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Charting Your Path Workshop North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC May 12, 2014 Understanding the Terrain of the Mid-Career Faculty Experience: Implications.

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Presentation on theme: "Charting Your Path Workshop North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC May 12, 2014 Understanding the Terrain of the Mid-Career Faculty Experience: Implications."— Presentation transcript:

1 Charting Your Path Workshop North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC May 12, 2014 Understanding the Terrain of the Mid-Career Faculty Experience: Implications for Faculty and Administrators Deborah DeZure, Ph. D. Assistant Provost for Faculty and Organizational Development Michigan State University 1

2 Learning Objectives At the close of this session, participants will be able to identify:  A framework for supporting faculty success  Needs, interests and challenges of mid-career faculty  Productive strategies to support them  The need to cultivate the next generation of academic leaders  Promising practices to build a pipeline into leadership  Implications for participants and their institutions 2

3 What Motivates Faculty at Work? Blackburn, R. & Lawrence, J. (1995) Faculty at Work: Motivation, Expectation, Satisfaction. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press. Intrinsic Interest: (Intrinsic Motivator)  Long-standing or emerging personal beliefs/values/interests  Ideological origins Social Knowledge: (Extrinsic Motivator)  Perception of what is valued and rewarded in the organization  Institution, college/school/department expectations and rewards  Disciplinary values, expectations and rewards  Perception may/may not be accurate but is still powerful Self-Efficacy: (Belief in Competence)  Personal belief that you know how to do what is expected.  “I know how to do it and I can do it well.” 3

4 Bottom Line  Make the most of existing intrinsic interests.  Address needs for BOTH Social Knowledge (accurate understanding of expectations and rewards) AND Self-Efficacy (training to fulfill all roles) 4

5 Academic careers progress through stages Each offers new experiences and challenges Each requires professional development/support. Challenges and development needs may vary by: Academic discipline and sub-field Type of institution Life situation: Family, health, finances Individuals vary within each stage Best TO ASK, not assume, what faculty want and/or need Faculty Career Stages 5

6 The National Picture: Mid-Career Faculty – Associate Professors (Post Tenure) Mid-career faculty are a large and important component of the academic workforce. Mid-life and mid-career are transition periods with distinctive challenges leading to reflection and reassessment. Academic life has a very short career ladder. Extrinsic motivators (tenure, promotion) decrease at mid-career. Mid-career faculty often reach a plateau when opportunities for growth and advancement decline. Continuous learning helps prevent professional obsolescence. 6 Advancement Growth? Maintenance? Stagnation?

7 Need for A Study of Mid-Career Faculty  National Context  Limited research on mid-career faculty  Institutional Context Large, public research university (MSU) F&OD Mission: “To support faculty across the career stages and across the tripartite mission of teaching, research, and outreach F&OD Advisory Board said to “map the terrain of the mid-career experience.” MSU Research Team: Baldwin, DeZure, Shaw & Amoretto 2007 POD Menges Award for Outstanding Research in Faculty Development 7

8 Study Goals & Participants To identify the expectations, experiences, challenges and support for mid-career faculty perceived by mid-career faculty and chairs at MSU. To identify promising practices, recommendations and implications for practice Interviewed 20 Chairs, 20 Mid-Career Faculty (1-5 and 6-20 years post-tenure) about their needs, experiences, and challenges. 8

9 Findings: Themes Expectations of mid-career faculty High or enhanced performance (especially in research and grants) New roles, new duties (especially service; also leadership, administration) Newly tenured faculty surprised by the increase in work High Performers Network, collaborate, build teams Exhibit adaptability, flexibility Obtain external grants 9

10 Findings: Themes (cont.) Experiences Post Tenure Tenure was liberating (1-5 years post tenure) Energy level varied post tenure Chairs “tolerated” up to two years disengagement (1-5) Confusion/Now what do I do? (1-5, 6-20) Time to reassess directions (1-5), priorities (6-20) Evolving/renegotiating roles (1-5, 6-20, chairs) Move from short-range to longer-range projects (1-5) Unclear expectations for promotion to full professor (1-5) (6-20) 10

11 Participant Voices: Achieving tenure was “liberating.” “I just relaxed. I wasn’t going to be fired. I just stopped being so nervous.” “The ax is removed from your back.” “They need ways to recover from the hazing ritual. It was bad.” 11

