3 What is Child Abuse?Child abuse is the physical or psychological mistreatment of a child by his or her parents (including adoptive parents), guardians, or other adults. While this term emphasizes on carrying out wrong acts, a related term is child neglect: not doing what is necessary, negligence. Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_abuseTypes of child abuse include:Neglect (includes medical neglect)Physical abuseSexual abuseEmotional maltreatmentOther maltreatment as defined by state law
6 What is Child Sexual Abuse? Sexual acts engaged in by prepubescent minors and adults.Source: www. wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_sexual_abuseTwo Elements are required:Sexual activities involving a child; and,An “abusive condition” such as coercion or a large age gap between the participants indicating a lack of consent.Source: Finkelhor, Current Information on Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse, 1994
8 How Prevalent Is Child Abuse? Reported/Confirmed Abuse906,000 children reported abusedMost from neglectApproximately 90,000 from child sexual abuseSource: Child Maltreatment 2003; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003Not Reported Child Sexual AbuseEstimated 20% of American women and 5% to 10% of American men experience child sexual abuseEstimated 500,000 child victims per year/ 8.5 million children under the age of 17Source: Finkelhor, Current Information on Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse, 1994
9 How Prevalent Is Child Sexual Abuse? CDC says “child maltreatment” is a public health issueEstimated 8.5 million children (1-17 years) sexually abused in U.S. versus estimated 950,000 adults and children with HIV in U.S.HIV Source:906,000/90,000 confirmed cases of child abuse and child sexual abuse versus 1,214 juvenile kidnappings (>1% of all juvenile crimes)Kidnapping Source: D. Finkelhor and R. Ormrod, Kidnapping of Juveniles: Pattern from NIBRS, June 2000.
11 Why Isn’t Abuse Reported? Children rarely report sexual abuse79% deny or are tentative in disclosure22% recant their disclosure once admitted Source: Sorensen & Snow, 1991 StudyRecent studies suggest that 50% to 60% percent of deaths from abuse or neglect are not reportedSource: Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions, NAIC, April 2004, studies performed in Colorado and North Carolina.Only one out of three rapes/sexual assaults are reportedSource: Greenfeld, Sex Offenses and Offenders, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1997
12 Why Isn’t Abuse Reported? Child AbuseFear of:ReprisalAgainst themselvesAgainst loved onesDestroying the FamilyBeing responsible for the family destructionBeing IgnoredChild Sexual AbuseSame Fears but add:Being BlamedThey brought on the abuseBeing RidiculedBeing CaughtUsing drugsUsing alcoholViewing pornographyLosing a Loved OneBeing WrongBeing ExaminedSexual guilt
14 What Are the Harms of Abuse? Child Abuse1,400 children died from neglect/abuse in 2002 Source: Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions, NAIC, 2004Child Sexual AbuseLaw enforcement statistics show that victims younger than 18 years old constitute:46% of forcible rapes.84% of forcible fondling.79% of forcible sodomy.75% of sexual assault with an object Source: Snyder, Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident and Offender Characteristics, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000.Suicide rate among boys sexually abused is 1.5 to 14 times higher Source: Pandora’s Box citing Dr. William Holmes. Univ. Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 1998.
15 What Are the Harms of Abuse? Child AbuseOne-third of parents who have experienced maltreatment will victimize their own children Source: Child Maltreatment Fact Sheet: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2005), citing Fromm, 2001.95% of child victimizers report being physically or sexually abused as children Source: Greenfield, Child Victimizers: Violent Offenders and Their Victims, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1996Child Sexual Abuse25% of women in state prison report being sexually abused before age 18 Source: Prior Abuse Reported by Inmates and Probationers, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999.95% of teenage prostitutes were sexually abused Source: Pandora’s Box citing CCPCA, 1992.
16 What Are the Harms of Abuse? Child Sexual Abuse54% of rapes occur before the victim turns 18 Source: Sexual Violence Fact Sheet: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2004), citing Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000.32,000 pregnancies from rape each year. Source: Sexual Violence Fact Sheet: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2004), citing Holmes, 1996.Women who are raped before the age of 18 are twice as likely to be raped as adults compared to those without a history of abuse. Source: Sexual Violence Fact Sheet: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2004), citing Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000.
