Presentation on theme: "Wiltshire Whole School Child Protection Training: Foundation level for ALL staff and volunteers Key messages: Welcome This programme was devised by."— Presentation transcript:
1 Wiltshire Whole School Child Protection Training: Foundation level for ALL staff and volunteers Key messages:WelcomeThis programme was devised by Wiltshire Council for all adults working in schools. It is suitable to be used with all members of staff (regardless of role), volunteer helpers and governorsTrainer’s note:Remember that the training may trigger difficult emotions for some delegates – they may want to talk about concerns they did not act on, they may be distressed by some of the content, or the content may bring up distressing emotions or memories for them. It may be helpful to acknowledge this at the beginning, and to suggest that anyone in this position can leave at any time if they need to do so.FURTHER INFORMATIONKey CP personnel will also require additional training, details of which can be found as follows:CPD online – for single agency training for Designated Senior Person (DSP), Headteachers, and Nominated CP Governors; also for information about how to access Safer Recruitment training online– for multi-agency CP training for any of the above and others who need or want this (NB Advanced Level safeguarding training – inter-agency) required for DSP, at least every two years. PLEASE SEE WILTSHIRE SAFEGUARDING CHILDRN BOARD MULTI AGENCY BROCHURE for further details.September 2014
2 Objectives Participants will: recognise signs and symptoms of child abuseknow what action to take if they have concerns about a pupil or an adultKey messages:All adults working with children must know what should raise their concerns about pupils’ safety and well-being, what to do if they are concerned about a pupil, and how the school’s role fits into the ‘bigger picture’ of multi-agency child protection work.To ensure this, all adults working in the school must have child protection training at least every three years covering all these elements. This includes volunteers and governors if they are regularly working with pupils.Additionally, the Designated Senior Person must undertake advanced level, inter-agency Child Protection training at least every two years.
3 Key documentation for all staff: ‘What to do’ flow chart. ‘Allegations Against School Staff’ flow chart‘Keeping Children Safe in Education. Information for all school and college staff’’ DfE April 2014Key messages:The ‘What to Do’ flow chart is displayed………. The Designated Leads for Child protection are XX & YY. Keeping Children Safe in Education (April 2014) states that”. More information later in this session.The Allegations Against Staff flow chart is displayed…… (Please check that the current versions are displayed in your school. The flowcharts included in this training pack is correct at the time of printing (June2014). The current version may be found on WISEnet.)All staff should be supplied with this document.
4 Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined as … Protecting children from maltreatmentPreventing the impairment of health, or developmentensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; andtaking action to enable all children to have the best life chances Working Together 2013
5 Safeguarding includes issues such as: Pupils’ health and safetyBullyingRacist abuseHarassment and discriminationUse of physical interventionMeeting the needs of pupils with medical conditionsProviding first aidDrug and substance misuseEducational visitsIntimate careInternet safetySchool securityKey messages:The terms ‘safeguarding’ and ‘Child Protection’ are sometimes used interchangeably but they have different meanings.The term ‘safeguarding’ relates to everything the school does to keep all pupils safe.Staff should be aware that this includes in-school and out-of-school activities and, in some cases, journeys to and from school, for example school bus or coach. Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined for the purposes of this guidance as: protecting children from maltreatment; preventing impairment of children’s health or development; ensuring that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and taking action to enable all children to have the best outcomes.Keeping Children safe in Education (April 2014) states that: “Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined for the purposes of this guidance as: protecting children from maltreatment; preventing impairment of children’s health or development; ensuring that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and taking action to enable all children to have the best outcomes.”
6 Child ProtectionChild Protection is one element of safeguarding. It refers to those actions that are taken to protect specific children who may be suffering, or at risk of suffering, significant harm.Trainer’s noteKeeping Children Safe in Education (April 2014) states that:“All school and college staff members should be aware of the signs of abuse and neglect so that they are able to identify cases of children who may be in need of help or protection.Staff members working with children are advised to maintain an attitude of ‘it could happen here’ where safeguarding is concerned. When concerned about the welfare of a child, staff members should always act in the interests of the child.”The term ‘significant harm’ is explained later (Slide 9)
7 Child Protection is everyone’s responsibility Social carePoliceEducationHealthVoluntary groups (e.g. Scouts, NSPCC, sports groups, faith groups…)Probation serviceMembers of the publicKey messages:This programme considers both intentional and unintentional harm children and young people might experience.Child abuse can occur at home, in the community and in organisations such as schools.Keeping Children Safe in Education April 2014 states that: All school and college staff have a responsibility to provide a safe environment in which children can learn. All school and college staff have a responsibility to identify children who may be in need of extra help or who are suffering, or are likely to suffer, significant harm. All staff then have a responsibility to take appropriate action, working with other services as needed. In addition to working with the designated safeguarding lead staff members should be aware that they may be asked to support social workers to take decisions about individual children.”Government guidance requires that safer recruitment practices are followed, to ensure that all adults regularly in school (including regular volunteers) are suitable to be in contact with children.Safer recruitment training is available to support schools in preventing and deterring abusers from working in schools. It is a statutory requirement for all headteachers to complete this training.
