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Features Associated with Foraging Lifeways Production Based on Technological Mastery Production Based on Technological Mastery From nomadic to semi-nomadic.

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Presentation on theme: "Features Associated with Foraging Lifeways Production Based on Technological Mastery Production Based on Technological Mastery From nomadic to semi-nomadic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Features Associated with Foraging Lifeways Production Based on Technological Mastery Production Based on Technological Mastery From nomadic to semi-nomadic to sedentary From nomadic to semi-nomadic to sedentary Organization of Groups Organization of Groups Property & Ownership Property & Ownership Distribution of Resources Distribution of Resources Nutritionally Balanced Diet Nutritionally Balanced Diet Low Energy Budgets Low Energy Budgets Economic Production Generalists Economic Production Generalists Kinship and Division of Labor Kinship and Division of Labor

2 Features Associated with Pastoral Lifeways Production Based on Sophisticated Technology Production Based on Sophisticated Technology Nomadic Lifestyle Nomadic Lifestyle Large Populations Large Populations Property Ownership Property Ownership Energy Budget Energy Budget Kinship and Division of Labor Kinship and Division of Labor Distribution of Goods Distribution of Goods

3 Features Associated with Extensive Agricultural (Horticulture) Lifeways Production Based on Extensive Technology Production Based on Extensive Technology Sedentary Lifestyle Sedentary Lifestyle Larger Groups and Kinship Structures Larger Groups and Kinship Structures Property and Ownership Property and Ownership Poorer Nutrition Poorer Nutrition Higher Energy Budget Higher Energy Budget Economic Production Generalists Economic Production Generalists Division of Labor Division of Labor Distribution of Goods Distribution of Goods

4 Horticulturalists Kuikuro (Brazil): grow cassava & maize in rainforest. Also fish and hunt. First Nations (northeastern North America): maize, beans,squash Hopi: corn, beans, squash, turkeys Dayak (Borneo): rice; rubber & fruit tree

5 The Kaluli New Guinea Horticulturalists

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7 Settlements Patrilocal village (lineages from several patri-clans) Patrilocal village (lineages from several patri-clans) Built on ridges throughout dense forest Built on ridges throughout dense forest One longhouse w/several smaller houses around clearing One longhouse w/several smaller houses around clearing

8 Subsistence Activities Forest near village. Click on photo for video of harvesting sago palm starch Pandanus Breadfruit Sweet potatoes Bananas Sugarcane

9 Trade and Manufacture Hornbill beaks & strings of dogs’ teeth (west) Tree oil (south) Salt, tobacco, women’s aprons (north) Made a variety of tools Stone adzes Stone adzes Bows, saws, digging sticks Bows, saws, digging sticks Net bags Net bags Penis sheaths Penis sheaths Extravagant ceremonial Extravagant ceremonialCostumes

10 Division of Labor Gender roles clearly differentiated Gender roles clearly differentiated Women Women Tend gardens, look after pigs, hunt small forest game, gather small protein sources Tend gardens, look after pigs, hunt small forest game, gather small protein sources Process sago Process sago Socialize children Socialize children Men Men Organize their labor as group activity Organize their labor as group activity Cut down and divide trees Cut down and divide trees Clear large garden plots Clear large garden plots Build dams and fences Build dams and fences Plant Plant

11 Social Organization No formal system of control No formal system of control Gossip, ostracism, fear of supernatural sanctions Gossip, ostracism, fear of supernatural sanctions Kinship and Descent Kinship and Descent Exogamous, patrilineal clans Exogamous, patrilineal clans Scattered throughout all longhouse villages Scattered throughout all longhouse villages In any longhouse: localized lineages of 2+ clans In any longhouse: localized lineages of 2+ clans Each individual claims kinships to both mother’s and father’s groups Each individual claims kinships to both mother’s and father’s groups Paternal kin: provide ties within the longhouse Paternal kin: provide ties within the longhouse Maternal kin: provide ties across longhouses Maternal kin: provide ties across longhouses Most important ties: sibship (siblings and parallel cousins) Most important ties: sibship (siblings and parallel cousins)

12 Marriage Clan exogamy Clan exogamy Arranged by elders in groom’s longhouse Arranged by elders in groom’s longhouse Bride & groom usually not told Bride & groom usually not told Woman is selected and bridewealth collected Woman is selected and bridewealth collected Is a relationship between longhouses Is a relationship between longhouses

13 The giving and sharing of food A fundamental theme in Kahuli life Sharing of food is the expected norm Sharing of food is the expected norm Promotes friendship & familiarity Promotes friendship & familiarity Is a vehicle for showing fondness Is a vehicle for showing fondness Is one of the primary ways of relating to kids Is one of the primary ways of relating to kids If food can’t be shared, consume it discreetly If food can’t be shared, consume it discreetly The do NOT share food because of obligations of a relationship; instead they ACTUALIZE the relationship through giving food. The do NOT share food because of obligations of a relationship; instead they ACTUALIZE the relationship through giving food.

14 Kaluli Dancers & Longhouse

15 Features Associated with Intensive Agricultural Lifeways Production Based on More Levels of Technology Production Based on More Levels of Technology Sedentary Lifestyle Sedentary Lifestyle Stratified Societies Stratified Societies Property Ownership Property Ownership Poor-Quality Nutrition Poor-Quality Nutrition Lower Energy Budget Lower Energy Budget Economic Production Specialists Economic Production Specialists Division of Labor Division of Labor Systems of Distribution Systems of Distribution


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