Key Terms: 1.Abbasid: The dynasty that came after the Umayyads. Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts. 2.Abu Bakr: Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death. 3.astrolabe: an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
Key Terms: 4.bedouins: Nomadic herders who used camels to cross the desert; Raids for grazing land frequent warfare 5.caliph: the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth 6.caliphate: the territorial jurisdiction of a caliph 7.calligraphy: art of beautiful handwriting 8.Five Pillars of Islam: Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage
Key Terms: 9.Harun al-Rashid: Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession 10.hegira: a journey by a large group to escape from a hostile environment 11.Ibn khaldun: Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. Warned against Historians having bias.
Key Terms: 12.Ibn Rushid: known as Averroes, paraphrased and commented on the works of Aristotle. He insisted on the right to subject all knowledge, except the dogmas of faith, to the test of reason 13.Ibn Sina: The famous Islamic scientist and philosopher who organized the medical knowledge of the Greeks and Arabs into the Canon of Medicine 14.Islam: the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Key Terms: 15.jihad: a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal 16.minarets: Tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer. 17.Mosque: (Islam) a Muslim place of worship 18.Muhammad: Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam 19.Muslims: those who practice the religion of Islam; believe in one God, and the prophet Muhammad whom they believe God spoke through
Key Terms: 20.Omar Khayyam: Persian poet, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher; author of The Rubaiyat, a collection of poems about a man who celebrates the simple pleasures in life 21.Qu'ran: the sacred writings of Islam revealed by god to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina 22.Rumi: Persian poet who was a Sufi mystic and founded a Sufi order whose members use music and dance in their rituals 23.Shia: one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam
Key Terms: 24.Sufis: a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life 25.Sunnis: Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. (See also Shi'ites.) 26.Umayyad: the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus
Arabia Before Muhammad
THE ARABS: During ancient times, the Arabs inhabited much of the area from the Arabian peninsula to the Euphrates River.
POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS FEATURES: The Arab world in the early 7th century had no stable, large-scale political entities. People belonged to close-knit clans, or extended families, that formed tribes. Most Arabs were pagans, but small minorities were Jewish and Christian.
ECONOMIC COMPONENTS: Bedouins Farmers Traders
BEDOUINS (nomadic pastoralists) provided for their own needs with: Herds of sheep & goats Small-scale trading in towns Regular raids on one another and on caravans.
FARMERS: Some farmers worked the land, but in many areas soils were too poor and rain was too infrequent to support agriculture.
TRADERS: Cities supported traders who carried luxury goods (spices, incense, perfumes) from the Indian Ocean region and southern Arabia along caravan routes to the cities of the eastern Mediterranean. These traders formed the economic and political elite of Arabia, and they led the tribes.
Pre-Islamic Trade Routes
MECCA was the most important trade center in Arabia. It was dominated by the powerful tribe of the Quraysh (KOOR-aysh). on the Arabian Peninsula near the Red Sea
THE KAABA: Mecca was also the location of the shrine known as the Kaaba, founded according to Arab tradition by Abraham. For centuries people from all over Arabia had made pilgrimages to Mecca to visit the Kaaba, site of a huge black meteorite.
EARLY LIFE: Muhammad was born in 570 to a respectable though not wealthy or powerful clan of the Quraysh tribe. His father died before he was born, his mother shortly afterward, leaving Muhammad under the care of his grandparents and uncle. Muhammad ( )
CARAVAN TRADE: Like many young Meccans, he entered the caravan trade. By the time he was 30, he had a reputation for competence and honesty, and so became financial adviser to a wealthy Quraysh widow, Kahdija (KAH-dee-ah).
MARRIAGE: Although older than Muhammad, Khadija became his wife in 596, and they had a loving marriage until her death. She bore him three sons (all died in childhood) and four girls (all survived). Only one daughter, Fatima, lived after him.