8 Child Protection in schools School staff spend more time with children and young people than staff in any other organisation.School staff know children well and are able to spot new or different behaviours.Schools provide a universal service.Schools can provide a ‘safe place’ where pupils can ask for help.Key message:No other professionals are likely to have such intense and sustained contact with children and young people outside their home. This provides schools with crucial knowledge and opportunities to identify concerns about pupils, and for pupils to ask for help.Handout Allegations Against School StaffStaff should know the process for reporting concerns about the behaviour of adults towards pupils (refer to last bullet point on slide). Concerns regarding the headteacher must be reported to the Chair of Governors or equivalent.This is a good point to refer to the school’s own Code of Conduct. How many staff members are aware of the key messages in this document? It may be a good time to re-visit the key points.
9 What is ‘child abuse’?When a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm, as a result of someone inflicting harm or failing to act to prevent harmMay happen in the child’s family, or in a community or institutional settingA ‘child’ is anyone under the age of 18.Key messages:This is the legal definition of child abuse. The term ‘significant harm’ is an important one and is explained further in the next slide.Child abuse can be caused by acts or by neglect (failure to act).Task 1: Please allow 10 minutes for the task: five minutes discussion and five minutes feedback.What is child abuse?In pairs or small groups, participants should make a list of things they think constitute child abuse. Consider potential perpetrators. Are they always parents? Or carers? Are children with disabilities more vulnerable? Or less?Trainer’s note:A common response to concerns about the welfare of a young person may be to consider the identity of a potential abuser. In many cases a report is not passed on as professionals think that they know this person and ‘it cannot possibly be him/her.’ The legal requirement is quite clear. ANY concern about a pupil must be passed on to the DSP.Research has shown that children with disabilities are very much more likely to be abused because there may be limited communication, fewer opportunities to tell, a wide range of adults who deal with their intimate personal care and a greater likelihood of being bullied.3. The next section of the training looks in detail at what is meant by ‘child abuse’, and at signs and symptoms of the various categories of abuse.
10 ‘Significant harm’ means: Ill treatment or impairment of health or development‘Development’ can be physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural‘Health’ can be physical or mental‘Ill treatment’ includes sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical abuse, and neglectSignificant harm can be a single traumatic event, or a series of events over a period of time.Key messages:‘Significant harm’ is a key concept to distinguish harm which is serious enough to warrant child protection intervention from other lesser kinds of harm.In considering whether a child has suffered, or is at risk of suffering, significant harm, we need to consider:family contextthe child’s development within the context of their family and wider social and cultural environmentany special needs, such as medication condition, communication difficulty or disability that may affect the child’s development and care within the familythe nature of harm, in terms of ill-treatment or failure to provide adequate carethe impact on the child’s health and development, and the adequacy of parental carethe child’s reactions, and his or her perceptions, viewed in the context of their age and understanding.There are no absolute criteria for identifying significant harm. The severity of ill-treatment depends on:the degree and extent of physical harmthe duration and frequency of abuse and neglectthe extent of premeditationthe degree of threat and coercion, sadism and/or unusual elementsConsider ill-treatment alongside the family’s strengths and supports
11 The four categories of child abuse Physical abuseEmotional abuseSexual abuseNeglectKey messages:When a multi-agency Child Protection conference identifies child abuse, they must record which of these four categories of abuse the child is suffering, or is at risk of suffering. Often more than one category is recorded.Trainer’s note:NB Additional information: signs and symptoms of child abuse is provided in this pack for distribution at the end of slide 24.Participants often suggest ‘verbal abuse’ as an additional category. This is not a separate category (those are defined in Working Together), but it may be an indicator of emotional abuse.Task 2: Please allow a total of 5 minutes for recording and 10 minutes for feedbackPrepare four flip chart sheets with headings for each of the categories of abuse. Ask staff to walk around the room and record ideas about signs and symptoms of each category OR in 4 groups scribe your ideas for feedback. Be sure to keep to timings here!Then:Discuss ideas in each category first, then show the appropriate slides as outlined in the programme. When all four categories have been discussed, distribute the Signs and Symptoms handout.
12 Physical abuse:may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child.Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child.Key message:This is the definition given in the document Working Together to Safeguard Children (2013) and remains current.
