The Peloponnesian War Causes Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian Domination. The Greek world split into two rival camps. Enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian league led by Sparta. In 431 B.C., war broke out between Athens and Sparta. The conflict lasted for 27 years.
Peloponnesian War Plague wiped out one-third of the population of Athens, including Pericles in 429 B.C. The war turned into a brutal deadlock where neither side had the advantage. Turning Points: The destruction of the Athenian fleet at Sicily in 413 B.C. The Persians supplying Sparta with a fleet. It allowed Sparta to surround and starve Athens. End of the War Athens surrendered in 404 B.C. and lost its empire. Sparta was also weakened and was a shadow of its former shelf.
I. Alexander’s family and early life Born in Macedon 336 B.C. His father-King Philip II of Macedon His mother-Olympia's of Epirus Education-raised to be a king but also received a classical education.(tutored by Greek genius Aristotle.) Helped his father unite all Greeks in 336 B.C. and proved to be an excellent military leader by age 18. Became King of Macedonia and Greece after his dad was assassinated in 334 B.C.
II. Alexander’s Quest: the conquest of Persia In 334 B.C. Alexander invaded Asia Minor(Turkey) intent on conquering Persia. Persia was weak but was still more than 2,000 miles from Egypt to India. Alexander won battle after battle, often against Persian armies several times larger than his. He advanced towards the heart of Persian Empire, looking for a battle against the Persian King Darius III that would decide who would rule Asia.
III. Alexander’s Masterpiece: The Battle of Gaugamela This battle decided who would rule Asia. Alexander-47,000 men Persians-90,000-100,000 The Persians chose the battle site and had every advantage. Alexander ignored suggestions to retreat from his generals, he wanted to win right here.
IV. What Next?: The final years of Alexander the Great With Persia conquered at the end of 331 B.C. Alexander was the most powerful man in the world.(only 25) Alexander continued his conquests beyond the known ancient world. Persian soldiers were added to his armies and much to the dismay of his fellow Macedonians/Greeks, he took a Persian wife. He crossed the Hindu Kush and moved into India. Even through he never lost a battle, his soldiers were tired and refused to go any further.
V. Alexander’s Death Alexander returns to Babylon in 323 B.C. where he rested and prepared to march again. He fell victim to fever and died in 323 B.C. (one month away from 32) No one was strong enough to succeed him and his empire was divided up by his generals. For the next 300 years, their descendants ruled over the lands that Alexander conquered.
VI. Alexander’s Legacy Alexander’s greatest accomplishment and legacy: spread Greek culture and knowledge around the ancient world. “Hellenistic Age” Cities he founded like Alexandria Egypt, became centers of the ancient world and beyond. Hellenistic Age: Greek, Egyptian, and Indian influences. New Philosophy: Stoicism “accept life and have moral standards.”
Advances also made in the fields of Math, Astronomy, Science, Medicine, and Physics. Final thought: the blueprint of western civilization given to us by the Greeks and Alexander is complete. Now it is time for the Romans to play their part.
Rome Roman Republic Graphic Organizer needed (pg.152)
Rome Rome’s success was due to successful diplomacy and its loyal, well-trained army. You had to be a citizen and own land during the Republic days. The key unit was the legion (5,000-8,000 men) Within each legion, soldiers were divided into centuries (80-100 men) led by a centurion (officer). Your century fought, marched, trained, ate, died as a group. Loyalty, courage, and respect for authority was #1.
Rome Rome’s military relied on training, technology, and tactics to win wars. They would never fight a battle on ground where they didn’t think they could win. Once someone was defeated, Rome gave these people respect and reward for becoming a Roman citizen. Result- most conquered lands remained loyal to Rome even during troubled times.
Rome Rome conquered most of Italy by 270 B.C. Fought three Punic wars with North African city-state Carthage from 264-146 B.C. This war basically decided who would control the Mediterranean Region. Carthage’s General Hannibal defeated the Roman army many times during the second Punic war, but still lost the war. Destroyed Carthage at the end of the Punic Wars (146 B.C.) and controlled the entire Mediterranean Region. From 146-133 B.C., the Romans conquered all of the Greek world left by Alexander the Great. Old Persian lands were never conquered. By 133 B.C., Rome ruled from Spain to Egypt.
Civil War/ Rise of Octavian Problems: 1. Common people lost land due to expansion. 2. Money and power are completed over by the Patricians. Start to see rich senators build their own private armies to gain money and power. Julius Caesar emerged and became master of the Roman world before he was assassinated in 44 B.C.
Civil War/ Rise of Octavian The death of Julius Caesar brought on Civil War. Octavian, grand nephew of Caesar, was declared heir and son to Caesars fortune. With Mark Antony, Octavian defeated Caesar’s murders at the battle of Philippi in Greece in 42 B.C. The two shared power, but hated each other. In 31 B.C., Octavian defeated Mark Antony and his lover, Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. With his victory, Octavian ended the Roman Republic for good in 27 B.C.
Roman Empire Octavian became the first emperor and changed his name to Augustus “exalted one”. He created civil service to enforce laws and impose a fair tax system. Many Republican traditions were kept for order. From 27 B.C.-180 A.D., this era is known as the Pax Romana “Roman Peace”. Rome dominated and brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to its land.
Highlights of the Pax Romana Augustus died in 14 A.D., ruling for 45 years as emperor. Emperors chose their successors which often made things bloody. Some emperors were good, some bad, and a few probably insane. Despite this, Rome is wealthy from trade as far as India and China. People enjoyed a high standard of living. However, there are millions of slaves and poor people struggling to survive.
