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Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints Eighth Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints Eighth Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints Eighth Edition Nijole V. Benokraitis © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e CHOOSING OTHERS: DATING AND MATE SELECTION Chapter 8

3 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Learning Objectives LO 8.1 Compare the manifest and latent functions of dating LO 8.2 Outline the characteristics, benefits, and costs of traditional and contemporary dating patterns LO 8.3 Describe five strategies for meeting dating partners

4 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Learning Objectives LO 8.4 Compare three mate-selection theories LO 8.5 Describe some of the mate- selection differences across cultures LO 8.6 Describe the prevalence of dating violence, and explain why it occurs and its consequences

5 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Learning Objectives LO 8.7 Describe breaking up, and explain why it occurs and its consequences

6 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Why Do We Date? Manifest functions of dating Latent functions of dating

7 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Manifest Functions of Dating Maturation Fun and recreation Companionship Love and affection Mate selection

8 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Latent Functions of Dating Socialization Social status Fulfillment of ego needs Sexual experimentation and intimacy Big business

9 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 1 _______ is a manifest function of dating. A. Sexual experimentation and intimacy B. Love and affection C. Fulfillment of ego needs D. Socialization

10 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 1 _______ is a manifest function of dating. A. Sexual experimentation and intimacy B. Love and affection C. Fulfillment of ego needs D. Socialization

11 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 2 Dating is a process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate. A.True B.False

12 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 2 Dating is a process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate. A.True B.False

13 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e The Dating Spectrum Traditional dating Contemporary dating Traditional-contemporary combinations Dating in later life

14 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Traditional Dating Was prevalent in 1970s and is still a way to meet potential spouses –Gender role scripts are followed Popular events –Coming-out parties or debutante balls –Bat mitzvah and bar mitzvah –Quinceañera

15 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Contemporary Dating Hanging out Getting together Hooking up

16 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Traditional-Contemporary Combinations Dating patterns incorporate both traditional customs and contemporary trends –Proms and homecoming parties –Dinner dates –Stayovers

17 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Dating in Later Life Dating after divorce or being widowed can be: –Therapeutic –Intimidating

18 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 3 Which of the following is traditional- contemporary combination dating? A.Quinceañera B.Proms and homecoming parties C.Getting together D.Bat mitzvah

19 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 3 Which of the following is traditional- contemporary combination dating? A.Quinceañera B.Proms and homecoming parties C.Getting together D.Bat mitzvah

20 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 4 Dating after divorce or being is more intimidating that being therapeutic. A.True B.False

21 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 4 Dating after divorce or being is more intimidating that being therapeutic. A.True B.False

22 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Meeting Others Personal classified advertisements Mail-order brides Professional matchmakers Speed dating Online dating

23 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Personal Classified Advertisements Appeared in newspapers in the early 1700s and later in magazines –Advertisers described her or his qualities and those sought in an ideal partner In recent times, are primarily online

24 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Mail-Order Brides Men seek wives from economically disadvantaged regions –American women are too independent, demanding, and critical –Want women with relatively little education Raised in cultures in which a married woman is expected to be a docile and obedient homemaker

25 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Professional Matchmakers For people who find online dating: –Too time consuming –Disappointing –Lacking privacy Matchmakers charge money for their services, which include: –Image consultant –Trip to a bridal shop

26 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Speed Dating Benefits Inexpensive, takes little time Guards against stalking and draws people from the same region Avoids the awkwardness of blind dates Disadvantages Participants often rate potential daters on superficial criteria Participants are more likely to experience a choice overload Singles engage in a series of brief face-to-face interactions with potential romantic partners in an event

27 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Online Dating People meet numerous potential partners online and discuss anything Advantages –Convenience and low cost –Easy for people who have difficulty in meeting potential romantic partners Disadvantages –People might be dishonest

28 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Online Dating The video discusses the pros and cons of online dating er_v2/simpleviewer.php?projectID=MPL&clipID=da ting.flv

29 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e The Downside of Internet Dating In this video Pepper Schwartz talks about the negatives of internet dating er_v2/simpleviewer.php?projectID=MFL&clipID=sc hwartz_downside_idating.flv

