Several monarchies in Europe became linked with Holy Roman Empire.
The Holy Roman Empire o The Holy Roman Empire included parts of modern Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Eastern France and Northern Italy. o The Empire lasted, in one form or another for about 1,000 years, beginning with the crowning of Charlemagne in 800. o Germany formed the heart of the Holy Roman Empire. It is important to remember, though, that Germany was not a unified nation at this time
The Growth of Hapsburg Influence o In the late 1400s, Emperor Maximilian used three methods to increase Hapsburg power. o Maximilian claimed large areas of eastern France. o Besides Spain and Austria, Charles’s possessions included parts of the Netherlands and southern Italy, as well as the entire Spanish Empire in the Americas.
The Reign of Charles V o As Holy Roman emperor, he was expected to keep the Roman Catholic Faith in Europe o At a meeting called the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, Charles V was forced to accept an arrangement by which each state in the empire could choose to be either Lutheran, a group within the Protestant religion, or Roman Catholic o Charles V gave up his position as Holy Roman Emperor in 1556.
Although King Philip II believed he Ruled Spain with complete authority, his power proved to be limited.
Philip II and Rule by Divine Right o Philip II was a strong supporter of the Roman Catholic Faith o In 1554, after the death of his first wife, Philip married Mary Tudor, the queen of England and the daughter of Henry VIII. o By the time she died in 1558 and was succeeded by her sister, Elizabeth, she had earned the nickname Bloody Mary.
The Revolt of the Netherlands o Besides England, Scandinavia, and many parts of Germany, another center of European Protestantism was the Netherlands. o Like Germany, this was not a unified state in the late 1500’s. o In 1566, a group of Protestant and Roman Catholic Dutch nobles urged Philip to ban the Inquisition from the Netherlands.
Fighting between the English and Spanish fleets marked a climax in the conflict between England and Spain.
Roman Catholics and Protestants o In the 1550’s, Mary Tudor’s short marriage to Philip II of Spain increased religious feelings against Spain, Philip II sent his half-brother Don Juan to the Netherlands to put down the revolt. o Don Juan died in 1578 before he could achieve this plan. o Don Juan is a rogue and a libertine who took great pleasure in seducing women, and enjoyed fighting their champions
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada o Now that England had openly challenged Spain, Philip II prepared for a massive invasion of England. o His fleet, called the Armada, consisted of 130 ships, 30,000 men, and 2,400 weapons. o The Armada set sail for England in May 1588.
Clashes between French protestants and roman Catholics in the late 1500s threatened to tear France apart.
Religious Conflict The situations of Huguenots threatened French monarchs such as King Francis I and King Henry II, who were Roman Catholics. after the death of Henry II in 1559, his widow Catherine de Medicis ruled France as regent for the couple’s sons, who were too young to rule. Catherine de Medicis encouraged her son Charles IX to order a massacre, which he did.
Henry IV and Cardinal Richelieu ◦ Henry IV was determined to reunify the country. Henry thus put into effect a two- part compromise. ◦ In 1593, he rejected his protestant faith again. He then returned to Roman Catholicism and begged the pope for forgiveness. ◦ In 1610, Henry IV was succeeded by his nine-year- old son, Louis XIII.
The long reign of Louis Brought France to a peak of political and cultural influence throughout Europe.
The Great Monarch ◦ In 1661, Louis XIV began to govern France personally. ◦ Louis XIV’s long reign lasted until his death in 1715. his policy might generally be described as peace at home and war abroad. ◦ Louis XIV’s government supervised military recruiting, training, supplies and promotions. The King also greatly enlarged the army raising it to a strength of 400,000 men, four times its size when Louis inherited the throne.
A grand palace ◦ Like many other monarchs, Louis XIV showed the grandeur of his reign by constructing a large new palace. this splendid residence was Versailles, some 10 miles outside Paris. ◦ In a popular phrase, Louis XIV was described as the ‘’Sun King,’’ the source of all and splendor. ◦ At Versailles, as elsewhere, Louis XIV’s needs were catered to with great ceremony.
Arts and culture under Louis XIV ◦ The arts during Louis XIV reign are considered to represent the peak of the baroque style. ◦ The main feature of the baroque style is its ornate decoration. This style was especially evident in architecture, sculpture, and music. ◦ 3 of France’s greatest writers dominated literature and drama during this period.
Opposition to the foreign policy of Louis XIV, which called for almost constant war, prevented him from dominating all of Europe.
Louis XIV’s foreign policy ◦ Louis XIV was strongly committed to the peaceful unification of France at home. ◦ Louis attempted to expand the borders of France by waging war against the Netherlands ◦ For more than a decade, the war continued without a winner, but then the French were defeated.
The legacy of Louis XIV ◦ Louis XIV absolute monarchy ensured his country’s unification and made France one of Europe’s leading powers. ◦ Louis XIV was king of France for 72 years. He lived longer than his son and grandson. ◦ When Louis XIV died in 1715, his great- grandson, who was 5 years, inherited the throne. He became Louis XV, ruler of one of the strongest European countries at the time.
Chapter 17, section 3 The rulers of the holy roman empire, Prussia, and Russia ~ TROUBLEZ ~ WORLD HISTORY 5 TH Period
A. The Thirty Years’ War Absolute rulers in Europe used Military and economic policy to increase their power.
A. The Thirty Years’ War Germany and civil war – The bohemian nobles resisted strongly and forced Ferdinand to step down from the throne, replacing him with a protestant ruler. – After years of war, peace was declared in 1635. – At the end of the struggle, much of Germany lay in ruins.
The Peace of Westphalia – Negotiations for peace were renewed in 1640 but- like the war itself they dragged an and on. – The Hapsburgs were forced to give up their dream of Restoring roman Catholicism to central Europe. – This marked the end of the holy roman Empire as a political forced.
The Rise of Prussia as a European Power During the 1700, expert leadership an Military might made Prussia one of the most important European powers.
The Rise of Prussia as a European Power A. Military State – Prussia came under the control of the German state of Brandenburg. – Militarism stresses military needs and values. – Fredrick William was determined to build a strong, capable army in Prussia.
The Rise of Prussia as a European Power Fredrick The Great – Fredrick II, was also on of the most brilliant military leaders of that time. – When peace was finally made, Prussia emerged as the big winter. – Frederick was forced on the defensive in the 1750, when Austria, Russia, and France formed an alliance against Prussia.
The Russian Empire Emerges In 1613, after a period of civil war, the Russians chose a new czar, or leader, named Michael Romanov.
The Russian Empire Emerges Peter the great – At the age of 25, peter spent a year in western Europe. – Peter also wanted to create a strong army just as the monarchs in France and Prussia were doing. – His enemies were Swedes, whom he eventually defeated in 1709.
The Russian Empire Emerges Catherine the great – Catherine’s reign was an example of enlightened despotism. – Like peter the great, Catherine enjoyed using her powers. – Catherine added significantly to Russian territory.