13 Physical abuse Signs and symptoms may include: physical injuries, such as cuts, bruises, fracturesunexplained or unusual injuriesimprobable excuses, reluctance or refusal to explain injuriesreluctance to change clothing for games or PEfear of physical contactfear of suspected abuser being contacted.Key messages:This list is not exhaustive – participants will be aware of others such as burning, scratches, marks from implements.Accidental injury sites (i.e. places where children are likely to have ordinary injuries) are the bony parts of the body e.g. knees, shins, elbows.Non-accidental injury sites (i.e. places where accidental injury is less likely to occur) are of greater concern e.g. thighs, back, upper arms, areas covered by swim suits.Always consider the individual child – what is ordinary bruising for an able-bodied child may not be ordinary for a child using a wheelchair; similarly a child with a disability where they fall / bruise / fracture easily may have more injuries than other children – but this always needs to be verified by medical experts.Sometimes the appearance of the injury itself may raise concerns, e.g. bruising with a grasp pattern on arms; burns in the shape of an implement.If concerned, note the exact site of the injury and the circumstances in which it was observed (e.g. changing for PE).Patterns of school absence can also be significant, e.g. poor attendance on Mondays or first day back after a holiday may indicate a need to let injuries subside. Poor attendance on days where PE / games /swimming are planned may also indicate avoidance of injuries being seen.Trainer’s note:Remind participants not to ask a child to remove or adjust their clothing to enable someone else to witness any marks (more of this later).
14 Physical abuse How did it happen? Does the explanation fit the injury? Does the explanation change?Is there a reluctance to explain the injury?Are there any other concerns about this pupil?Key messages:It is good practice to always ask about an injury – but stick to open questions eg “How did that happen?”Think about whether the explanation fits the injury – or do you think it is unlikely that the injury you can see could have been caused in that way? Remember also that a child falling down the stairs will have the same injuries as one who is pushedIf this pupil has suddenly become clumsy or accident prone, there may be other reasons for concern and to seek adviceTrainer’s note:More guidance will follow later (slide 25) in the training on what sorts of questions to ask and to avoid, and why this is important
15 Emotional abuse:This is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development.It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person.Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone.Working Together 2013Key messages:This is the definition given in the document Working Together to Safeguard Children (2013)Trainer’s note:Emotional abuse may involve:seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of anotherserious bullying, causing children to feel frightened or in dangerexploitation or corruption of childrenIt may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include:interactions that are beyond the child’s development and/or capability,over protection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child from participating in normal social interaction.
16 Emotional abuse Signs and symptoms may include: feeling depressedwithdrawal from social interactionlow self-esteemfearfulness, increased anxietyfeeling of shame / guiltmood changesnot trusting othersextreme dependence on otherstelling liesaggressive behavioursubstance misuseself harmKey messages:Emotional abuse:is a persistent ‘drip feed’ of negative and uncaring messagescan make children feel worthless, or valued only in certain circumstances eg when they are ‘good’may lead to poor mental health, difficulties in making and sustaining positive relationships and poor self esteemChildren who are emotionally abused:often live in a state of constant anxiety, not knowing what will happen nextmay find praise very confusing and react badly, sometimes destroying the work being praisedmay be unwilling to try anything new, fearing failuremay fly into sudden, uncontrollable rages that frighten themselves as well as othersmay be withdrawn, incapable of expressing emotion, unable to engage with or show empathy towards others
17 Common types of emotional abuse: Isolating / scapegoatingAbusive expectations (demands, criticism)Ignoring, denying (refusal to listen or understand child’s feelings)ExploitingConstant chaosEmotional blackmail (threatening)Aggression (blaming, commanding, threatening)DominatingVerbal assaults (sarcasm, berating)Unpredictable behaviours (mood changes, emotional outbursts)Domestic violence within the homeKey messages:Often the abuser displays his / her abusive character in front of others to humiliate the childEmotional abuse can be very difficult to identify and so if often goes unreported or unrecognisedSometimes different children in a family may be treated very differently – scapegoating
18 Sexual abuseInvolves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. This may involve physical contact or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing rubbing and touching the outside of clothing. It may also include non-contact activities such as involving children in, looking at, or in the involvement of, sexual images, watching sexual activities or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet).Working Together 2013Key messages:Sexual abuse includes a wide range of behaviours and may not always involve actual physical contact eg allowing access to pornographic images or content in DVD, magazines or on-line. It may also involve witnessing sexual behaviour of others, or being watched or filmed in sexual activityA child or young person can be sexually abused without realising it, due to limitations in their age or understanding of what was happeningYoung children who are sexually abused may have unusually sexualised play, behaviours or language (eg use of sexual language in advance of what would be expected of a child of that age)Sexual awareness may be inappropriate for the age of the pupilYoung people who have been sexually abused may be adept at hiding it. They may have been threatened with dire consequences for themselves or their families if they tellYoung people who have been sexually abused may self-harm or have reckless, risk-taking behaviours that suggest they do not care about what may happen to them
19 Sexual abuse Signs and symptoms may include: frequent need to urinate / urinary tract infectionsage-inappropriate sexual knowledge, language, behavioursregressive behaviours such as thumb suckingbecoming withdrawn, isolatedinability to focusreluctance to go homebed-wettingdrawing sexually explicit picturesover-reacting to criticismpregnancygoing missingself harmSuicide attemptsTrainer’s noteOther signs of sexual abuse include:lack of trust or fear of someone they know well e.g.: child minder or baby sitterbeing overly affectionate or knowledgeable in a sexual way, inappropriate to the child’s ageanxiety when asked to remove clothingself harmingpossessing unexplained sums of money, giftsIndicators of parent/carer abuse include:not wanting the child to have close friends or personal relationshipsCurtailing the child’s freedom.