Jesus At age 30, he begun preaching to villages near the sea of Galilee. He recruited 12 close followers and for the next three years preached all over Judea. His preaching's attracted large crowds. His beliefs: (a.) There is only God. (b.) Follow the ten commandments and Jewish prophets. (c.) Heaven is greater than Rome. Soon, his followers started calling him the son of God.
Death and the Birth of Christianity The Romans saw him as a threat and had one of his disciples betray him. Jesus was tried and condemned to death by crucifixion. However, his disciples claim that he rose from the dead. Also, he(Jesus) commanded them to spread his teachings to other people. His followers did just that along with people like Paul who taught non-Jews about Jesus.
The Official Religion of Rome At first, Christianity was a dangerous religion to the Romans and was outlawed. Christians were persecuted and killed by the Romans. Despite these attacks, Christianity continued to spread and be accepted throughout the Roman World. Roman People found comfort in Jesus’ message more than the Roman Gods during troubling times. In 313, the emperor Constantine granted freedom to worship Christianity in the Roman world. By the end of the third century, Christianity was the official religion of Rome. 476- End of the Western Roman Empire.
The Middle Ages (476-1500) Europe at the end of the Roman Empire was a land of chaos. Europe was controlled by German Kings. One brief moment of unity: Charles the Great( Charlemagne) conquered modern day France and Germany. (768-814) That moment of unity however, was destroyed by Viking invasions from the 800-1000s.
Feudalism Feudalism-system of rule where a series of lords divided their land among lesser lords. 1. Lord/King gives the land(fief) for free to the vassals(lesser lords or knights). 2. Feudal Contract-Exchange of Pledges 3. Vassals(lesser lords) runs the land(fiefs) as he wants but must provide monthly earnings and knights(mounted warriors on horseback) to his king/lord. 4. Serfs(peasants) bond to the land and they work it in exchange for shelter and protection. They have no freedom on the manor(lord’s estate).
I. Rise of The Catholic Church Most or Europe was converted to Christianity in the 500-1000s. Christian rituals and faith was your everyday life. The Church-usually the largest public building in a community. Tithes- a tenth of your income(taxes).
Monasteries Origins-many people wanted to devote their entire lives to Christianity. Communities were based on the benedict rule. Vows-obedience, poverty, and chastity. Outlets for service, scholarship, and women
III. Power Grows The Bishop of Rome, the Pope became the head of Christianity. The Church became a rich, powerful, spiritual, and political institution. Cannon law applied to everything. Anyone who crossed the Church faced excommunication or an interdict. The Church-the glue of European Society in the Middle Ages.
IV. Corruption and Reform As power and wealth grew, discipline and spiritual values declined. Top positions went to non-religious people. Reformers: 1. Monks of Cluny: control only by the Pope. 2. Pope Gregory VII- Pope should have supreme authority and appoint Bishops. 3. Friars- preach/help the poor. 4. St. Francis of Assi-New order of Monks. Goods works matter.
V. Jews in Europe Jewish communities all over Europe since Roman times. They were educated and accepted until the late 1000s. Many Jews left Western Europe and formed communities in Eastern Europe.
Knights Knights-warriors on horseback. Serve God and their lord. Provided protection for the lord and estate. Skilled with weapons. Code of Chivalry-rules of behavior Brave Loyal Courteous Respectful Honorable Truthfulness
Knights: Training Page Age 7-14 Serve women on the manor Learn manners Study religion, reading, writing, poetry, singing, flute playing. Squire Age 14-21 Serve lord and knight Maintain the lord’s armor and equipment Maintain the stables and groom the horses. Practice team hunting, hawking, and chess.
Knights: Training Sponsor Not usually your father(may be a relative). Squire could not become a knight until your sponsor said you were ready. Not all squires were sponsored to become a knight. Vigil of Arms Night before Knighting is dedicated to prayer and fasting. Wear white and red White=Purity Red=Willing to shed blood for your lord. Accolade Kneel before your lord and your oath of loyalty.
The Rise of Islam Muhammad was born in Mecca around 570 A.D. Married a rich widow merchant at age 25. Age 40- troubled by Mecca society. Became a messenger of God and founded Islam. In 622, Muhammad and his followers were forced to leave Mecca for Yathrib(Medina). There Islam grew and eventually all of Arabia was united under it. Muhammad died in 632, but his religion continued to spread.
Teachings of Islam Everything is based on the Quran, sacred text of Islam. Beliefs or five pillars of faith 1.Declaration of faith 2.Pray five times a day. 3. Give money to the poor(2%) 4. Fast during Ramadan(all month) 5. Make a haji or pilgrimage to Mecca.
A Way of Life Islam is both a religion and a way of life. Haria- law dictated by the Quran Treatment of Women 1. Gave women some legal rights. 2. Encouraged education for girls. 3. Prohibited the killing of daughters. 4. Required women to dress modestly.
Muslim Trade and Knowledge Muslims built an international trade network from India and China to the Middle East. Muslims cities became centers of learning and advanced studies in areas like philosophy, mathematics, medicine, etc. Highlights: A. Invented Zero and advanced Algebra and Geometry. B. Canon of Medicine- Medical textbook on the treatment of disease.
Impact of the Crusades By 1291, all of the Crusader Kingdoms were captured by Muslim armies. 1. Feudal lords lost their land because they went on Crusades. 2. Kings increased their power by taking their lands. 3. Trade grew as Europeans wanted goods from the Middle East and Asia. 4. Europeans now wanted to explore far away places like India and China. 5. Money economy develops which weakens Feudalism.
Reconquista Christian campaign to drive the Muslims out of Spain. Lasted from 1085-1492. From 1469-1492, Christian rulers Ferdinand and Isabella wanted religious and political unity. Result: Inquisition, church court that forced 150,000 Muslims and Jews to leave Spain.