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Presenter: Dr Dina Neelofur Khan Early marriage Definition As determined by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) occurs when.

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Presentation on theme: "Presenter: Dr Dina Neelofur Khan Early marriage Definition As determined by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) occurs when."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Presenter: Dr Dina Neelofur Khan

3 Early marriage Definition As determined by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) occurs when the bride or groom is under 18 years of age

4 Prevalence Globally – 1/3 rd of all girls by age 18 1 in 9 by age 15 Pakistan – UNICEF & PRB data 7% by age 15 24% by age 18

5 Early marriage and childbearing Social and cultural construct Social and economic outcomes - loss of peer support - discontinuation of education - fewer future employment opportunities

6 Consequences of early marriage and childbearing Medical/clinical Maternal mortality Low birth weight Preterm birth Neonatal, perinatal and infant mortality Prolonged and obstructed labour – VVF Anaemia

7 Health care seeking behaviour of young married girls Low utilization of services Delayed or insufficient utilization of services

8 Three Delays model – Thaddeus and Maine, st delay: delay in deciding to seek care on the part of the individual, family or both 2 nd delay: delay in reaching an adequate health care facility 3 rd delay: delay in receiving adequate care at the facility

9 Health care seeking behaviour of young married girls – determinants and barriers Individual, social and cultural factors Limited autonomy Financial constraints Restricted mobility Perception of need Lack of knowledge and education Inability to recognise signs of complication Lack of information about existing services Perception of services – providers’ attitude Violence and abuse during pregnancy

10 Policy issues – Health service provision Lack of availability of services Lack of equipment and supplies Lack of accessibility of services Distance to services Poor infrastructure No or minimal transportation Transportation costs Providers training

11 Health care services for young married women Neglected cohort Difficult to reach Lack of policy and programming

12 MDGs and early marriage and childbearing Address morbidity and mortality associated with early childbearing Invest in policy and programmes to prevent or delay early marriage Focus on service delivery – strengthen health systems and develop programmatic capacity Prioritise health and well-being of girls and young women – urged at Women Deliver Conference 2013

13 To achieve MDGs – Different programmatic approaches and evidence Approaches - few programmes Preventing complications during pregnancy & childbirth Management of complications during pregnancy & childbirth Interventions and evidence Pre-pregnancy counselling Comprehensive ANC Intrapartum care – skilled attendant and EmOC Postpartum care

14 BUT….. The key issues remain Timely access and utilization of services Barriers to access and utilize services

15 Small scale qualitative study conducted in Lebanon Aim of the study - identify factors that may influence young married women’s health care seeking behaviour, their access to and utilisation of health care services Sampling – purposive – limited to CLA Methodology – in-depth interviews with 3 doctors, 3 nurses and 2 midwives

16 Selected statistics for comparison IndicatorsPalestinian refugeesPakistan Youth aged years - % of total population 3432 % of women aged years married by age % of women aged years married by age Total fertility rate3.23 adolescent fertility rate4828

17 Selected findings Health care seeking behaviour of young married Palestinian refugee girls Initiation of ANC Number of visits during pregnancy Regularity and punctuality of visits Postnatal visit Initiated ANC early in pregnancy Followed recommended regimen Attended clinics regularity Attended postnatal clinic

18 Other findings Preconception classes Appointment system Continuity of care and familial environment No transport costs Free or minimal consultation fees Postnatal home visits

19 Selected statistics on Palestinian refugees living in Lebanon  86.2% ANC coverage  6.4 average number of visits during pregnancy  86.2% of women with at least 4 antenatal visits  92.4% Postnatal visits  100% institutional deliveries  Child immunization – more than 99%  Infant mortality – 19/1000 live births  Neonatal mortality – 14/1000 live births  Maternal mortality ratio MMR – 14/100,000 live births among women registered with UNRWA antenatal services

20 Lessons learned Increasing accessibility and utilization of services Health care seeking behaviour can be influenced by Introduction of preconception classes – health promotion, counselling, screening/risk assessment, nutrition supplementation Providing information about services Making services available and affordable to all Increasing accessibility of services Reducing distance to facilities Minimising transportation costs

21 Lessons learned contd: Improving quality of services Focus on prevention and MCH MCH programme that reaches out to those in need Accessible to all Addresses the needs of vulnerable groups Training of health care providers Number of trained personnel

22 The way forward: Appropriate policies and proper allocation regimens. Addressing young married girls in all maternal and child health (MCH) programmes and policies Investing in policies and programmes that address young married girls will help accelerate the achievement of internationally-agreed Millennium Development Goals – not only MDG 5 but also MDG 1, 3, 4 and 6.

23 Thank you


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