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Chapters 6-10 Review. Chapter 6: The Base  1986 Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri arrives in Peshwar ○ Joins Arab community ○ Adopts customs ○ Brother Mohammed follows.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 6-10 Review. Chapter 6: The Base  1986 Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri arrives in Peshwar ○ Joins Arab community ○ Adopts customs ○ Brother Mohammed follows."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapters 6-10 Review

2 Chapter 6: The Base  1986 Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri arrives in Peshwar ○ Joins Arab community ○ Adopts customs ○ Brother Mohammed follows Sets up financial pipeline for jihad Peshwar is in a state of disarary flooded with refugees and being controlled by warlords  Red Crescent Hospital Zawahiri sets up practice Links up with Sayyid Iman (a.k.a. Dr. Fadl) Goal to re-establish Jihad ○ New recruits ○ New direction “Takfir” or excommunication Divides Arab Afghan community  Bin Laden Attends lectures at hospital Zawahiri and bin Laden need one another ○ Zawahiri needs $ ○ Bin Laden needs direction Warns bin Laden of “security threat” and offers services of mujahideen (future al-Qaeda members)

3 Chapter 6: The Base  The Lion’s Den February 1988 Soviets withdraw in May ○ What would be direction of Jihad? ○ Zawahiri wants to “groom” Osama AND undermine competitor Sheik Abdullah Azzam Against tarkfir  Azzam Wants to build base (Qaeda) Afghanistan only the beginning Focus on: soviet republics, Somalia, Eritrea, and Spain 1 st goal: Palestine ○ Helped create Hamas to battle Israel ○ Didn’t want to focus on Egypt like Zawahiri  Bin Laden torn….. Until August 11, 1988 ○ Meeting among leaders ○ Vote for new organization ○ 1 st mention of name al-Qaeda ○ Still unclear of mission

4 Chapter 6: The Base  Zawahiri instrumental in ruining Azzam’s reputation Eventually murdered, threat to Zawahiri and bin Laden’s al-Qaeda removed.  1 st al-Qaeda meeting Set constitution Leadership council created ○ Reps from Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia By-laws voted on

5 Chapter 7: Return of the Hero  Bin Laden returns to Saudi Arabia 1989 Kingdom’s 1 st real “celebrity” Returned with sense of mission  Royal Family Out of control as ever Except Prince Turki ○ Pro-democratic, works with CIA, reformed Division within Islamic Factions in Arabia  Kingdom Financially supports 90% of Islamic faith Declining oil prices leads to tension Osama voices “anti-west” and “anti- America” sentiments ○ Advocates boycott of US goods Weird relationship with US ○ Saudi’s thought Royal’s condoned Osama’s statements ○ Two countries interdependent

6 Chapter 7: Return of the Hero  1989: A new plan Osama wants to overthrown Marxist government in Yemen 1 st opportunity for al- Qaeda ○ Prince Turki declines offer ○ Yemen is soon after united, Osama blames U.S. involvement ○ Bin Laden wants to finance guerrilla war, royal family tells him to stay out of it. ○ Saudi’s take bin Laden’s passport

7 Chapter 7: Return of the hero  Invasion of Kuwait Saddam Hussien poses threat to Saudi Arabia and oil fields Promises not to invade Kuwait, two days later invades. Bin Laden offers his “services” to Royal Family to fight Saddam ○ Prince Turki finally realizes Osama’s delusions ○ Clergy supported Royal Family Royal Family already accepted help, from U.S. ○ 1 st goal to protect Saudi Arabian oil fields  Operation Desert Storm Starts January 16, 1991 Over by March 6 Saddam still in power, but checked U.S. could “see new world order” ○ Osama NOT happy Osama gets passport back and heads to Peshawar, Pakistan in March 1992 to help mediate civil war Realizes the Prince Turki is no his enemy