17 What Are the Harms of Abuse? $24.3 Billion in Direct CostsHospitalization: $6.2 billionChronic Health Problems: $2.9 billionMental Health Care: $425 millionChild Welfare System: $14.4 billionLaw Enforcement: $24 millionJudicial System: $341 million$69.9 Billion in Indirect CostsSpecial Education: $223 millionMental Heath and Health Care: $4.6 billionJuvenile Delinquency: $8.8 billionLost Productivity: $656 millionAdult Criminality: $55 billionTotal: $94 BillionSource: Fromm, Total Estimated Cost of Child Abuse and Neglect in the United States, Statistical Evidence, 2001.Chart Sources:
18 What Are the Long-Term Harms of Sexual Violence?
19 What Are the Long-Term Harms of Sexual Violence? DepressionSuicideAttempted suicideAlienationPost-traumatic stress disorderEating disordersSleep disturbancesStrained family relationshipsDivorceHigh risk sexual behaviorSubstance abuseMigrainesGynecological and pregnancy complicationsGastrointestinal disordersAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorderSources: Child Maltreatment: Fact Sheet, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2005), citing DHHS 2001 and Sexual Violence: Fact Sheet, NCIPC (2004)
20 Do All Victims of Sexual Abuse Suffer Long-Term Consequences?
21 Do All Victims of Sexual Abuse Suffer Long-Term Consequences? Most experts believe that children who are abused suffer from some form of traumaSome non-conventional arguments and one study claim that there is less correlation to harm depending on “consent” or that the harm is primarily due to poor family response or family environment Source: Rind et al., A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse, Psychological Bulletin, American Psychological Association, 1998, see also,www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rind_et_al.The majority holds that a child can never provide“knowledgeable or informed consent” to an adult
23 Who Are the Likely Victims of Child Abuse? Child Sexual AbuseGirls at a slightly higher riskGirls are more likely victims than boysThe younger the child, the greater the risk. Most deaths under age of 4.Peak vulnerability is between ages 7 and 13Children who have a past history of abuseChildren who live apart from their parentsChildren of homes where spousal abuse is presentChildren whose parents abuse substancesChildren of large families and children of single parentsChildren with disabilities are four to ten times more likely to be abusedSources:Source: Child Maltreatment 2003, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003; Finkelhor & Ormrod, Child Abuse Reported to the Police ,2001Sources: Finkelhor, Current Information on Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse, 1994; National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 1992.
24 Males Commit Most Child Abuse? True or False:Males Commit Most Child Abuse?
25 True or False: Males Commit Most Child Abuse? Females commit 58.2% of child abuse Source: Child Maltreatment 2003, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003Child Sexual AbuseMales commit between 80% and 90% of child sexual abuse Source: Finkelhor, Current Information on Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse, 1994Males commit approximately 96% of sexual assault Source: Snyder, Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident and Offender Characteristics, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000Some experts suggest that female abuse is under-reported Source: Finkelhor, Current Information on Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse, 1994
26 Parents Commit Most Child Abuse? True or False:Parents Commit Most Child Abuse?
27 True or False: Parents Commit Most Child Abuse? Parents commit nearly 80% of child abuseOther relatives commit 6.4%Child Sexual Abuse75% of child sexual abuse reported involves friends or neighborsLess than 3% of parents are reported to commit child sexual abuse Source: Child Maltreatment 2003, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 200334.2% of persons convicted of sexual assault against juveniles were family members, 58.7% acquaintances and 7% strangers Source: Snyder, Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident and Offender Characteristics, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000Children Know the Perpetrator More Than 90% of the Time
28 Homosexuals and Pedophiles Commit Most Child Sexual Abuse? True or False:Homosexuals and PedophilesCommit Most Child Sexual Abuse?
29 True or False: Homosexuals and Pedophiles Commit Most Child Sexual Abuse? Most abuse is by heterosexualsMost perpetrators are heterosexualOver 90% are “recognizable heterosexual” Source: Jenny, C., T. Roesler and K. Poyer. "Are Children at Risk for Sexual Abuse by Homosexuals?" Pediatrics. vol. 94, no. 1.Large percentage of abusers have a heterosexual relationship with close relative of the victim Source: National Research Council, Understanding Child Abuse Neglect, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993.Most abuse is by situational offendersAbuse by pedophiles is between 2-10% Source: Kinsey-Report, Lautmann, Brongersma, GrothWho is a pedophile?Pedophila: A condition in which an adult, usually male, is sexually attracted primarily to pre-pubertal children -- those aged 13 years or under.Ephebophila:A condition in which an adult, usually male, is sexually attracted to young people about the age of puberty.Hebephilia: A condition in which an adult, usually male, is sexually attracted to post-pubertal adolescents (14 to 17). Source:
30 Only Adults Are Considered True or False:Only Adults Are ConsideredSexual Predators?
31 True or False: Only Adults Are Considered Sexual Predators? Juveniles are estimated to commit 40% of reported sexual assaults against children ages six and under and 39% of sexual assaults against children ages 6 through 11. Source: Snyder, H.N. Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics, U.S. Department of Justice, 2000.Nearly half of the babysitter sex offenders were juveniles. Source: Finkelhor and Ormrod, Crimes Against Children by Babysitters, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 2001.