30 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 5 Men who prefer _______ complain that American women are too independent. A.Personal classified advertisements B.Mail-order brides C.Professional matchmakers D.Speed dating

31 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 5 Men who prefer _______ complain that American women are too independent. A.Personal classified advertisements B.Mail-order brides C.Professional matchmakers D.Speed dating

32 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 6 In speed dating singles attend an event, where they engage in a series of brief face-to-face interactions with potential romantic partners. A.True B.False

33 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 6 In speed dating singles attend an event, where they engage in a series of brief face-to-face interactions with potential romantic partners. A.True B.False

34 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Why We Choose Each Other: Some Mate-Selection Theories Filter theory: Homogamy and narrowing the marriage market Heterogamy: Expanding the marriage market Social exchange theory: Dating as give and take Equity theory: Dating as a search for egalitarian relationships

35 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Egalitarian Daters/Traditionalist Dates The text discusses the aspects of dating and choosing partners oebook5.do?platform=1027&bookid=15318&pagei d=1144

36 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Filter Theory Filter theory: People sift eligible mates according to specific criteria –Reduces the pool of potential partners to a small number of candidates Homogamy: Dating or marrying someone with similar social characteristics Propinquity: Geographic closeness

37 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure The Filter Theory of Mate Selection

38 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Table U.S. Attitudes about Romance and Interracial Marriage among Blacks and Whites, 2011 Source: Based on data in Washington Post, 2012.

39 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure Changes in Black–White Dating Behavior, 2006 and 2011 Source: Based on data in Washington Post, 2012.

40 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Heterogamy: Expanding the Marriage Market Dating or marrying someone with social characteristics that differ from your own –Hypergamy: Marrying up to a higher social class –Hypogamy: Marrying down in social class

41 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure The Increase of Interracial Marriages in the United States Sources: Based on Lee and Edmonston, 2005, Figure 1; and Wang, 2012.

42 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Figure Intermarriage Rates of Newlyweds, by Sex, Race, and Ethnicity, 2010 Source: Wang, 2012: 9.

43 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Social Exchange Theory People will begin a relationship if the rewards are higher than the costs –Rewards Intrinsic characteristics, behaviors Access to desired resources –Costs Unpleasant or destructive behavior Losses

44 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Equity Theory Intimate relationship is satisfying and stable if both partners see it as equitable and mutually beneficial Judgments about equity vary depending on the stage of the relationship –People tolerate inequity when a relationship becomes long-term commitment

45 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 7 _______ theory posits that people sift eligible mates according to specific criteria and thus reduce the pool of potential partners to a small number of candidates. A.Social exchange B.Filter C.Equity D.Propinquity

46 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 7 _______ theory posits that people sift eligible mates according to specific criteria and thus reduce the pool of potential partners to a small number of candidates. A.Social exchange B.Filter C.Equity D.Propinquity

47 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 8 Marrying up to a higher social class is known as hypogamy. A.True B.False

48 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 8 Marrying up to a higher social class is known as hypogamy. A.True B.False

49 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e A Multicultural View Of Mate Selection Traditional and modern societies Heterogamy and homogamy Arranged marriages How mate-selection methods are changing

50 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Mate Selection and Marriage Around the World The text talks about the various choices available for mate selection oebook5.do?platform=1027&bookid=15318&pagei d=1023

51 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Traditional and Modern Societies Wealth –Dowry: Money, goods, or property a woman brings to a marriage –Bride price: Required payment by the groom’s family to the bride’s family Child brides –Violates international laws on women’s rights

52 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Fishing for a Mate? Eligibility Characteristics in Alaska The content explores the sex-ratio in Alsaka dest=http%3a%2f%2fold.socialexplorer.com%2fpe arson%2fspicemap.aspx%3fv%3d5c9908e ae%26m%3dplay

53 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Heterogamy and Homogamy Heterogamy –Based on economic decisions Homogamy –Ensures strong and continuing family ties –Racist beliefs discourage people from seeking partners different skin colors –Increases the chances of passing down diseases

54 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Arranged Marriages Parents help children find a suitable spouse, settle down, and have a family Increase solidarity between families, kinship groups, clans, and tribes Preferred in most developing countries

55 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e How Mate-Selection Methods Are Changing Countries in Asia and the Middle East are changing in how people meet and choose mates China and India are experiencing a glut of single men and a scarcity of single women

56 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 9 Bride price is defined as the: A.Money, goods, or property a woman brings to a marriage. B.Required payment by the groom’s family to the bride’s family. C.Money, goods, or property a woman is given in a marriage. D.Required payment by the bride’s family to the groom’s family.