THE REVELATIONS: A man of spiritual insight, Muhammad received in 610 the first of many revelations that commanded him to teach all people a new faith that called for: An unquestioned belief in one God, Allah A deep commitment to social justice
TEACHING IN MECCA: Muhammad began teaching in Mecca, but he converted few people outside his own circle. Meccans feared that his new faith might call into question the legitimacy of the shrines in Mecca and jeopardize the traditional pilgrimages to the Kaaba with their accompanying trade. He also said Their Idol worship and polytheistic religion was sinful.
FLIGHT TO MEDINA: Muhammad's teachings put his life in danger. Therefore. he had to leave Mecca At this point, citizens from Medina, a smaller trading community troubled by dissension, asked Muhammad to become their leader. The journey from Mecca to Medina is called the Hijra (HEEZH-rah) and the event was seen as so important that 622 is the year in which the Islamic calendar begins.
UNITY: In Medina, Muhammad gathered around him a large community of believers. This group was to become the foundation of the Islamic state. The substitution of faith for blood ties was able to unite rival Arab tribes and bring about political unity.
RETURN TO MECCA: Although Muhammad was fully in control in Medina, Mecca remained the focus of his attention. Its political and economic importance were critical to his desire to convert all of Arabia.
ATTACKS ON MECCAN CARAVANS: Therefore, his followers began attacking Meccan caravans and battled with the Meccans several times in the 620s. In 630, Muhammad and many of his followers returned to Mecca in triumph.
UNITED ARAB WORLD: After making local arrangements, he returned to Medina and set about winning over the Bedouins of the Arabian desert. When Muhammad died in 632, he had converted most of the Arab world.
SPREAD OF ISLAM: Among the reasons for the rapid and peaceful spread of Islam was the simplicity of its doctrine. Islam calls for faith in only one God worthy of worship. This is the same God as in Jewish and Christian teachings.
MUHAMMAD’S TEACHING People were asked to surrender completely to Allah, the one true God. The surrender is known as al- Islam.) Those who surrendered became Muslims and joined the umma muslima – a new kind of community. Considered Abraham, Moses, and Jesus to be messengers from god.
The Five Pillars of Islam FAITH PRAYER ALMSGIVING FASTING PILGRIMAGE
1. PROFESSION OF FAITH (SHAHADAH): Muslims bear witness to the oneness of God by reciting the creed "There is no God but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This statement expresses a Muslim's complete acceptance of and total commitment to Islam.
2. PRAYER (SALAH): The world's Muslims turn individually and collectively to Mecca to offer five daily prayers at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and evening. In addition, Friday congregational service is also required.
3. ALMSGIVING (ZAKAH): Social responsibility is considered part of one's service to God; so almsgiving is obligatory. 2.5 percent of an individual’s net worth, excluding obligations and family expenses, is reserved for the welfare of the entire community, especially its neediest members.
4. FASTING DURING RAMADAN (SAWM) Dawn to Dusk: The fast is an act of personal worship in which Muslims seek a richer perception of God. It is also an exercise in self control. During Ramadan, abstention from eating, drinking and other sensual pleasures is obligatory from dawn to sunset. The end of Ramadan is observed by three days of celebration – a time for family reunion and gift-giving.
5. PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA (HAJI): The pilgrimage is an expression of Islamic faith and unity. For those Muslims who are physically and financially able to make the journey to Mecca, the pilgrimage is a once in a lifetime duty that is the peak of their religious life.
THE EARLY DECADES: In the early decades, the pillars sustained a faith that stressed strict monotheism and practices that affirmed Islam and built up a sense of community. Originally, there was no elaborate theology, intricate doctrinal mysteries, creed, or clergy. Men called imams led the Friday prayers in the mosque and usually offered sermons that applied Muslim teaching to the issues of the day, but Islam involved no ordained priesthood or hierarchy. Later Muslims use a Mosque as a place of worship
THE QURAN: When Muhammad communicated God’s teaching to his followers, he always insisted that he was transmitting a direct, verbal revelation and not offering his own interpretation. That revelation came in the form of “recitations” that make up the Quran, the scriptures of Islam. They are arranged into 114 Suras, or chapters.