20 Child Sexual Exploitation 1 CSE is the sexual exploitation of children and young people under the age of 18. It involves exploitative situations and relationships where young people (or a third person) receives something (eg: food, shelter, drugs, cash, attention) in exchange for performing sexual acts.Trainers’ notes (This is an optional slide, perhaps more appropriate for secondary schools)Key messageNSPCC report a 34% increase in the number of CSE victims in the UK seeking support. Children as young as 10 years have been involved in such activities.CSE may occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate recognition; for example being persuaded to post sexual images on the internet.In all cases those exploiting the young people exert power by virtue of their age, gender,, intellect, physical strength and or economic resources. Violence, coercion and intimidation is common.Barnardo’s have worked with children as young as 10 who have been exploited in this way.Practitioners should also be aware that many children and young people who are victims of sexual exploitation do not recognise themselves as such.It can (and does) happen in WiltshireSocial Networking SitesMany young people have profiles on sites such as Facebook. Although parents are becoming increasingly aware of the need to monitor the use of these sites, they may not know that it is possible to have more than one profile, only one of which may be known to parents carers.Supporting documents:The CSE Grooming LineIdentifying children and young people sexually exploited through street grooming (P?)
21 Child Sexual Exploitation 2 Indicators may include:young people who are:going missing for periods of time or regularly coming home lateregularly missing school or education or not taking part in educationappearing with unexplained gifts or new possessions, in particular new mobile phones (given in order to communicate directly with the abuses)may be involved in, or vulnerable to child sexual exploitation.Trainers’ notesKey factsSexual exploitation often starts between the ages of yearsYounger victims are being targeted. In one month alone, Barnardo’s services worked with 126 children aged 10 to 13 who had been subjected to sexual exploitation.Perpetrators know the law and often start grooming on or just after a 13th birthday (The law presumes that when a child is under 13 /she is not mature enough to consent to sex. So even if a 12-year-old willingly has intercourse, as far as the law is concerned, s/he has not "consented" to it because legally s/he is not able to. The implication of the rule is that anyone who has sex with a child under 13 is committing what is termed "statutory rape".)Both male and female children have been involved in CSEVictims may be trafficked locally, regionally, nationally and internationally.Staff should be aware that young people in Wiltshire have been involved in CSE.
22 ‘Grooming’ for sexual abuse An abuser may ‘groom’ a victim by giving or withholding rewards such as gifts or special attentionThey may use physical or psychological threats to ensure co-operationThe grooming process is often well planned and very effective, ensuring that parents and other adults trust the abuser and find it difficult to believe that abuse has taken placeKey messages:All adults need to understand how effective the grooming process can be, and that they themselves may unwittingly be part of itAbusers usually choose their victim carefully. Most at risk are those who are vulnerable in any way. Those who lack confidence or self-esteem are particularly vulnerable to an abusive relationshipSome abusers use physical violence or threats to dissuade victims from asking for help, for example:‘You will be taken into care’‘No-one will believe you. If you tell anyone, I’ll just say you were lying. And who will they believe?’‘If you tell, I’ll be sent to jail, and it will be your fault’‘Your mum will be really angry / upset if she finds out what you are doing.’Alternatively, the abuser may reassure their victim that what is happening is fine, that ‘Everyone does this.’Supporting documentCase study: Gary
23 Abusers who groom can be: in a position of trust, leadershipgood at their jobable to win respect, affection, or fear from colleaguescharismaticarticulatedomineering, bulliescaringdutiful, over-helpfulmanipulativeand always distorted in their thinking.Key messages:Abusers take time and trouble to groom not only their victim, but the family and friends of their victim. They also groom school (and other agencies’) staff to gain trust and respectThese positive relationships with adults surrounding the ‘chosen’ child make it very difficult for the victim to disclose abuse for fear they will not be believedThe key word here is ‘manipulative’
24 NeglectPersistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and / or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development.Neglect may involve failure to:provide adequate food, shelter, clothingProtect child from physical harm or danger (including exposure to domestic abuse)Key messages:Key word here is persistent: there may be neglect when there is an unusual stress in the family, for example bereavement, loss of employment, or illness, which may not reach the threshold for child protection.When neglect is serious, protracted and leading to significant impairment in the child’s development, the threshold for significant harm has been crossed.Record keeping is an essential tool in assessing factors such as frequency, context and duration of neglect – often it is only when the pattern is seen that it becomes clear that this category of child abuse is taking place. Compiling a log of incidents over a period of time may therefore be crucial to identifying this type of abuse.
