of cloth or other material attached to four poles, or a prayer shawl (tallit) held over the couple by four family members or friends.
The couple is accompanied to the chuppah by both sets of parents, and stands under the chuppah along with other family members if desired. Seven blessings are recited, blessing the bride and groom and their new home. The couple sip from a glass of wine. The groom will step on the glass to crush it, usually with his right foot, ostensibly in remembrance of the fall of the Second Temple.
4. Muslim Customs A wedding is always a happy time for families to celebrate. In the Muslim world, there are colorful, cultural variations from place to place. According to the Quran, a married Muslim couple, both husband and wife act as each other’s protector and comforter and are therefore only meant "for one another". All Muslim marriages have to be declared publicly and are never be undertaken in secret. For many Muslims,
I. Structural analysis This is an one-act play. It can be divided into the following sections: Part I (Line.1-11): These directions for the staging of the play provide basic information on characters, scene and time, all of which have been colored rosy. Part II (Line.12-17): The storyteller has just finished a story (the end), but is requested to tell another one. Part III (Line.18-27): The storyteller introduces the other two characters, the bride and the groom, describes their appearances, and adds some details to their perfectness. While-reading
Part IV (Line.28-40): It tells the first clash between what the storyteller intends to say and what the young couple have actually experienced, and the reason why the story sounds far-fetched. Part V (Line.41-55): The first bickering between the young man and the young woman concerns their romance in the past. Part VI (Line.56-79): It tells both the clash (between the storyteller’s account and the young couple’s true experience) and the bickering (between the bride and the groom).
Part VII (Line ):The storyteller insists that every detail should proceed in accordance with the typical fairy tale, while the couple again raises objection about their ages. Besides, it seems that the bride still suspects that the young man has concealed something from her. Part VIII (Line ): It shows the incongruence between what the storyteller says and the couple’s own experience, and the clue of the couple’s lack of knowledge and understanding about each other.
Part V (Line ): The conflict reaches its climax in this part, and the conflicts (between the storyteller and the couple, and between the groom and the bride) are made explicit. Part IV (Line ): At the persistent request of the couple, the storyteller gives the second version of the wedding story which reflects the hard and pathetic reality.
II. Comprehension questions 1. How is the setting of the ideal love story described? ---Refer to the SCENE and TIME of the play. These describe a perfect season, perfect weather and perfect setting for the wedding story.
2. How do the young couple feel about the first version of the wedding story? Pick up some sentences to support your answer. ---The couple do not feel comfortable with the first version of the wedding story, because it is far too idealized and too different from the reality. Their feeling is expressed by such sentences as ‘I think he was invited to someone else’s wedding,’ ‘The whole family tale is completely out of hand,’ and ‘How many of those kids will live up to your version of the story?’ etc.
3. What evidence suggests that the couple’s relationship is far from the flawless fairy tale the storyteller describes? ---In the play there are some pieces of evidence that reveal the couple’s relationship. First, their bicker over their courting experience in the past; second, their lack of mutual trust and understanding, as indicated in the following utterances: ‘You were a floral designer’ ‘Is there something you want to tell me?’ ‘…is there something you haven’t been honest with me about?’ ‘How did you know that?’ ‘You did (major in geography)’
4. According to the bride, what are weddings and marriage like for ordinary people? --- According to the bride, most people don’t get married in Vermont. They get married in their one-horse hometowns that have WalMarts and bad zoning, and most people cheat on their spouses or end up in counseling or sell everything they own to get into a lousy nursing home.
5. Why does the storyteller give the second version of the wedding story? How does it differ from his fairy tale? ---Because the young man and the woman insist that the storyteller put the whole truth in the story. The second version is very different from the first one; it’s about a lousy woman and a homosexual man who suffer in their marriage and eventually die tragic deaths.
III. Language points pushover n.: sb. who is easy to persuade or influence --- I think he will agree — he’s a pushover. Collocation: be a pushover for --- Tony is a pushover for blondes. salute vt.: greet or address with an expression of respect ---We salute the flag every day at school.
compatible a.: likely to have a good relationship because of being similar --- The couple separated because they were not compatible. Collocation: compatible with Synonym: harmonious, well-matched impressionable a.: easy to influence --- The kids are at an impressionable age.
set in: if something sets in, especially something unpleasant, it begins and seems likely to continue for a long time --- Winter seems to be setting in early this year. in one’s way: forming an obstacle to one’s movement or action --- A real friend never gets in your way, unless you happen to be on the way down. 真正的朋友决不会挡住你的去路， 除非你在走下坡路。
put sb. to shame: make sb. feel ashamed of themselves by outdoing them --- They are so efficient that they put us to shame. decent a.: reasonable, proper --- It’s increasingly difficult to find a decent job nowadays.