12 “What do I do now?” “Some hit this wall and it’s like ‘what am I going to do now?’” “You reach a certain plateau and you’ve been aiming there for a long time and you get there and you look around and say, ‘What’s next?’” “How do you know what your options are? I don’t.” 12

13 Themes Challenges for Faculty Defining goals, not pre-established (both MC/chairs) What should I do now? What’s next? (1-5) Unclear expectations (both 1-5, 6-20) Unclear criteria (for promotion to Full)(1-5) More and different demands on time (both) Dramatic increase in service/leadership roles without leadership training (1-5) Mid-career faculty often neglected/ignored (both) Joint appointments can be very difficult (1-5) 13

14 “Neglected” and “Ignored” “I think mid-career faculty are feeling unloved and unwanted, and I think they are hitting tough walls… to get funding.” “Mid-career faculty are off the radar screen. The theory is the ball will bounce by itself and have momentum.” “To sum it all up, you’re pretty much left to your own devices.” 14

15 Themes (cont.) Challenges for Faculty (6-20) Changes in field, Staying on top (6-20) Maintaining their motivation (6-20) Need to broaden criteria for promotion to full professor to accommodate those who take alternative paths into administration, outreach, national organizational leadership, teaching (6-20, chairs) 15

16 “Burnout” “The biggest challenge is staying interested, staying alive, staying engaged. It’s difficult to do after 20 years.” “How am I going to do another 20 years of this?” “Most of the mid career faculty I know have lost grants … and find it difficult to continue.” “You’re chained to your equipment.” 16

17 Themes-Challenges Challenges for Chairs Time: Goes to early career faculty Budget: Few discretionary dollars Understanding needs of mid-career faculty Lack of training in personnel and HR issues Lack of clarity and info about what support and options are available for career development Lack of flexibility in promotion system Motivating later mid-career faculty (6-20) 17

18 Themes Special Challenges Related to Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation, Age Women and faculty of color continue to have challenges in mid-career Higher service demands Less access to information Women have challenges with child-bearing (1-5) and aging parents (6-20) Men and women have challenges with child-rearing Cultural conflict for some international faculty to lead committees with elders from their culture (sciences) 18

19 “Higher Stresses” “There’s a burnout factor for highly talented women with kids… They’ve gone through so much to get tenure, they’re just burned, just depleted.” “Anyone who is not mainstream has higher stresses.” “They (faculty from under-represented groups) are the hardest to protect.” (from service demands) 19

20 Themes (Support) Chair role: Can be instrumental in providing support, guidance, funding, motivation & jumpstarting careers at all stages Annual reviews are helpful when well implemented (Standardized Forms/Protocols) Chairs and Mid-career faculty unclear about options and institutional support for mid-career faculty Sabbaticals could provide renewal/retooling but not working for many (expense, mobility of family, quality control) Need to individualize/diversify support, options, rewards (6-20) 20

21 Themes (Support Continued) Training and development: Unmet needs Leadership training for mid-career faculty Orientation/workshops for newly tenured faculty on what to expect, what is expected, how to succeed, options Mid-career faculty may also need and want mentors Mid-career faculty want training in how to mentor effectively Chair training in personnel issues 21

22 Findings: Themes Disciplinary differences STEM: difficult to change areas due to funding and lab and equipment investments Disciplines rooted in performance and collaborative work (labs, music ensemble) keep faculty engaged Programs within departments can differ with regard to mid-career faculty experiences 22

23 Contested Topic In the context of a research university, expectations for promotion to full professor and merit increases should be broadened and differentiated. 23

24 “Diversify Expectations” “When you get to be 62, I don’t think the expectations should be what they were when you were 30.” “…taking seriously the notion that people’s interests in research and publishing might change over a life span and …not penalizing someone who says ‘I don’t want to do research anymore. I’ve done enough of it. I’d rather focus on teaching, and outreach’… I don’t see why people shouldn’t have broader options.” “We still say that everybody does the same thing (teaching, research and service) and we know that most people aren’t good at everything. At some point it would be better to allow some specialization.” “We need to re-engineer faculty jobs.” 24

25 Contested Topic: Audience Poll 1.Expectations for promotion to full professor should be broadened and differentiated. AGREE NEUTRALDISAGREE 2.Expectations for merit increases for senior faculty should be broadened and differentiated. AGREENEUTRALDISAGREE 25

26 Orientation for Mid-Career Faculty New MSU Initiatives 26 “From Associate Professor to Professor: Productive Decision-making at Mid- Career” Winner, POD Innovation Award 2009