25 Neglect Signs and symptoms may include: constant hungeremaciationcompulsive scavengingpoor personal hygieneconstant tirednessclothing poor, dirty, inappropriate for weatheruntreated medical problemspoor social relationshipsdestructive tendenciesKey messages:The most obvious signs are seen in dirty, dishevelled children. They may be undersized and smelly to the point that relationships with peers are difficult.Neglect can take other forms such as:Reluctance to keep a child home when sickNot taking a child for medical appointmentsLeaving children unattended at home, or with an inappropriate carer eg a young sibling or neighbourParental reluctance to spend time with children (although a lot of money may be spent on material goods for them)Many children attend school presenting several of these indicators of neglect but, are not addressed/referred because ‘it was always thus’ ~ other siblings present in the same way and have always done so. This does not make it acceptable and should be addressed in the most appropriate way.Handout: Signs and symptoms sheet from the pack can be distributed at this pointA break may be taken at this point.
26 Look at these examples of record keeping. Task 3Look at these examples of record keeping.Identify good practiceWhat’s missing?In five groups consider one of the examples on your handout. When you have noted your comments, please read the other examples.You have 10 minutes for this taskTASK: Allow 10 minutes for task and 10 minutes for feedback.HANDOUT Model Welfare and Child Protection Concern sheet OR your own school equivalentKey messages:All records must be signed and names printed with the date INCLUDING YEARExample 1No year in the date.Ask “Is it OK to ask a child questions?” Answer: “Yes.” You need to know what you are dealing with. Use the following to be sure that you are questioning safely:Mirroring strategy John said “My dad hit my mum last night” response ‘Your dad hurt your mum last night’?’ in such a way that the child may give more clarification without asking potentially leading questionsTED questions are also acceptable: Tell me about…. Explain…. Describe…Example 2No asterisks please! Child’s exact words must be recordedUse mirroring strategy (“Mum is always calling you names?)” Mum may usually call her names such as ‘slow coach’.Other agencies are not familiar with our acronyms (MDSA) and these change over time, so make your designation absolutely clear.Concerns about child welfare MUST be kept together. Incidents in Behaviour Logs or other diaries/notes, must also be recorded on a Welfare Concern Sheet. This ensures that the Designated Senior Person has the whole story.Example 3Notes not kept together. Who has the whole story?No signatureExample 4Who is Meera? Who is Jenny? Are these two pupils? Who is reporting this issue?The language used must be includedWhat is the actual concern?Who are C and F? Charles and Fiona? Children and families?Example 5‘Yet again?’ Are there other examples? Date? Author? Is this a case for early intervention (Yes! Callum would not meet any Social care thresholds. The issues need to be raised at an early stage with the parents/carers. This will provide a record of school action with the family. If the family does not engage, then action must progress to the next stage. See next slide!Finally – health warning! Please ask questions only until you are clear that this is child protection and record accordingly. Do not ask more questions than necessary.DISTRIBUTE CASE STUDY JOE BEFORE THE NEXT SLIDE
27 Keeping Children Safe in Education (DfE April 2014) “ If, at any point, there is a risk of immediate serious harm to a child a referral should be made to children’s social care immediately. Anybody can make a referral. If the child’s situation does not appear to be improving the staff member with concerns should press for re-consideration. Concerns should always lead to help for the child at some point.”Key message:This means that in the absence of the Designated Lead and the Deputy Designated Lead for Child Protection any immediate concerns may be raised with Children’s Social care by any staff member or volunteer.
28 Task 4: Case study JoeRegardless of your role in this school, you are aware of the information provided.Having read this report, what are your key concerns about this family? List and prioritiseUsing the information given, complete the section headed ‘nature of concern’ on your school’s welfare concern sheet.You have 10 minutes for this taskTrainer notes:Key concernsEngagement with agencies ceases when father and mother separate*A young disabled child attending school unaccompanied by a parentBruises unaccounted for. The helmet should have protected against all injuries on the face.Absence rate acceleration with vague reasons offered by mumThe note to Social Care specifically stating that there are ‘no other concerns’*Staff may point out that school would not necessarily be aware of previous positive engagement with other agencies (health). However, there would have been numerous reports where this information would have been recorded. Questions could also have been asked by the school, particularly when there was so little parental engagement from the outset.This note sets the context of the concern, (disability and lack of parental engagement). It describes school efforts to communicate with parents and sets out the specific concern ((Joe is being harmed outside of school).Trainers need to reassure staff that they would not necessarily have all of this information, but must report all that they know with clarity and precision (eg: noting dates of specific eventsThis is a real case, taken from a Serious Case Review dated Nov 2012A young man “who abused and killed his girlfriend’s disabled son was jailed for five years yesterday.CR was 16 years old when he swung three-year-old X into a wall, breaking his leg and causing fatal injuries. Just four days earlier the little boy, who could barely speak and was prone to seizures, had been discharged from hospital despite being hit so hard in the face that he suffered brain damage. Detectives found X had suffered 54 injuries during the CR’s affair with his 28-year-old mother SH, including damage to his ears suggesting that he had been lifted by them.SH, a former Army medic who had her lover’s name tattooed on her back, lied to police, paramedics and hospital staff in an effort to cover up the relationship”ALLOW 10 mins for task and 10 mins for feedback
29 Joe: ‘nature of concern’ report Joe joined our school in Sept xxxx. He suffers frequent & prolonged fits and must wear a helmet to protect from injuries which may occur during a seizure. Contact with parents is almost non-existent. Joe travels to school by taxi, returning by bus, accompanied by staff from Passenger Transport. Neither parent attended a planned review meeting on xx and there were no explanations for their absence. On xx/xx Joe arrived in school with significant bruising to his face. No explanation was given in response to the messages left on the same day by telephone & Joes home/school communication book.Joe’s absences are increasingly frequent, with attendance of x% during the month of September to y% during DecemberWe are concerned for Joe’s safety. He has had bruising resembling the marks made by a stair gate or cot side and his absences have increased significantly. We fear he is being hurt outside of school.Trainer notes:This note sets the context of the concern, (disability and lack of parental engagement). It describes school efforts to communicate with parents and sets out the specific concern (Joe is being harmed outside of school).Trainers need to reassure staff that they would not necessarily have all of this information, but must report all that they know with clarity and precision (eg: noting dates of specific events.)