CONTENTS OF THE QURAN: The Quran contains legal principles and wise statements like the Hebrew Scriptures and moral teaching like the Christian New Testament. It also prescribes regulations for diet and for personal conduct (e.g., the Quran forbids alcohol and gambling, censures luxury and ostentation, and imposes strict sexual restraints on both men and women).
THE SUNNA: After the prophet’s death, his followers compiled collections called the sunna, the “good practice” (i.e., the words and customs of Muhammad himself.) Included are the sayings of the prophet and the comments he made about how God’s revelation was to be understood and applied. Dating from the 8 th century, scholars are not sure what portion of the sunna derives authentically from the age of the prophet.
DEFENDER OF THE FAITH: After Muhammad’s death in 632, his friend and father- in-law, Abu Bakr, became his successor, or caliph. Regarded as the defender of the faith, whose power derived from Allah, the caliph governed in accordance with Muslim law as defined by the Quran.
The Split between the Muslims
The Issue with who should be the first caliph Caliph = successor to Muhammad Should it be Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in- law? Abu Bakr fought those who withdrew their loyalty to Islam over his take over. Abu Bakr won in uniting Arabs under one leader Under the first 4 caliphs, the Muslims beat the Byzantines and Persians! (take over of Jerusalem and Egypt)
Divisions within Islam Shi’ite Muslim 15% of the World’s Muslims are Shi’ites Mohammed was the founder of Islam. Shi’ites believe that the leadership of Muslims should have been passed down to someone in Mohammed’s family. Quarrels over who should be the leader resulted in the death of Mohammed’s grandson, Hussein. Imams are very important leaders among Shi’ites. Many Shi’ites, called “ Twelvers ” believe that the 12 th imam, who disappeared in the 800s A.D. did not die. They believe he will return as “the Mahdi” at the end of the world. Experts among Iranian Twelver Shi’ites are called “ ayatollahs ” (Look at their leaders) Iranians are 89% Shi’ites.
Sunnis About 90% of the world’s Muslims are Sunnis. Sunnis believe that it was right for leadership to be passed from Mohammed down to leaders called “caliphs” Caliphs were chosen by elders among the Sunnis. Friday is the Muslims’ holy day. While the Sunnis wait for the return of the caliph of Islam to earth, the Shi’ites think that he is already on Earth but has yet to be found.
THE ISLAMIC STATE was a theocracy, in which government and religion were inseparable and there was no distinction between secular and spiritual authority. Thus, Islam was more than a religion. It was also a system of government, society, law, and thought that bound believers into an all-encompassing community.
CHRISTIANS AND JEWS who lived in Islamic lands had fewer rights than Muslims. They could not bear arms, were assessed a special tax, and sometimes were barred from testifying in court against a Muslim. Nevertheless, despite instances of loss of property or life, the two groups generally went about their business and practiced their religions free of persecution. Muslim Jew Christian
FORMULA FOR SUCCESS: Islam gave the many Arab tribes the unity, discipline, and organization to succeed in their wars of conquest. Under the first four caliphs, who ruled from 632 to 661, the Arabs overran the Persian Empire, seized some of Byzantium’s provinces, and invaded Europe Unity Discipline Organization
JIHAD: Muslim warriors believed they were engaged in a holy war (jihad) to spread Islam to nonbelievers and that those who died in the jihad were assured a place in paradise. A desire to escape from the barren Arabian Desert and to exploit the rich Byzantine and Persian lands was another compelling reason for expansion.
CONQUESTS BY 733: In the east, Islam’s territory eventually extended into India and to the borders of China. In the west, it encompassed North Africa and most of Spain. But the Muslims’ northward push lost momentum and was halted in 717 by the Byzantines at Constantinople and in 732 by the Franks at the Battle of Tours in Central France.
