2THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS TOUR: Introduction Olympia: site of ancient Olympic games.Green. Lush area.Sanctuary of Zeus was located here.Greeks gathered here for over 1000 years to celebrate this great festival.Heracles (Hercules) mythical founder of Olympic games.Games dedicated to ZeusVictor received a simple crown of wild olive.
3THE ANCIENT OLYMPICSThe Greeks referred to sanctuary of Zeus as the Altis. From the Greek word Alsos for grove.Sanctuaries were centers of worship. Greeks built temples, altars, treasuries on these sites.Aerial view of sanctuary
4THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Crown: Crowns were made from a wild olive tree in the Altis.This tree was called the olive of the beautiful crown.Olive oil was the most exported product of Greece.(Hercules gets credit for introducing the Olive tree to Greece)
5THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Early Buildings: The earliest building at Olympia are a cluster of Bronze Age houses at the base of the Kronos hill.One of these buildings was supposed to be the megaron of Oinomaos, legendary king.Another structure is the tumulus of Pelops. (tumulos is a large artificial mound built over a grave)View of Kronos Hill
6THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Chariot Race: According to legend, the hero Pelops entered a chariot race with King Oinomaos to compete for the hand of Oinomaos' daughter Hippodamia in marriage. Hippodamia fell in love with Pelops and convinced her father's groom to sabotage the racing chariot by removing the linchpins attaching the wheels. After Oinomaos' chariot was destroyed and he was dragged to his death by his horses, Pelops became king and ruled over the region, which he called the Peloponnese after himself. Today, the southern part of the Greek mainland is still called by this name.
7THE ANCIENT OLYMPICSScenes from this race decorated the temple of Zeus, built between BC.
8THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The First Temple: 1st Temple: 7th BC, was dedicated to Zeus and Hera. Originally of wood but gradually replaced in stone.West end of the cella (internal chamber) were sculptures of Zeus and Hera. Head of Hera has been recovered.Eventually, this became a temple to honor Hera only.
10THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Hera: Built in a system of regular proportions. So that many parts relate to others harmoniously.Width to length ratio: 3:8# of pillars seen from front and back: 6.# of pillars seen from the sides: 16.Height of columns, half the width of the cella.
11THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Hera: Uncovered: Cedar chest inlaid with ivory and gold.Bronze disc.Ivory and gold table: where the olive crowns were set out.
12THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Treasuries: On a terrace at the base of Mount Kronos.poorly preserved built in the sixth century.Built by different Greek city-states from 600’s BC--The best preserved is the Treasury of Sikyon.--Served as storehouses for valuable objects.--Many gave to Olympia as a sign of piety and to win the gods’ favor
13THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Sikyonian Treasury: two chambers lined with bronze.the sword of the hero Pelops, with a hilt of gold; an ivory horn inscribed to Olympian Zeus; and a wooden statue of Apollo with its head plated in gold.
15THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Zeus: completed in 456 BC was one of the largest temples in Greece.Doric style architectureColumns: simple capitals, no bases, and heavy proportions.six columns on each end, thirteen on the flanksbuilt entirely of local shell limestone
16THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Zeus: The sculptures are the best preserved.East Pediment: prep for chariot race between Oinomaos and Pelops.West Pediment depicts battle between Lapiths and CentaursIt was a peripteral temple: inner chamber was surrounded by a columned porch.first significant monument of the Early Classical period.
18THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Stadium and Events: First Olympic event was a foot race. (only event for 1st 13 olympics)By Classic Period: 18 more contests including: Wrestling, boxing, horse races, pentathlon, other running events.Stadium was outside the area of the sanctuary.
19THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Stadium and Events: A vaulted passageway connected sanctuary to stadium.Only a few stone seats for officials.
20The Ancient OlympicsStadium: The track is m (697.3 ft) long and 28.5 m (94 ft) wide and surrounded by grassy banks on all sides. All the seats were made of mud and on the southern slope there was a stone platformThe StadiumThe “Exedra” or judges seats
21THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Facilities for Athletes: Palaestra: west of sanctuary. Place for boxers and wrestlers to train.Gymnasium: north of palaestra.Southwest of Altis was the Leonidaion, hotel.
22THE ANCIENT OLYMPICSFacilities for Athletes: Palaestra.
23The Ancient OlympicsLeonidaion: lodging place for athletes taking part in the Olympic Games at Olympiaconstructed around 330 BCE and was funded and designed by Leonidas of Naxos.The building consisted of four Ionian colonnades with 138 decorated columns, forming a square of approximately 80 meters.
24THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Workshop: Sculpture Pheidias. It is where a statue of Zeus was made.Plan of this building matches that of the cella of the temple.Molds and tools for making the sculpture were discovered here.A cup bearing his name was also found here.
25THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Boxing: Fewer rules himantesANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS:Boxing:Fewer rulesNo rounds: fought until a K.O.Or one man gave up.Could hit opponent when down.No weight classesMen and boys divisions.No gloves but himantes: leather wraps
26THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Equestrian Events: Chariot Racing:2 and 4 horse chariot races12 lap length (9mi.)Riding:Separate races for full grown horses and foals6 lap length (4.5 mi.)Only wealthy could afford the eventOwner received wreath for winning.
28THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Pentathlon: 5 event challengeDiscus, javelin, running, jumping, wrestlingDiscus:made of stone, iron, bronze or lead.Shaped like a saucer.Size of discus varied according to boys and men’s division.
29THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Javelin: Man size length of wood.End: sharpened or attached metal.Looks like a spear.Leather strap attached for gripIncreased precision and distance
30THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Jump: Jumpers used lead or stone weightsShaped like phone receivers (halteres)Increased distanceHeld in front during ascentBrought behind and dropped during descent.Doubled as weight lifting during training
31THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Running: 4 types of races Stadion: oldest event. Sprint one stade.Length of the stadium (192 m.)2 stade race (384 m.)Long distance run, 7-24 stades.(1,344m-4,608m.)Armor race: 2-4 stades ( m).Ran in armor.Helped train warriors.Armor: lbs. (helmet, greaves, shield)
32THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Wrestling: Needed to throw opponent on hip, shoulder or back for fall.3 throws needed to win a match.Biting not allowedOne could break opponents fingers.