30 Early Help“Providing early help is more effective in promoting the welfare of children than reacting later. Early help means providing support as soon as a problem emerges, at any point in a child’s life, from the foundation years through to the teenage years”.Working Together 2013Trainer’s note:Key messageIf a young person is helped at an early stage it may be possible to prevent the development of a crisis situationEffective early help relies upon local agencies working together to: identify children and families who would benefit from early help; undertake an assessment of the need for early help; and provide targeted early help services to address the assessed needs of a child and their family which focuses on activity to significantly improve the outcomes for the child. Local authorities, under section 10 of the Children Act 2004, have a responsibility to promote inter-agency cooperation to improve the welfare of children.See Wiltshire’s response on the following slide
31 Key message: Early intervention is vital As children & young people go through life, they sometimes need some extra support. This slide explains what support they might get and when. It’s important to know that there are different levels of support available. In Wiltshire we call them Levels of Need. A child or young person can move through the Levels of Support if problems get more difficult, but they can also move back if things are getting better. Level 1: This means that everything is OK and this child or young person is doing well. Any general support they need can be found at services that are open for everyone like schools, doctors, youth clubs and sports centres. These are called Universal Services. Level 2: This Level is when a child or young person needs some extra support to help them develop. This could be to do with their education, their health or their social skills, for example. Services that provide support at this level are called Targeted Services. This Level is split into two sections: Level 2a:This is when a child or young person has one additional need so they require support from just one service. Someone working with the child/young person will complete a Specific Agency Referral Form to ask for support from a particular service.Level 2b:This is when a child or young person has more than one additional need, so they require support from more than one service. A Common Assessment Framework is completed for this child/young person so that all the services involved can work together and make sure they are providing the best support possible.TRAINERS MAY LIKE TO DISCUSS ANY EXPERIENCE OF LOCAL MAF At this pointLevel 3:This is when things are becoming quite serious for a child or young person. Services working at this level arecalled Specialist Services. Level 3 support is for a child or young person facing serious issues that are affecting their development. Sometimes this means the child/young person is getting support from social care.Level 3 support can be for a child or young person who has lots of ongoing and /or complicated needs(eg if they have a disability). Level 3 is also for when something serious has happened (eg a child/young person was very seriously hurt by someone) and is needed to be kept safe from harm. If support is also needed for the child or young person’s family then Specialist Family SupportServices may be able to help. A group called the Gateway Panel decides how to support the family .Level 4: This Level of support is for children or young people who have the highest level of need and support by intensive Specialist Services. This support is for a child/ young person with very serious or complicated issues (eg if they have a serious disability, those in foster care or if they are at risk of serious harm.) Level 4 can be for long-term issues or to provide immediate support.
32 Response to a disclosure. listen carefully and take it seriouslystay calm, however shocked you may bereassure the personexplain what you will do nextreport urgently to the Designated Safeguarding Lead (DSL)in the absence of DSL or Head, take immediate steps to protect the child or individual if necessaryrecord the disclosure fully, in accordance with the school’s policy.Key messages:Make sure that all disclosures are discussed urgently with the Designated Safeguarding Lead (DSL) or someone else in their absence, and that information is not discussed more widely with colleagues.The DSL or Head should make sure that the person who received the disclosure gets any support they may need - this may include reassurance that they were right to share the disclosure.Everyone in the school must be familiar with the ‘What to do’ flowchart.Immediate steps might include an immediate call to social care.Make sure that all participants are clear what is meant by ‘a disclosure’ – provide the flowchart (see below) and refer to the second box – when a young person discloses abuse or neglect to someone else.HANDOUT: ‘What to do..’ flowchart – trainer to provide each participant with the latest version
33 Response to a disclosure. DO NOT:ask leading questionstry to obtain more information by ‘interviewing’ people before taking adviceappear shocked or angrymake judgementspromise anything you can’t deliver, including keeping secretsconfront or question an alleged abuserKey message:When a disclosure is made, it is never clear where it might lead. It is, therefore, important to avoid doing anything that might make it difficult to take future court proceedings should that be necessary. If someone has been questioned in a way that conflicts with rules about evidence in court, this could make it impossible to bring an alleged offender to court.Social workers and police have special training to ensure they take full details from a victim without breaking this rule. It is, therefore, crucial that details of the disclosure are urgently passed to the DSP for them to report or take advice on, but there should be no further questioning, interviews or requests for the child to write down the information.