32 All Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse True or False:All Perpetrators of Child Sexual AbuseAre the Same?
33 True or False: All Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse Are the Same? Criminal psychology lists three offender classifications:Regressed offenders are primarily attracted to their own age group but are passively aroused by minors (pseudo-pedophiles also referred to as situational offenders)Attraction to children is not recognized or is suppressedThey often“act out” on children because boundaries have been compromised because of alcohol, drugs, depression or because no suitable adult is presentThey may offend because their position of power permits them to do so.Fixated offenders are most often adult pedophiles who are maladaptive to accepted social norms. They develop compatibility and self-esteem issues, stunting their social growth. They often act like children. Most fixated offenders prefer members of the same sex. Only 2-10% of offenders are fixatedSadistic offenders are very rare and inherently violent criminals. They primarily use sexuality as a tool of sadistic suppression and not for sexual satisfaction. Sadistic offenders are not considered pedophiles. Source: www. wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_sexual_abuse
34 Sex Offenders Are More Likely True or False:Sex Offenders Are More Likelyto Be Rearrested?
35 True or False: Sex Offenders Are More Likely to Be Rearrested? 3.3% of child molesters released in 1994 were rearrested for another sex crime against a child within three years.5.3% were arrested for committing other sex crimes, including child sex crimes.Average sentence: 8 yearsAverage served: 3.5 yearsSource: 5 Percent of Sex Offenders Rearrested For Another Sex Crime within 3 Years of Prison Release, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2003.
40 WATCH for Victim Red Flags Physical Signs of Child Victims of Physical AbuseBruising and WeltsBroken bonesBurnsCutsBitesFading bruises after being away from schoolPhysical Signs of Child NeglectLacks needed medical or dental care, immunizations, or glassesConsistently dirty or has severe body odorLacks sufficient clothing for the weatherSource: Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signs and Symptoms, NAIC, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003
41 WATCH for Victim Red Flags Physical signs of sexual abuseMay show same signs of physical abuseOther physical signs:Vaginal or rectal bleedingGenital painItching, swelling or dischargeDifficulty with bowel movementsPainful urinationReoccurring complaints of stomachaches or headachesTrauma to breasts, buttocks, lower abdomen or extremitiesSexual diseasesPregnancyTrouble walking or sittingSelf-mutilationSource: Id. and Finkel, M.A., Giardino, A.P.Medical Evaluation of Child Sexual Abuse: APractical Guide, Sage Publications, 2001
42 WATCH for Victim Red Flags Behavioral Signs of NeglectIs frequently absent from schoolBegs or steals food or moneyAbuses alcohol or other drugsStates that there is no one at home to provide careBehavioral Signs of Physical AbuseIs frightened of parentsProtests or cries when it is time to go homeOften absent from schoolShrinks at the approach of adultsReports injury by a parent or another adult caregiverSource: Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signsand Symptoms, NAIC, U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, 2003
43 WATCH for Victim Red Flags Behavioral Signs of Child Sexual Abuse VictimExtreme changes in behaviorEating disordersWithdrawalAggressivenessSuddenly refuses to change for gym or participate in physical activitiesRegression to infantile behaviorMultiple personalitiesDelinquent behaviorFalling gradesPoor concentrationHypervigilanceSource: Id. and Finkel, M.A., Giardino, A.P. MedicalEvaluation of Child Sexual Abuse: A Practical Guide,Sage Publications, 2001:Fact Sheet: Child SexualAbuse, Prevent Child Abuse America, 1999Behavioral Signs of Child Sexual Abuse Victim (cont.)Reports nightmares or bedwettingShows bizarre, sophisticated or unusual sexual knowledge or behaviorTouches other children, teachers or adults in a sexual mannerRuns awayPoor hygieneDepressionUnusual attraction to or fear of adults
44 WATCH for Abuser Red Flags Behavioral Signs of Parents and adult caregivers who physically abuse their children:Offer conflicting, unconvincing or no explanation for a child’s injuryDescribe the child as “bad” or “evil”Uses harsh physical disciplineHave history of abuseBehavioral Signs of Parents and adult caregivers that neglect their children:Appear indifferent to their childrenSeem apathetic or depressedBehave irrationally or in a bizarre mannerAbuse drugs or alcoholSource: Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signsand Symptoms, NAIC, U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, 2003
