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Families Professor Janaki Natalie Parikh

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2 Families Professor Janaki Natalie Parikh

3 Families Concept that means diff’t things to diff’t ppl Every person has a family of orientatn Some will have a family of procreatn Diff’t shapes & sizes, 2 distinctns: Types of kin: affinal, consanguineal, fictive Nuclear family: what is that? 2 Parents & their children, non-permt unit

4 Expanded family: non-nuclear relatives Household: task oriented resident’l unit where productn, consumptn, inherit’ce & child-rearing are accomplished Extended family: expanded family ntwk w/ 3 or more generatns present U.S. tends to privilege the nuclear fam. as an ideal family type, a “refuge” of sorts

5 Domestic Violence The reality is somewhat stark by comparison: In the U.S.: nearly 1/3 of American ♀ (31%) report being physically &/or sexually abused by a male partner (husband, boyfriend) at some pt. in their lives In the U.S., 4 ♀ a day are killed by their battering significant other Around the world: Canada (29%), Uganda (41%!), U.P. India (45%!) Abuse against ♂ & lack of reporting

6 Patterns of descent Bilateral descent: descent traced equally through ♂& ♀: network assoc. w/: kindred Unilineal descent: descent traced through only 1 parent: 2 types of unilineal: matrilineal & patrilineal Network assoc. w/ unilineal: lineage & clan Clan: collectn of closely related lineages Lineages may have corporate fxns (can own propty as a grp, rather than individually)

7 Descent networks Kindred: an ego centered network of bilateral kin Doesn’t have a cohesive common identity like a lineage Unique to individ’s., only full siblings share same kindred All other relatives will have distinct kindreds

8 Kin Charts Tracing patrilineage & matrilineage Identifying types of cousins

9 Parallel & Cross cousins Parallel cousins: childn Of same sexed siblings Cross cousins: childn of opposite sexed siblings

10 Apical ancestor: original ancestor of a lineage Clans may be totemic: apical ancestor linked to a feature of the nat’l environ.

11 Cross-cult’l alternatives to the nuclear family Nayar: tribal group from Malabar coast of S. India Matrilineal descent ♂: tracing back to Chola Wars extens. involvemt in military campaigns tarawad: extd. family compound headed by a sr ♀ Ofcl marriage at maturity, for both not regarded significant since paternity not an issue

12 Marriage Incest taboo: (c. univers.) prohibitns against sexual relatns w/ a close relative Endogamy: rules that dictate marriage w/in one’s own grp Exogamy: rules that dictate marriage outisde of one’s own grp

13 Functions Functns of exogamy: widens netwk of alliances Functns of endogamy: maintains grp distinctns Caste (jati) as an extreme form of endogamy: w/in are subcastes & sub-sub castes, etc However, oft. divided into separate lineages that marry exogamously for lineage & endogamous for caste -Dbl standards: separate set of expectatns for 2 grps, favoring 1 grp

14 Post marital residce patterns Matrilocal: coup. Resides w/ bride’s family/commty Patrilocal: coup. Resides w/ groom’s fam./commty Ambilocal: can choose to live w/ either Neolocal: coup. sets up a new household Avunculocal: coup. Resides w/ groom’s mother’s brother (specif. to matrilineal socieities)

15 Forms of marriage Monogamy: both partners have only 1 spouse Technically, what do we have? Serial monogamy:series of monogam. relatnships polygamy: 2 types Polygyny: sing. ♂ married to mult. ♀ Polyandry: sing. ♀ married to mult. ♂ -Same sex marriage: benefits afforded by marriage -Pangamy (group marriage)

16 Fraternal polyandry Fraternal polyandry: Himalayas (Tibet) A ♀ marries a ♂ & all of his brothers Young ppl growing up in Tibet have a choice & will oft. select this arrangemt Why? Find out in AE: When Brothers Share A Wife

17 Customary gifts @ marriage Bridewealth: gifts from groom & his kin to bride & her kin @ time of marriage Dowry: gifts from bride & her kin to groom & his kin @ time of marriage Neither is a purchase, simply making intentns known not unlike a customary gift we give… 1 of these has a hist. of being abused, which one? dowry, burning & deaths

18 Nuer: strongly patrilin.& patrilocal (low divorce rate) Genitor: biolog. father Pater: socially recognized father ( secured by bridewlth) Bridewealth traditn, Nuer wealth determined by? Ghost marriage ♀-♀ marriage:

19 Sororate: if a bride dies young, her close kin may provide a substitute (oft. her sister) Reasons: continues alliance, no need for 2 nd bridewealth transfer Levirate: If a husband dies young, his widow marries his brother Plays out difft than sororate, due to age factor

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