27 Leadership Development for Faculty Workshops for Faculty on Leadership and Academic Life (4-6 per year) – Designed for faculty who want to learn more about leadership and managerial skills and possible paths into academic administration – For past topics: faculty-leadership-and-academic-life faculty-leadership-and-academic-life New MSU Initiatives Cont. 27

28 New MSU Initiatives Cont. Review of Alignment of Expectations and Processes for Promotion to Associate Professor and to Professor MSU NSF ADAPP-ADVANCE Grant Annual Performance Review Toolkit: – RP&T Toolkit: – Faculty Search Toolkit: – Efforts to Promote Faculty Mentoring Mentoring Toolkit: – Establishment of a Mentoring Policy: – Final%203-2-11.pdf Final%203-2-11.pdf 28

29 MENTORING TOOLS FOR MENTEES Using the Assessing Your Mentoring Networks sheet, identify each dimension of your appointment, responsibilities, and priorities. For each dimension, identify your existing formal and informal mentors. For each dimension, identify possible additions to your mentoring network. With your Mentor, discuss strategies to build your network over time. NETWORKING: A High Priority and Valued Dimension of Mentoring 29

30 Recommendations and Promising Practices*: Institutional Efforts, Chairs/Heads, RP&T Committees, and Mid-Career Faculty When time allows, review the Promising Practices and Recommendations Sheets: ( Yellow ) Identify: Approaches you think your institution currently employs New approaches you think merit consideration Recommendations for mid-career faculty Compare your responses with colleagues from your home institution or unit and identify priorities for future consideration by your institution. *Materials reflect views of interview participants. 30

31 MSU Initiatives Continued Study of the Pipeline into Leadership and Academic Administration MSU Research Team:  Deborah DeZure, Ph.D., Assistant Provost for Faculty and Organizational Development  Allyn Shaw, Ph.D., Formerly Director, Leadership Development; Now Assistant Vice President for Student Affairs and Services  Julie Rojewski, Program Director, NSF ADVANCE Grant; Ph.D. candidate, Higher, Adult and Lifelong Education (HALE) Program 31

32 Need to Understand and Cultivate the Next Generation of Academic Administrators Demographic Trends Projected retirements More non tenure-track faculty Financial cuts in early 1980s Administrative roles more difficult Fewer mid-career faculty who wish to pursue academic administration Proliferation of leadership development programs Universities need to support the leadership pipeline. “I am totally worried about the pipeline.” (chair) 32

33 Goals of the Pipeline into Leadership Study To identify: The experiences, motivations, and trajectories of: Administrators (chairs) who effectively identify, cultivate and nurture future leaders Faculty who are emergent leaders in formal or informal leadership roles Their beliefs about what makes an effective leader How administrators identify leadership potential Factors that promote or impede pursuit of roles in academic administration Whether and how gender, race, ethnicity, age, and sexual orientation affect the leadership pipeline The case for pursuing academic administration 33

34 Administrators’ Leadership Trajectories Administrators – all Chairs (16 Prof., 3 Assoc. Prof.) All had numerous informal and formal leadership roles prior to their appointment Leadership role(s) in professional associations, associate or interim chair, dept. or college advisory committee, ass’t/assoc. dean, graduate director, search committee chair, curriculum committee, academic governance, program/clerkship director, dean’s office role These roles were critical stepping stones Building capacity, credibility, networks, interest in pursuing leadership, self-efficacy. Faculty roles provide leadership experiences 34

35 Why Administrators Pursued/Agreed to Take Their Formal Leadership Roles Many reluctant to take chair role Service to the department, part of their role, obligation No one else could or would do it They were the best or only choice, their turn Concern about other candidates They enjoy leadership, felt they could do it well Wanted to leave their mark Wanted to nurture talent After a productive research career, research had dried up 35

36 Benefits of Formal Leadership Roles: Why do It? Make a positive difference Nurture, empower and help people Help the unit move forward Problem-solve and address challenges Work with different types of people Do things faculty cannot do Build positive collaborations among faculty and administrators “It is the ability to do good on a larger scale.” 36

37 Faculty: Leadership Trajectories Faculty all served in several informal and formal leadership roles (6 Prof., 10 Assoc. Prof.) Interim chair, program director, dept./college advisory committee, etc. – “There is no way I would have become chair if I had not been interim chair.” All moved in and out of leadership roles. Many were deeply ambivalent about pursuing formal leadership roles. 25% DO NOT aspire to formal leadership roles (chair, dean), although they will continue to engage in informal and interim leadership roles. 37