34 Recording a disclosure: DO use your school’s standard recording formuse the child’s own words, don’t paraphrasemake your record as soon as possible after the event, so that you don’t forget anythingkeep it brief and to the pointdistinguish between fact and your opinionsask for help with writing it up if you need itinclude information about what action was taken afterwards, even a decision that no action is neededremember the Data Protection Act: adequate, accurate, securely held.Key messages:Highlight the crucial importance of recording everything, including a decision not to take any further action.A professional’s opinion can be extremely valuable, provided the record is clear what is fact and what is opinion.It is important that adults record all concerns about a child in the same way and pass them on to the Designated CP Teacher for them to decide whether or not they need to refer the matter to Children’s Social Care.Task 5: Please allow total of 20 minutes for this task – 10 minutes discussion, 10 minutes feedbackRecording child welfare and Child Protection concernsLook at your school’s policy and standard forms for recording and reporting child welfare and CP concerns.Are all participants clear about what their role is, what to do if they have a concern, where to find the forms, how to use them, who to pass them on to, why they are important?HANDOUT: The school’s current policy on child welfare and child protection record keeping; the school’s form for recording concerns about a pupil (including body map)
35 Referral to Children’s Social Care The school may want to ring Children’s Social Care for advice and guidance before deciding whether to make a referral – this is welcomed and encouraged.The Designated Safeguarding Lead will normally tell parents before making a referral, unless doing so might place this child , or another at increased risk of harm.When making a referral, the school must make clear the full reasons for doing so.If a referral is made by phone, it must be confirmed in writing immediately.Children’s Social Care must notify the school of the outcome of any referral they make – the school must chase this if not received.Key messages:In order that Social Care can make an informed decision about how to respond to the referral, it is vital that schools provide all relevant information as part of the referral – not just the immediate reason for concern, but also any background history that may have a bearing on itSocial Care should acknowledge the referral within one working day. If you don’t have an acknowledgement after three working days, the school must chase it up. The school needs to know and keep a record of the outcome of every referral they makeSocial Care will consider whether what has been referred meets the threshold for an initial assessment. This is carried out in the home, and the child/ren must be seen as part of itIf a case conference is required to decide whether the child/ren should have a child protection plan, then every agency involved with the family will be required to:Provide a written report setting out their concerns about each child and views about what action is required in order to improve the situationAttend the case conference at which parents/carers and children (when appropriate) will also be in attendance
36 Response to a Child Protection referral The Local Authority must make enquiries where there is ‘reasonable cause to suspect that a child in their area is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm’.The enquiries are carried out by the Children’s Social Care teams.School staff must co-operate with CP enquiries, and should be consulted in multi-agency strategy discussions to decide how these should progress.These are sometimes referred to as ‘s.47 enquiries’Key messages:Social workers and their managers should:Lead the assessment process, provide support to the child or family as part of an agreed planCarry out a joint investigation with police where a criminal offence may have been committedPolice officers should:Investigate any allegations of crime or suspected crime and use information to assist other agencies in understanding the child’s circumstancesEveryone else must:Provide relevant information to Social Care or police about the children and family members (or any other alleged perpetrator)Contribute to the assessment process as requiredProvide support to the child as part of an agreed planTrainer’s note:‘s.47’ refers to s.47 of the Children Act 1989, which sets out the requirement for local authorities to make these enquiries
37 Data protection and information sharing The seven golden rulesThe Data Protection Act is not a barrier to information sharing.Be open and honest.Seek advice if in doubt.Share with consent where appropriate.Consider safety and well-being.Make sure it is necessary, proportionate, relevant, accurate, timely and secure.Keep a recordKey messages:Appropriate information sharing is crucial to effective child protectionWhere there are concerns about a child, we have a legal duty to share informationIf in doubt ALWAYS seek the advice of the DSLThe Designated Safeguarding Lead may decide that no further action is needed at this point – if so, this must be recorded with reasonsSchools must pass on any child protection records to subsequent schoolsAny child protection records should be received from previous schools of new pupils – if there is reason to think information has not been passed on, the school should chase it upHANDOUT: Sheet listing the seven golden rules of information sharing, provided in the pack
38 What if I’m not sure?Your responsibility is to act if you have any concerns about a child or young person, by discussing and passing on your concern to the Designated Safeguarding Lead, in writing using your school’s recording form at the earliest opportunity.It is not your responsibility to decide whether or not abuse has taken place and/or the identity of the abuser.Trainer's noteChild abuse is frequently unrecognised and is under-reported.Be aware that your initial reaction on suspecting abuse, may be a wish to deny the problem and reluctance to get involved.If you suspect a child is at risk, ask yourself:Why am I worried?What are the implications of doing nothing or deferring action?What should I do right now?Task 6: Please allow 20 minutes in total for this task (10 minutes discussion, 10 minutes feedback)What are the barriers to reporting abuse, and how might they be overcome?Break into two groups.Group 1: Identify barriers for children or young people disclosing abuse, and possible solutionsGroup 2: Identify barriers for adults reporting concerns, and possible solutionsBring the whole group together and share the barriers and solutions identified. Remind staff that they are not required to make judgements, they are simply reporting a concern. Reporting a concern does not constitute an allegation of child abuse.
