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Evidence Review Climate Change and Social Justice Katharine Knox, Joseph Rowntree Foundation Nick Banks, Ian Preston, Simon Roberts, Katy Hargreaves, CSE.

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Presentation on theme: "Evidence Review Climate Change and Social Justice Katharine Knox, Joseph Rowntree Foundation Nick Banks, Ian Preston, Simon Roberts, Katy Hargreaves, CSE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evidence Review Climate Change and Social Justice Katharine Knox, Joseph Rowntree Foundation Nick Banks, Ian Preston, Simon Roberts, Katy Hargreaves, CSE Clare Downing, Roger Street, Ruth Mayne and Karen Lucas, OUCE, ECI and UKCIP – University of Oxford Aleksandra Kazmierczak, University of Manchester Evidence review: climate change and social justice

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3 Climate change and social justice: Impacts

4 Impacts of climate change Impacts Direct (in the UK) Indirect (overseas affecting the UK) Immediate effects TangibleIntangible After Houston et al (2011) Pluvial(rain related) flooding in urban areas: The invisible hazard Longer lasting effects TangibleIntangible

5 Vulnerability Vulnerability to the impacts of climate change is influenced by a mix of personal, social and environmental factors. – Personal: age, health, disability, gender, ethnicity – Social factors: income, tenure, strength of people’s social networks – Environmental: urban/rural living, housing quality, green space provision

6 Current state of knowledge Vulnerability links

7 Direct impacts: emerging issues Older people are at highest risk of extreme temperatures Lower income groups at disproportionate risk of coastal flooding. Retirement migration to the seaside results in further increased vulnerability Lower income groups live in areas with less green space so can be more affected by heatwaves and pluvial flooding Lower income groups may be affected by water poverty due to projected decrease of rainfall in summer Private tenants are highly impacted by flooding and are a growing group Spatial concentration of vulnerability and risks in cities and coastal areas

8 Indirect impacts Main issues emerging from the Foresight Programme : – Climate-related migration: potential impact on health services, welfare and community cohesion – Food prices: impact on diets and health disparities – Energy security: energy prices – Impacts on supply chains of resources and commodities

9 Impacts research gaps and future directions Direct impacts – Drought/water scarcity beyond water affordability – Vulnerability of black and ethnic minority and recent immigrants – Role of social networks, community cohesion and social capital in resilience – Longer term impacts of extreme weather events – Impacts on local businesses and economic activity – Future projections of climate AND vulnerability – Interactions of factors relating to social justice

10 Impacts research gaps and future directions Indirect impacts: – Real scale of migration and its repercussions – Disruptions to food chains, impact on prices, diets and health – Disruptions to energy supply, impact on electricity prices and what it means for the poorest. Foresight programme

11 Impacts: what next Need for a wider definition of ‘vulnerability’ going beyond personal circumstance, deprivation and emergency planning guidance Focus on longer-term planning for resilience across all social groups: move beyond emergency planning Bold policy decisions? e.g. Long-term planning needed for coastal zones and flood risk areas (including relocation)

12 Socially Just Adaptation Responses

13 Adaptation: emerging issues Social justice in adaptation planning is not widely addressed and there is limited evidence of the concept being addressed at local level (all agencies). The Principles of social justice are referred to in most national policies but there is no evidence (yet) to determine how they will be implemented. Evidence to show the ‘nature of risks’ and ‘areas most vulnerable’ (e.g. to heat or flooding) but no evidence of these two sources being joined (multiple deprivation, multiple risks, interdependencies). Interaction of social capital and social cohesion and resilience to climate change impacts is complex. © UKCIP 2013

14 Adaptation: emerging issues Is using markets the right choice of measure? ‘Fair’ but does it protect the vulnerable? -E.g. socially just water pricing, flood insurance Need to address tensions created by responsibility – Government vs local vs individual

15 Adaptation: what works (? ) Evidence of socially justice adaptation responses is limited and it is not clear that that they work yet... Found in 4 areas : 1.heat waves, 2.water scarcity and drought, 3.flooding and 4.coastal erosion. New methods of involving communities in decisionmaking about adaptation choices and management of the local environment – the Dutch method Social networks in general reduce vulnerability and improve the response of neighbourhoods to climate-related events © UKCIP 2013

