Presentation on theme: "CHINA Traditional China. Son of Heaven The King Served as a link between heaven and Earth King consulted spirits of ancestors to find answers to problems."— Presentation transcript:
CHINA Traditional China
Son of Heaven The King Served as a link between heaven and Earth King consulted spirits of ancestors to find answers to problems Oracle Bones Sheep or goat bones with questions written on them. Bones were heated Cracks revealed answers from the Heavens.
Pictographs Pictures of objects Early Chinese writing used pictographs
Ideographs Symbols to express ideas
Mandate of Heaven Heaven granted a ruler a right to rule. The people, in turn, obeyed the ruler and were loyal and obedient.
Chinese Social Structure Based on four Confucians ideas: 1) Age 2) Sex 3) Education 4) Occupation
Chinese Social Structure Social Pyramid: Emperor Scholars;Government Officials GENTRY: Landowners; Warlords Peasants Merchants; Artisans Soldiers Note: Amount of people in class indicated by size of word; Importance indicated from top to bottom.
Gentry Wealthy landowners educated in Confucian classics. The Leisure Class Looked down on those who had to perform physical work Let fingernails grow to to show they did not do physical work. THREE ROLES: 1) Collected taxes 2) Maintained the peace 3) Advised the Emperor
Peasants Worked small plots of land Some owned the land Some worked as tenant farmers Some were landless laborers Made cloth; furniture; etc.
Social Mobility Artisans; Merchants; Peasants Wealth was used to educate their sons. If a young man could pass the examinations he could become a government official
Joint Family Included multiple generations. Oldest male had the most authority.
Filial Piety Family’s interests are placed before ones own. Parents expect complete obedience and respect.
Respect for Ancestors Extended Family: Included living; dead; future generations. 3 Primary Forms: Provided them with food, clothing, and other necessities. Family created sons so that traditions could be continued. Held memorial services to ancestors.
Arranged Marriages Parents arrange marriages for their children. What to base it on? Peasant: Woman who could work hard and bear many children Gentry: Resources of a bride’s family Dowry Groom paid the bride’s family.
Chinese View of Women View of Women: Inferior to men. Valued for work Valued for ability to bear children Foot Binding Feet of women were bound Kept feet small Large feet were unattractive
Below: Schema of an x-ray comparison between an unbound and bound foot Right: Bound foot.
China’s Dynasties Xia – Shang – Zhou – Qin – Han – Tang – Song – Yuan – Ming – Qing
Xia Founder of Dynasty: Yu According to legend, Yu tamed the Hwang He and founded the Xia Dynasty Location =
Shang 1650 BCE Origin of Dynasty: Strong rulers over the agricultural lands of China. Religious/Philosophical Ideas: Dynastic rule Son of Heaven Emperor was the link between Earth and Heaven (Heaven - the home of many Gods) Achievements: Form of writing (pictographs; ideographs) Accurate calender Bronze (weapons; everyday goods)
Zhou 1027 BCE Origin of Dynasty: Invaders from northwest Political Idea (Justification for Rise to Power) : Mandate of Heaven
Qin Origin of Dynasty (Founder): Emperor conquered his neighbors and called himself the Shi Huangdi (“First Emperor”) Religious/Philosophical Ideas: Legalistic Principals Achievements: Established a single: code of law uniform weights and measures currency Built first Great Wall
Han Origin of Dynasty (Founder) : Liu Bang (lyoh bong) Religious/Philosophical Ideas: Central control; Confucian learning Contact with Outside World: Silk Road = Trade with west Key route of trade through central asia’s deserts to Persia Called silk road because of the demand for Chinese silk. Buddhism introduced to China via the Silk Road Achievements: Built second Great Wall Learned to make paper Set up civil service exam system. Created a prosperous trade route (The Silk Road) Medical Treatments (acupuncture)
Tang & Song Dynasties General Description: The “Golden Ages” of China Religious/Philosophical Ideas: Embraced Confucianism. Perfected Exam System. Concentrated Power among the Scholar Elite Achievements: The sternpost rudder Magnetic compass Became a naval power Block printing Moveable type (literature flourished) Tang Song
Yuan Origin of Dynasty (founders) : Mongols Ghenghiz Khan Conquered land from the Pacific all the way westward to the Danube River in Europe. Kublai Khan Gave a Chinese name to his dynasty: Yuan Relationship with Chinese: Did not want Chinese in powerful positions Wanted to preserve Mongol culture Chinese resented foreign rule Achievements: Marco Polo visits China Infrastructure Roads; Messenger System; Trade Routes. Kublai Khan
Ming Origin of Dynasty (founder) : Zhu Yuanzhang (joo yoo ahn jahng) Called himself Ming Hung Wu 1368 – Captures Beijing from Mongols Peasant general claims mandate of heaven. Religious/Philosophical Ideas: Revived Confucian Learning Contact with Outside World: Achievements: Built Imperial Palace “The Forbidden City” Hung Wu
Qing Origin of Dynasty (founder) : Established by Manchu invaders. Religious/Philosophical Ideas: Forbid marrying with Chinese Forbid wearing Chinese clothing. Contact with Outside World: Wished to limit contact with foreigners
Chinese Philosophies 4 Key Philosophies Confucianism Buddhism Taoism Legalism
Confucius (Confucianism) Facial Expression: Sour Attitude toward Life: Life is sour. Life would be better with strict rules. Strict order.