45 WATCH for Abuser Red Flags Behavioral Signs of Parents and other adult caregivers who sexually abuse their children:Unduly protective of the childSeverely limit the child’s contact with other children, especially of the opposite sexSecretiveIsolatedJealous or controlling with family membersSource: Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signsand Symptoms, NAIC, U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, 2003
46 WATCH for Abuser Red Flags Strong patriarchal relationship or familial environmentExcessive talk about sexual activities of children or teensExcessive masturbationExcessive talk about sexual fantasies about childrenEncouragement of secrets in a childViewing of child pornographyRequests of adult partners to dress or act like a child during sexExcessive time spent with children or teens versus with adultsIdentification of children with sexual slang termsSources: Sexual Violence Fact Sheet: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2004); Preventing Child Sexual Abuse, Prevent Child Abuse America, 2005Behavioral Signs of other relatives and acquaintances who are sexually violent/abusive toward children:Alcohol and drug useCoercive sexual fantasiesImpulsive and antisocial tendenciesPreference for impersonal sexHyper-masculinityHostility toward womenChildhood history of sexual or physical abuseWitnessed family violenceAssociation with sexually aggressive and delinquent peersEmotionally unsupportive familial environments
47 WATCH for Abuser Red Flags A significant warning sign is a desire to have a children away from safe adultsSafe adults must not be present if the crime is to be committedTo meet this goal:An abuser must select a victimThe conditions for abuse must be rightAn abuser must “groom” a parent or caregiver to have time with the victim away from safe adults
48 WATCH for Abuser Red Flags Selecting a VictimOffender selects victim candidates that:Abuser has a physical attraction toDo not shy away from touches, including inappropriate touchesAre needy for love and affectionTroubled familiesSingle parentsWill not tell or will not be believedTroubled childrenChildren with disabilities
49 WATCH for Abusive Conditions Abusive Conditions exist when:The child’s partner has a large age or maturational advantage over the child; orThe child’s partner is in a position of authority or in a caretaking relationship with the child; orThe activities are carried out against the child using force or trickery.Source: Finkelhor, Current Information on Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse, 1994
50 WATCH for Abusive Conditions The InternetProvides unsafe adults access to children outside parental controlBoundaries are abandoned or compromisedLow chance of being caught1 in 5 youths receives a sexual approach or solicitation over the Internet1 in 33 were asked to meet a predator in some location or received calls, correspondence, money or gifts from the predatorOnly 25% minors propositioned reported the approach to a parentSource: Internet Crimes Against Children, U.S.Department of Justice, 2004 citing 1999 Finkelhor Study
51 WATCH for Abuser Red Flags What is “grooming”?To prepare, to make readyType of groomingCommunityPersons of power or respect can groom a school, church or community to trust themFamilyBuilding trust with the family and the victim’s circle of safe adultsVictimBuilding trust with the victimPreparing the victim for the crimeKeeping the crime a secret
52 WATCH for Abuser Red Flags Grooming-Building trust with parents/caregiversBuying gifts for the familySpending an inordinate amount of time with the family and the childShowing an unusual interest in the child, while possibly ignoring other childrenAsking about the child’s gradesBuying gifts or gives money to the child without consentOffering to watch the childSeeking to take the child on tripsOffering to tutor the childProviding the child with special treatment not provided other childrenGrooming-Building trust with the victimActing like a child, talks like a child & does childish thingsIgnoring or bending the rules of the parents and caregiversSpending time with the victim than with other children or adultsContradicting the caregivers to the victimTaking pictures of the victim or of other children not their own
53 WATCH for Abuser Red Flags Grooming- Preparing the victim for the crimeCourting the victimBuys jewelry, clothes and expensive giftsTouching the victimWill the victim allow him/her to touch their “private parts”?Will the victim touch them?For young children convincing the victim that the sexual act is a way of expressing love or is a “good thing”Providing drugs and alcohol and shows pornographyTries to arouse or make the victim complacentTaking video or pictures of the child nude or engaged in sexual actsGrooming-Keeping the crime a secretAsking the victim to keep sexual acts secretTelling the victim that what they did was not wrongConvincing the victim that he/she is to blameThreatening the victim if they tell by:Threatening the child, parents or petsOffering to disclose that the victim took drugs, alcohol or watched pornographyTaking away gifts or privilegesThreatening to leave the child or not love the childDenying the charges, claiming a mistake or that the victim is lying