16 Guidance for Adaptation Policy Need for evidence of who is vulnerable thus linking to how they respond, who pays and who benefits from policies – disaggregated social data – to provide differentiation within communities in terms of equity and capacity Need to clarify where national policy needs to intervene in local service provision Need for understanding attitudes to risk and to adaptation options (evidence emerging from local examples) – – how to reflect these within an assessment and how best to communicate the results (upwards to national agencies, downwards to vulnerable individuals) © UKCIP 2013

17 Adaptation : research gaps Gap in understanding which people are vulnerable to which risks at local scale What should ‘socially just adaptation’ look like and how should it be put in place, both short and long-term. Need to join up disparate sources of (mainly local) evidence including assessing social interactions – e.g. Kent SWIMS tool, Leeds mapping tool © UKCIP 2013

18 Mitigation – how fair is the policy and practice of reducing carbon emissions?

19 What are the emerging issues for mitigation ? The unequal distribution of emissions From Gough et al The distribution of total greenhouse gas emissions by households in the UK, CASE LSE

20 What are the emerging issues for mitigation ? in tandem with....the unequal distribution of costs and benefits of mitigation policy.. Preston, I. et al 2013 Distribution of Carbon Emissions in the UK: Implications for Domestic Energy Policy JRF York

21 What are the emerging issues for mitigation ? How we assist those groups who are the hardest hit by uncompensated mitigation policy..and tackle fuel poverty and climate change simultaneously How to target and engage disadvantaged communities – issues of procedural justice

22 Mitigation: what works The “vision” - integrated mitigation and adaptation policy – the transformational perspective (green growth, more resilient communities and a lever for a more just society..) More concretely – multiple opportunities for technologies simultaneously addressing adaptation and mitigation goals in a fair or progressive way - solid wall insulation, green space, transport modal shift

23 Where are the mitigation gaps? Comprehensive analysis of distribution of costs and benefits of mitigation policy – both existing and forthcoming Justice implications of the overall energy mix (nuclear, renewable, fracked gas..) Methodologies for quantifying and mapping energy vulnerability

24 What next..mitigation policy implications Domestic energy and transport mitigation policy is often regressive - how do we develop a raft of policy creating mass retrofit and transport modal shift in a fair way Need for robust methodology to appraise fairness of mitigation policy and identify “the hardest hit”

25 What next..mitigation policy implications New engagement tools and processes to understand people’s needs and ensure all voices are heard (in the context of greater localism)

26 General implications Social justice is not (yet)a salient issue in academic and policy discourse on climate change in a UK context (and vice versa?) Need to think about: ‘Vulnerability’ as multi-dimensional and interactive ‘Community resilience’ as multi-faceted, not just coping with emergencies Systems, not just sectors - Bridge the gap between climate change policy and policy seeking to tackle social vulnerability, poverty and disadvantage Procedural justice – what needs to happen with whom at what scale to build community resilience and to secure consent for transformations needed and finally.. How to ‘operationalise’ existing knowledge about social justice and climate change for practical application

27 Our high level impacts and adaptation research questions What do we know about the interaction between the direct and indirect effects of climate change and social vulnerability? What do we know about the interaction between adaptation policy and practice responses and vulnerability? Which elements of existing adaptation policies/practice appear socially just/unjust? How can we support the development of more effective and socially just adaptation policy and practice responses, which can also build community resilience? How can the costs of delivering climate adaptation policy be met in a just way? What are the evidence gaps/poorly understood interactions? What are the policy and advocacy gaps?

28 JRF Core Questions - Adaptation What do we know about the interaction between adaptation policy and practice responses and vulnerability? Which elements of existing adaptation policies/practice appear socially just/unjust? What do we know about the relationship between social vulnerability and our preparedness for different potential impacts (e.g. heatwaves, drought, water management, flood risk, flood insurance, coastal erosion)? How can we support the development of more effective and socially just adaptation policy and practice responses, which can also build community resilience? e.g. Would stronger national commitments to fairness in adaptation policy help? Or is embedding social justice and adaptation within the new Localism agenda a more effective route to protective the vulnerable? How can the costs of delivering climate adaptation policy be met in a just way? © UKCIP 2013


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