go for: choose (sth.); favour (sth.) --- Children go for brightly colored pictures. prototype n.: the first or most typical example of sth. --- The prototype of this particular computer was developed by an American engineer in 1975.
umpteenth a.: used when describing that sth. has happened many times --- I’ve told this story for the umpteenth times. whisk v.: move quickly in an efficient way --- I was whisked into hospital with fierce abdominal pains. for God’s sake: used when you are annoyed or impatient with sb.
big deal a. the cause (of the confusion or excitement), normally used in the question “What’s the big deal?” meaning “What’s happened?” --- What’s the big deal? It’s only a birthday, not the end of the world. b. an ironic expression suggesting that sb. or sth. is really not very good, important or impressive --- Just forget it. It’s not a big deal. Synonym:matter of life and death, major concern
cheat on: to be unfaithful to your husband, wife, or sexual partner by secretly having sex with someone else --- It is not true that all the guys cheat on their wives when they are away. end up: finally be in a particular situation that you did not intend to find yourself in --- We ended up having to postpone our decision. Collocation: end up doing sth. end up with sth. end up as
open up: stop being shy and say what you really think --- After a few drinks he began to open up a bit. aspire v. have a strong desire or hope to do or have sth. --- The little boy aspired to be a great writer. Collocation: aspire after / to sth. Synonym: aim, be after
effeminate a.: behaving like a woman --- He spoke in an effeminate voice. 他讲起话来一副娘娘腔。 encounter a.: a casual or unexpected meeting --- He began training the young musician after a chance encounter at a concert. Collocation: encounter with encounter between
pathetic a.: making one feel sadness or sympathy --- Most murderers are pathetic creatures who regret their crimes immediately. Synonym: pitiable, distressing ego n.: the opinion that one has about oneself --- It was a blow to my ego, and meant I would have to look for a new job. Synonym: self-worth, self-esteem, self-image
suppress vt.: control a feeling so it does not affect one --- Even the grave old gentleman could not suppress a laugh. Synonym: restrain, keep back, hold back, curb overdose n.: too much of a drug taken at one time --- He died by taking an overdose Collocation: overdose of sth.
… won the young woman’s hand in marriage. ---The word “hand” here means a promise or pledge of marriage by a woman. And this kind of figure of speech is called “synecdoche” which substitutes a more inclusive term for a less inclusive one or vice versa. IV. Difficult sentences
Well far be it from me to give these little souls something to which to aspire. ---Well, it is far from me to tell these little children something about adult life so that they would have a strong desire to strive for it. In other words, he would never do it (though the statement is intended ironically to indicate the opposite).
How many of those kids will live up to your version of the story? None! They can’t, it’s too much pressure. It’s like why Catholic women are all messed up. You can’t be a virgin AND be a mother. And Brad, I probably shouldn’t have married you to begin with. ---How many kids will live their lives in the way as you describe? None. They can’t. it is almost impossible for them. Catholic women get confused about how one can keep herself a virgin but as the same time be a mother.
She’s got a point there. You’re opening yourself up for multiple class action suits,… ---She is right on this issue. You are exposing yourself to joint legal action from those you have deceived (because your story is far from the reality)…
… who took it up the ass once from a fellow Eagle Scout ---… who once had sex with a fellow Eagle Scout. “Take it up the ass” is a vulgar slang expression referring to the sexual act between two homosexuals. An Eagle Scout is a boy scout who has achieved the highest ranking in U.S. scouting.
… because it was a real ego boost to have snagged a hot stud eleven years younger than she … ---… because it greatly heightened her self-esteem to have got a sexually attractive young man eleven years younger than she as her husband …
I. Grammatical Items The subjunctive mood Replacing and omitting words Post-reading
The subjunctive mood is used to indicate a non-fact and hypothesis. There are two forms of the subjunctive: be- subjunctive and were- subjunctive. In the that-clause after verbs, adjectives or nouns expressing “command”, “suggestion”, or “resolution”, be-subjunctive is used in American English and “should + infinitive” is used in British English. Were subjunctive, often in clauses introduced by if, supposing, wish, as if, is a verb form indicating hypothetical meaning. E.g.: ---She insisted that she go to the south for her holiday. ---If it were to rain, the game would be put off.
Exercises A: Complete the following sentences using the subjunctive forms. 1. Suppose he (ask) for the money back at once. 2. He speaks as if he (be) the boss here. 3. He is my best friend — my second self, as it (be). 4. I’d rather I (be) not at the site of the accident. 5. Though the whole world (be) against me, I would do what I consider as right. 6. Congress has decided that the present law (maintain).