8 Chapter 8: Paradise  The Afghan Civil War Most Arabs moved on, tried to return to home countries Many jailed or refused entry = roaming mercenaries  A New Home June 1989 Islamists staged a military coup in Sudan ○ Leader General Omar Hasan al- Bashir ○ Real brains: Hasan al-Turabi Believed Arab world was insufficiently Islamic Too dependent on West Well-educated Envisioned international Muslim community headquartered in Sudan Sent bin Laden a letter of invitation -Gave a construction job to bin Laden Company  Two different people Turabi was far more progressive and reformed ○ Advocated women’s rights, art and music  Khartoum Happy time for Osama ○ had opportunity to imitate father’s career ○ Largest landowner in Sudan ○ Generous employer ○ Did not participate in conflict in Southern Sudan U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia still bothered him

9 Chapter 8: Paradise  Opportunity U.S. soldiers stopping over in Yemen on way to Somalia to help with famine ○ Al-Qaeda believed this was just an excuse to extend U.S. control New idea of Jihad against America ○ Linking to the Crusades ○ Struggle between Christianity and Islam ○ America was “everywhere” ○ Unite all sects of Islam against U.S.  December 29, 1992 Bombs exploded in Yemen, targeting US troops No troops died, but moved on to Somalia Al-Qaeda saw this as victory ○ Two innocent civilians died ○ Led to new fatwas Attack US troops Murder of Innocents

10 Chapter 9: Silicon Valley  February 26, 1993 World Trade Center Bombing ○ Few Americans had any idea of radical Islamists in country ○ Bombing done by Ramzi Yousef Product of al-Qaeda Ordered by bin Laden? Ambition and skill changed nature of terror ○ Explosion Six people died, 1, 042 injured Yousef fled to Pakistan ○ Plotted assassinations of Pope John Paul II, Bill Clinton and others ○ Lacked organization ○ Importance was SYMBOLISM of attacks

11 Chapter 9: Silicon Valley  Fundraising Zawahiri is in states fundraising for the jihad Guide: Ali Abdelsoud Mohammed ○ Assigned to penetrate CIA ○ Does, is exposed but too late ○ Becomes U.S. citizen ○ Joins Army While being a “good” soldier he’s copying manuals and maps for al- Qaeda Training Muslim militants on the weekends ○ Takes leave in 1988, joins reserve in 1989 ○ Meets with FBI 1993 Gives info on bin Laden, al-Qaeda Information dissmissed  $ Problems Zawahiri can’t raise funds needed Realizes he must join bin Laden to keep Jihad alive  Egypt Still Zawahiri’s main focus August 1993 ○ 1 st use of suicide bomber Became known as “martyrdom operations” Broke taboo against suicide ○ Backfires Young girl killed Egypt turns against terrorism

12 Chapter 10: Paradise Lost  Sudan Sociopaths and philosophers flock to bin Laden Gave them a common enemy Convinced America only needed a couple “blows”  1 st Chance- Somalia U.N. overseeing peacekeeping effort dealing with famine, backed by U.S. Several failed attacks Local tribesmen shoot down two Black Hawk helicopters and drag bodies through streets ○ President Clinton immediately withdraws troops Proved bin Laden’s assessment of U.S. and furthers his ambitions  Algeria 1992 Al-Qaeda gets involved in civil conflict Country drenched in blood for five years Argued democracy and Islam incompatible ○ Anyone with voter card deserved to die Even bin Laden alarmed by slayings and removes support, but damage is done  Early 1990s Osama still refining concept of al-Qaeda

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14 Chapter 10: Paradise Lost  1994 Attempt on bin Laden’s life ○ He blamed Egyptians ○ CIA believe Saudi’s in charge ○ This event allows Zawahiri to have more influence Convinces Osama for need of bodyguards and to carry weapons  International Pressure Algeria and Yemen pressuring Saudi family to stop bin Laden Egypt revokes his citizenship Saudi’s revoke his passport Bin Laden family ordered to cut him off ○ His business failed in Sudan, money running out ○ Cut salaries ○ Jamal al-Fadl becomes 1 st traitor  1990s Africa Continent bleeding ○ Conflict in: Liberia, Angola, Sierra Leone, Congo, Nigeria, Rwanda, Burundi, Zimbabwe Bin Laden sends operatives to Kenya to stake out targets U.S. embassy becomes main target ○ Almost attacked but held “off” when U.S. withdrew from Somalia  1995 Osama having 2 nd thoughts Wants to return to the Kingdom, to family Has opportunity, but it never happens…….


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