55 LISTEN to ChildrenChildren rarely declare their abuse or their fears openly. To learn more:Listen, listen and listen againAsk questions and solicit your child’s opinion about:Unknown adults (neighbors, relatives, friends of parents)Unknown juveniles (babysitters, friends)Unknown places and events (camps, team events)Listen to how a child describes a place, person or eventListen to why your child may like or not like a place, person or eventListen to your child’s opinion
56 LISTEN to ChildrenSubstantiated versus unsubstantiated reports of abuseAn unsubstantiated report of abuse does not mean the report is intentionally falseThere may not be enough proofThe report may be too vague57.7% of child abuse reports are unsubstantiated versus 26.4% substantiatedBelieve your childLess than 1% of claims of child abuse are intentionally false Source: Child Maltreatment 2003, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003DO NOT:Argue with the childBlame the childBecome angry in front of the childDO:Show supportGuarantee your helpConfirm your child’s safetyReaffirm your love
58 ACT! to Educate your Children Teach your child about his/her body partsTeach your child what are and are not safe touchesTeach your child who are safe adultsTeach your child not to fear telling you when someone touches them unsafelyTeach your child who are the safe adults in his or her lifeTeach your older children about the dangers of abuseTalk about news and information about the problem
59 ACT! to Safeguard your Children Monitor the ComputerEducate your children about Internet predatorsPlace filters to prevent pornography and chat room usePlace computers in the family roomEveryone has accessCreate community address
60 ACT! to Safeguard your Children Monitor Interaction with Unknown/Unsafe AdultsDO NOT:Allow an unknown or unsafe adult or juvenile be alone with your childrenAllow your child to be in the house of an unknown or unsafe adult alone75% of violent victimizations of children take place in the either the victim’s or the offender’s home.Source: Greenfield, Child Victimizers: ViolentOffenders and Their Victims, Bureau of JusticeStatistics, 1996
61 ACT! to Safeguard your Children Monitor Interaction with Unknown/Unsafe AdultsDO NOTAllow trips, school-sponsored or otherwise, unless there is sufficient adult participationAllow your child to ride in car alone with unknown adult(s)Allow meetings with unknown or unsafe adults without your attendance or the attendance of another safe adultAllow acceptance of money or gratuity from unsafe/unknown adults
62 ACT! to Become a Safe Adult Do:Hug and hold children, but do so in a proper manner and where others can see youShow respect by not being alone with another person’s child in your home or other isolated placeCheck your surroundings including knowing who are the registered sex offenders in your neighborhoodDo volunteer to help with children, but only if there are other adults presentIf you work with children do:Practice “open access”Your physical interaction with children can be viewed by other safe adults or is accessible, without notice, by other safe adultsMonitor all places where an act of abuse can occurEmpty roomsIsolated areas inside and outsideLet other adults know when their interaction with children is unsafePerform background checks on any employees/volunteers who have access to children
63 ACT! to Report Suspicions of Abuse All adults are mandatory reportersThe reporting duty is to the “individual” and not the employerMay make the report in writing or callFailure to report is a misdemeanorMaking reports known to be false atthe time of making the report is illegalImmunity from criminal and civil liability is granted to any person who in good faith and exercising due care makes a reportReports are confidentialNo information will be released disclosing the reporter unless with a court order and good cause shownSource: Title 10 Sections 7103, 7105, 7107 and 7108 ofthe Oklahoma Statutes.
64 Screen Screen all personnel for child abuse and sex crimes What works Criminal background checksCheck their working background with childrenWhat worksExtensive background checks with old employersWhat doesn’t workInexpensive web-based background checks
65 EducateEmployees and personnel should learn about abuse on a continual basisStates should make child protection a missionWhat does workWeb-based platforms
66 Monitor Reports of Abuse Put systems in place to manage claims of abuseIntakeInvestigateInternalExternalRepair and ProtectTraining CriticalTrain intake personnelTrain investigatorsTrain managers and supervisors on how to manage the problem
67 Creating Child Safe Environments Jack McCalmonThe McCalmon Group Inc.Titus,Hillis, Reynolds, Love,Dickman & McCalmon, LLCFor more information send:
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