1) Replacing words: Replacing (substitution) is a grammatical device for avoiding repetition and achieving textual cohesion. There are three kinds of substitution: nominal substitution, verbial substitution, and clausal substitution, and therefore three kinds of substitutes: nominal substitutes such as one(s), the same, the kind, the sort, and some indefinite pronouns like all, both, some, any, enough, several, none, many, much, (a) few, the other, others, another, either, neither, etc., verbial substitutes such as do or do so, and clausal substitutes such as so, not.
e.g. : He doesn’t like this book. Show him a more interesting one. (one=book)
2) Omitting words: Like substitution, ellipsis is also a grammatical device for avoiding repetition and achieving textual cohesion. If substitution is the replacement of an identical item by a substitute, ellipsis means omission of the item or replacement of the item by a zero substitute. As ellipsis and substitution perform the same function, they are, in many cases, interchangeable. E.g.: A: Which do you prefer, the red or the green scarf? B: I’d like the red. (Here, the word “scarf” is omitted.) I’d like the red one. (Here, “one” is used to replace “scarf” to avoid repetition.)
Exercise B: Change the sentences to avoid unnecessary repetition. 1. I like biscuits, especially chocolate biscuits. 2. If you want to read novels, I’ve got some novels. 3. A number of people were involved in the accident but none of the people were hurt.
4. The production increases as it has increased for the last few years. 5. We are told that he will come tonight, and if he comes tonight, our meeting will be held tomorrow. If he doesn’t come tonight, there won’t be any meeting tomorrow. 6. His suggestions made John happy but his suggestions made Mary angry.
II. Translation exercises 他的女友跟他吹了，我们正试图安慰他。（ break off, console ） We are trying to console him because his girlfriend has broken off with him. 这位年轻人的成就令大家自愧不如。 (put sb. to shame) The brilliant achievements of the young man put us al to shame.
那个非洲国家的战争已经失控，联合国和平解决已不抱 幻想，所以决定采取维和行动。 (disillusioned) As the war in the African country was getting completely out of hand, the UN, disillusioned about a peaceful solution, decided to take peacekeeping actions. 那天晚上他爽约了，没有露面，结果我们的聚会弄得一 团糟。 (mess up) Our party was messed up because he did not show up that evening as he had promised.
他们有太多的理由应该离婚：首先，他们根本合不来。 (compatible) There are many reasons why they should divorce. To begin with, they are not compatible at all. 许多年轻人都渴望当电影明星，但绝大多数人最后还是 干普通的工作。 (aspire, end up) Many young people aspire to be film stars, but most of them end up doing ordinary work.
你失去了很多，这也许是你父母的过错，但这并不能成 为你对他们如此粗暴的理由。 (justify) You have lost a lot, and it may have been the fault of your parents, but that does not justify your being so rude to them. 这个地区的雨季通常始于六月中旬，这时候天气通常比 较凉快。 (set in) The rainy season usually sets in about mid June in this region, when it is usually fairly cool.
II. Oral activities Discuss with one of your classmates on the following topics. Nowadays the traditional notion of marriage seems to have been abandoned by more and more young people. They seem to be taking a less serious attitude towards marriage, and premarital sex and extramarital sex are becoming more acceptable to some. Now discuss in groups of five or six the notion of love and that of marriage, as well as premarital sex and extramarital sex. Try to justify your opinion about them from the perspectives of both social responsibilities and individual rights.
III. Writing practice Write an essay of no less than 250 words on the topic given below: China should further develop its auto industry instead of curing its growth 海南大学外国语学院基础英语研室
Text II--- Gossip Lead-in questions 1. According to you, how does the journalist generally collect the information? 2. What can a journalist do to ensure the credibility of the information?
II. Questions for comprehension 1.Is there gossip news in our newspapers and magazines? --- In China the most common gossip news is about the private lives of movie stars and other celebrities in the entertainment and sports circles. 2. Why are some people interested in gossip news? What kind of gossip are they most interested in? ---Some people are interested in gossip news because they envy the lives of celebrities and want to know everything about them, especially their love affairs. The notion of “sex” is almost always in, between, or below the lines.
II. Language points Pulled an all nighter: We worked all night. we’re down to two: In the sentence “down” is an adjective, meaning “(be) left with only”. Offer’s still good.: The offer’s still valid.
they all signed their release forms: they all signed their release forms to indicate that they agreed to have their personal information (here their weight) publicized … I’m getting enough dirt on her: “Dirt” here means personal information which, if made public, would create a scandal or ruin the reputation of a person.
biggie: American slang, meaning an important and influential person Jimmy’s gone into heat: “Heat” here means a state of sexual excitement happening regularly to certain female animals.