57 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 9 Bride price is defined as the: A.Money, goods, or property a woman brings to a marriage. B.Required payment by the groom’s family to the bride’s family. C.Money, goods, or property a woman is given in a marriage. D.Required payment by the bride’s family to the groom’s family.

58 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 10 Heterogamy refers to marrying inside one’s own family of kinship group. A.True B.False

59 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 10 Heterogamy refers to marrying inside one’s own family of kinship group. A.True B.False

60 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Harmful Dating Relationships: Power, Control, And Violence Power and control in dating relationships Prevalence of dating violence Factors contributing to date violence and date rape Some consequences of dating violence and date rape

61 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Sexual Violence Billboards The video talks about the controversy on placing sexual violence billboards ED_MEDIA_1/sociology/videos/Apcontent/sexual_ violence_billbd.html

62 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Power and Control in Dating Relationships Principle of least interest - Partner who is less interested in the relationship has more power, and more control –Person who is interested in continuing the relationship: Is more dependent Has less power Can be manipulated or exploited

63 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Prevalence of Dating Violence Widespread –Rarely a one time event Acquaintance rape: Unwanted and forced sexual intercourse of a person who knows or is familiar with the rapist Date rape: Unwanted, forced sexual intercourse in a dating situation

64 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Different Types of Partner Violence In this video Claire Renzetti talks about partner violence er_v2/simpleviewer.php?projectID=MFL&clipID=re nzetti_violence_differences.flv

65 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Factors Contributing to Date Violence and Date Rape Parenting styles and family violence Gender roles Demographic characteristics Peer pressure and secrecy Use of alcohol and other drugs Technology Few negative sanctions

66 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Some Consequences of Dating Violence and Date Rape Adolescents victims experience adverse health outcomes in young adulthood –More likely to be depressed and do poorly in school –May engage in unhealthy behaviors –More likely to have eating disorders –Think about or attempt suicide

67 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 11 Which of the following factors contribute to date rape and violence? A.Parenting styles and family violence B.Gender roles C.Peer pressure and secrecy D.All of the above

68 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 11 Which of the following factors contribute to date rape and violence? A.Parenting styles and family violence B.Gender roles C.Peer pressure and secrecy D.All of the above

69 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 12 Date rape is defined as unwanted and forced sexual intercourse of a person who knows or is familiar with the rapist. A.True B.False

70 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 12 Date rape is defined as unwanted and forced sexual intercourse of a person who knows or is familiar with the rapist. A.True B.False

71 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Breaking Up Why do we break up? How do we react? Is breaking up healthy?

72 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Why Do We Break Up? Individual reasons Communication problems and different interests Emotional and physical abuse Obsessive love and stalking Mismatched love and sexual needs Self-disclosure Disillusionment Infidelity and not making a commitment Structural reasons Moving away Economic recession Societal reactions Couples from different racial or ethnic and religious backgrounds Same-sex partners

73 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e How Do We React? Common reactions –Confusion –Anger Men get over breakups more quickly than women

74 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Is Breaking Up Healthy? Ending a bad relationship is relieving Provides opportunities to find a mate suitable for marriage or a long-term relationship

75 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 13 Which of the following is an individual reason for breakup? A.Moving away B.Economic recession C.Emotional and physical abuse D.Societal reactions

76 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 13 Which of the following is an individual reason for breakup? A.Moving away B.Economic recession C.Emotional and physical abuse D.Societal reactions

77 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 14 Confusion and anger are two of the most common reactions to breakups. A.True B.False

78 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Question 14 Confusion and anger are two of the most common reactions to breakups. A.True B. False

79 © 2015, 2012, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints, 8e Discussion Question Discuss how mate selection methods are changing across the following countries. –China –India –Japan and South Korea


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