Buddha (Buddhism) Facial Expression: Bitter Attitude toward life: Bitter Necessary to transcend this world. Physical world filled with illusions and desires that lead to suffering.
Lao Tzu (Taoism) Facial Expression: Smiling Attitude toward life: World governed by laws of nature. Natural order to the world, man should not interfere or else the world falls out of balance.
Confucianism Birth of Confucius: 551 BCE Confucianism: Stresses the need to develop responsibility and moral character through rigid ruled of behavior.
Confucius’ Birthday Teacher’s Day In mainland China (People's Republic of China) Confucius is honored on the anniversary of his death - October 1st. In Taiwan, he his honored on the anniversary of his birth - September 28th. His birthday is a legal holiday in Taiwan. It is referred to as “Teacher's Day” since Confucius is considered the greatest teacher in Chinese history.
The Analects record of the words and acts of the philosopher Confucius and his disciples.
Confucianism Ren BEING (The Golden Rule) – do onto others as… Primary teaching of Confucius “LOVE OTHERS” Yi DOING/MEANS (Behave properly/ fulfill responsibilities) Righteousness Li ENDS (Self Interest) Profit; gain; advantage (one should not practice this) Li
Confucius’ Relationships Five Relationships Purpose: to govern human society 1) Ruler and ruled 2) Father and son 3) Older brother and younger brother 4) husband and wife 5)* friend and friend *In all but (5), one person has authority over another and the superior should set an example for the inferior.
Buddhism Buddha’s Given Name: Prince Siddharta Guatama Buddha’s Birth: Where: Ancient India When: 553 B.C.E. Buddha – “Awakened One” Buddha
Buddhism The Four Noble Truths: 1. Life is filled with suffering. 2. Suffering is caused by people’s wants. 3. Suffering can be ended if people stop wanting things. 4. To stop wanting things people must follow the Eightfold Path ( 8 basic laws)
Buddhism The Middle Way Eightfold Path was designed to guide people without making life too strict or too easy. The Middle Way- The name Buddhists call lived guided by the laws of the Eightfold Path. Wheel with eight spokes – a symbol for following the eightfold path.
Taoism Main Themes: Intuition Simplicity Spontaneity The way of nature
Taosim – Key Definitions Tao: The way of nature of the universe Yin/Yang: balance of opposing forces Wu Wei: (non-doing) behavior that is spontaneous, natural, and effortless. (Going with the flow) Pu: (The uncarved block) things in their natural state. Te: (the flowing power) virtue obtained through balance, compassion, and living simply. Ch’i: cosmic energy
Yin/Yang Masculine Active Light Warmth Strong Heaven Sun Feminine Passive Darkness Cold Weak Earth Moon
Taoism Lao Zi (6 th -3 rd Century BCE) Creator of the foundation of Taoist philosophy. Legend: Born immaculately as an 82 year old man Lived simply in mountains, but put under guard and forced to write his life’s wisdom. Important literature: Tao Te Ching Written by Lao Zi and several other teachers. Basic text of Taoist thought.
Taoist Influences on Chinese Culture Acupuncture I Ching Tai Chi Feng Shui
Acupuncture 200 year old medical procedure that is based on the concept of balancing ch’I (the energy that flows throughout the body) by puncturing the skin with hair-thin needles at particular points
I Ching An ancient scripture about the yin/yang used by Taoist and Confucianists as a form of divination - (to gain insight into a question)
Tai Chi A set of smooth, flowing exercises used to improve or maintain health, create a sense of relaxation and keep the ch’i flowing.
Feng Shui The ancient Chinese art of placement. Its goal is to achieve harmony, comfort, and balance, first in ones environment and then in one’s life.
Legalism Law is the supreme authority. 3 Components: Fa Law Shi Legitimacy of Rule Shu Arts of the ruler *Laws enforced by strict reward/punishment.
Legalism The Two Handles: 1. Reward 2. Punishment People not smart enough to know how to behave so a system of reward and punishment must be in place.
Legalism Founders of Legalism: Han Feizi Han Feizi – the main text of legalism. Legalism would unite China. Shangzi Saw a strong government according to law as a solution to growing populations and limited resources. Feizi
Test Review Traditional China Dynasties Philosophies