39 Task 6: Barriers to reporting Task 6: Please allow 20 minutes in total for this task (10 minutes discussion, 10 minutes feedback.Barriers for children include:Who can I tell?Who will believe me? (Especially if I am often in trouble)What will happen if I tell?Possible solutionsClear information throughout the school that ALL adults in school would know how to respond to someone reporting concernsSignposting to other sources of help (eg: ChildLine). Posters should be in the more ‘private’ parts of the school (eg cloakrooms)Information about what happens when someone rings an agency such as ChildLineClass assemblies throughout the year with the theme of ‘keeping safe’ or similar with a consistent message (nobody has the right to hurt you)PHSE sessions considering issues such as ‘who can I tell?’Reminders around the school eg: NSPCC Underwear Campaign posters.Also consider how you would feel if you were asked to describe your last sexual experience?Barriers for adults include:Will I be believed?What will happen to the family if I pass this information on?I might be wrong!I might be wrong (ask wrong for whom? ) This is usually a reference to concerns about the adults. Staff need to know that they have a legal duty to the children in your school.Hopefully these concerns should be addressed in the training session.Key message: the importance of keeping the child at the centre of thinkingAges of concern: Learning lessons from serious case reviews: A thematic report of Ofsted’s evaluation of serious case reviews from 01 April 2007 to 31 March 2011 states that:“Too often agencies had focused on the young person’s challenging behaviour, seeing them as hard to reach or rebellious, rather than trying to understand the causes of the behaviour and the need for sustained support.”Task 6: Barriers to reportingWhat are the barriers for reporting concerns in our school?For childrenFor adultsFor every barrier can you think of a solution?You have 10 minutes for this task
40 Diversity matters Vulnerability of some children with special needs Cultural issuesChildren who are privately fosteredChildren missing from educationLooked-after childrenKey messages:Some of the issues adults should be aware of:Research evidence suggests that disabled children are more vulnerable to abuse than non-disabled children – some research suggests they may be three or four times as likely to be abused. This includes all four categories of abuseCommunication barriers mean that many children with disabilities, including deaf children, have difficulty reporting worries, concerns or abuse. The same may be true for children whose first language is not EnglishForced marriage: be aware of the difference between an arranged marriage, which is legal for over-16s, and forced marriage, which is notFemale genital mutilation is a criminal offenceSchools have a duty to tell the Local Authority about any child who they think may be privately fostered (living or going to live with someone other than their parent, legal guardian, or close relative, for more than 28 days)Schools have a duty to tell the Local Authority about any child who may be missing from education
41 Other factors which may increase pupils’ vulnerability Parents/carers who misuse drugs or alcoholDomestic violence within the family unitPoor mental health of parents/carersChaotic, unsettled or transient lifestylesLack of parental controlThose for whom English is not the first languageArmed Forces childrenTrainer’s noteIncreased risk may arise from a child’s personal circumstances such as living within a family where there is domestic violence, substance misuse or poor mental health within the immediate family.Children with disabilities may lack language or vocabulary to disclose abuse and lack the necessary mobility to remove themselves from an abuser. They may also be less able to resist or avoid abuse because of physical limitations, learning needs and their reliance on adult support.Children for whom English is not the first language are also vulnerable as they may lack the language to deter an abuser or to disclose abuse.Children of military personnel may be vulnerable for a number of reasons including:Emotional distress due to deployment of parent/s to areas of conflictImpact on children of possible poor mental health of parent/s deployment to areas of conflict (eg Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)Disruption to education due to frequent movesFor further information see Ofsted report entitled ‘Report on children in service families May 2011’ available on WISEnet (safeguarding children/Ofsted).
42 Trainer’s notes.It is not necessary to have sound to show this short film clip. If possible stop the clip at the statement: ‘It’s easy to miss something you’re not looking for’This brings you to the end of this presentation. Are there any questions?
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