CULTURAL INTEGRATION: In the 8 th and 9 th centuries, under the Abbasid caliphs, Muslim civilization entered its golden age. Islamic civilization creatively integrated Arabic, Byzantine, Persian, and Indian cultural traditions. During the Early Middle Ages, when learning was at a low point in western Europe, the Muslims preserved the philosophical and scientific heritage of the ancient world.
ADVANCES IN LEARNING: The synthesis of Eastern and Western ideas and of new thought with old, brought about great advances in medicine, mathematics, physics, astronomy, geography, architecture, art, literature, and history.
TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE: Many crucial systems such as algebra, the Arabic numerals, and the concept of the zero, were transmitted to medieval Europe from Islam. Sophisticated instruments which were to make possible the European voyages of discovery were developed, including the astrolabe, the quadrant and good navigational maps.
THE ARAB EMPIRE, stretching from Spain to India, was unified by a common language (Arabic), a common faith, and a common culture.
DECLINE: By the 11 th century, however, the Arabs began losing their dominance in the Islamic world. The Seljuk Turks conquered Syria, Palestine, and much of Persia. In the 11 th and 12 th centuries, the Muslims lost Sicily and most of Spain to Christian knights. In the 13 th and 14 th centuries, Mongols devastated Muslim lands. In the 15 th century, the collapse of the Mongol empire left the way open for the Ottoman Turks, who reached their height in the 16 th century.
Islam Today Major Religions of the World: August 9, 2007
How Terrorists Hijacked Islam Charismatic leaders, misreading religious texts, find arguments to justify holy war against anyone or any country believed to be promoting an "anti-Islam agenda." And socioeconomic conditions have made a large pool of young men susceptible to the argument that they can best serve Allah by donating their lives to the cause…. Fighting such extremism requires understanding that this is a war not between Islam and the West, but between certitude and open-mindedness, dogma and thought, prejudice and tolerance.” --Stern, Jessica. "How Terrorists Hijacked Islam." USA Today (30 September 2001).
MUSLIM WOMEN: According to the Quran, men and women are equal before God. Today, Muslims offer these practices as evidence of equality: Islam sees a woman, whether single or married, as an individual in her own right, with the right to own and dispose of her property and earnings. A marital gift is given by the groom to the bride for her own personal use, and she may keep her own family name rather than adopting her husband's. Roles of men and women are complementary and collaborative. Rights and responsibilities of both sexes are equitable and balanced in their totality.
CLOTHING: Muslims say that both men and women are expected to dress in a way that is simple, modest and dignified, but that specific traditions of female dress found in some Muslim countries are often the expression of local customs rather than religious principle. Likewise, they admit that treatment of women in some areas of the Muslim world sometimes reflects cultural practices which may be incon- sistent, if not contrary, to authentic Islamic teachings.
Saudi Arabia: Schoolgirls burned to death for not wearing scarves [March 27, 2002] Fifteen schoolgirls died in a burning school building in Mecca, because they did not wear correct Islamic dress. Saudi Arabia's religious mutaween police, the so-called "Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice", stopped them from leaving the blazing building, because they were without headscarves and abayas (black robes)….A policeman was seen beating a girl, who escaped, and forcing her back into the flames…. Police also stopped firemen and other helpers, who tried to rescue the girls, warning it was "sinful" to come near them. A school guard refused despite the pleas of a girl's father to unlock the gates, when the fire broke out. The authorities used to keep the school locked to make sure that boys and girls remained strictly apart…. The mutaween are all-powerful in Saudi Arabia and normally nobody dares to criticize them. They …beat up or arrest and jail anybody, who doesn't obey their orders, when they patrol the streets to enforce the strict Islamic dress code and the practicing of the prescribed prayers and harass those who indulge in forbidden contact between men and women.
A Child’s Kingdom
Sources The Birth of Islam Major Religions of the World Marvin Perry, Western Civilization: A Brief History (2001) Thomas F.X. Noble, et al., Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience (2002) Stern, Jessica. “How Terrorists Hijacked Islam.” USA Today (30 September 2001). Saudi Arabia: Schoolgirls burned to death for not wearing scarves. A Child’s Kingdom