38 Challenges/Barriers (Administrators & Faculty)  Takes you from the things you most love about academia: research, teaching, students  If leave research, you can’t return (STEM)  May keep you from promotion to full professor  Time demands, loss of control of time  Amount of work  “Grinding amount of work.”  “People look at me all the time and say, “Oh, my God, I’m glad I am not doing your job.” (Chair )  Work-life balance is lost; Difficult for families  Harder to lead due to budget cuts/regulations 38

39 Challenges/Barriers (Administrators & Faculty) Cont. Difficult personal interactions; Tough decisions Change in relationship with colleagues Few thanks “Faculty don’t thank you for anything. You could drag it out of them –maybe.” Pathways into leadership not clear Transitions to leadership not clear The initial move from faculty into administration is the most difficult “The first step into management is the hardest.” 39

40 Challenges/ Barriers (Identified by Faculty Only) Expectations for formal dress, appearance and behavior: Conformity, Hierarchy “You have to behave yourself” “Less independent” “You lose autonomy” “If I don’t walk in with a suit, I’m not perceived as knowing as much.” “More and more formalized and buttoned up. It’s pretty off-putting” Disillusionment with leadership (having tried it) “I now know how the sausage is made. I have a lot less respect for it” 40

41 Leadership Traits Most Valued (by Administrators & Faculty)  People skills (Most frequently mentioned)  Communication skills (Listening, Speaking, Writing)  Respected scholar in the field, Credibility  Honesty, Integrity  Able to take multiple perspectives, Value others’ viewpoints Empathy Able to relate to and value faculty Able to make decisions, able to make tough decisions Energetic Efficient and Effective Knowledge of budget and financial management (important but not essential in selection of leaders) 41

42 How Administrators Identify Future Leaders  Often hard to know who will be successful leader  Observe them with colleagues, in meetings  Future leaders care about the welfare of the unit They offer suggestions, try to problem-solve, ask questions They spend time thinking about problems They are motivated to make a difference They speak up and express their views  Give them a task and see how they do “When you look at people, you don’t always know the potential until you give them something to do.” They follow-through, complete tasks, reliable, timely They value multiple perspectives beyond their own views They are pleased when others succeed 42

43 How Administrators Encourage and Incentivize Faculty to Pursue Leadership  Administrators see this as part of their roles  Encouragement but not succession planning  Provide positive role models of effective leadership  Direct encouragement to validate their potential/skills  Encouragement raises self-awareness of their potential, affirms, validates, boosts morale  “I respected their opinions… If they were recommending me, they must believe that I have the skills that are needed. So it was a confidence boost…It’s not just me saying I can do this. It’s other people actually supporting and saying we think you can do this.”  “Pointing out a potential I had that I really didn’t think I had.” 43

44 How Administrators Encourage and Incentivize Faculty to Pursue Leadership  Open doors, help network, suggest opportunities “Maybe you should put your name in for this? Maybe take on a leadership role in this? …It would be very simple, not a long discussion.”  Offer and/or pay for leadership training or cover lost clinical billing hours to compensate medical faculty who participate in leadership development.  Offer small leadership roles, e.g. 10%, 20%, 30% “Putting my toe in the water enabled me to see what I am good at and what I am not good at.” Create titles and opportunities, select faculty as “point people” Rotate associate chairs so not only one heir apparent 44

45 How Administrators Encourage and Incentivize Faculty to Pursue Leadership, Cont.  Ask about faculty member’s interest in leadership or leadership development at Annual Review and RP&T meetings “I ask them ‘What do you plan to do in five years?’” “I would evaluate what I know about them and talk about how that might fit into their personal goals, and if it fit their goals, it would be easy to encourage them.”  Talk about leadership in department meetings  Clarify what leadership role entails  Discuss pathways into leadership  Provide administrative mentors  Enable administrators to continue research, e.g., Post-docs, RAs, staff  Step in to reward administrative work: “Colleagues sometimes don’t value the work of administration. Make sure it is acknowledged. I have overridden recommendations of peer review committees because I appreciate more what they (faculty who take on administrative roles) are doing that take time and effort.” 45

46 Sources of Discouragement to Pursue Leadership Roles (Both Administrators & Faculty) Family members Concerned about work load and work-life balance Colleagues Questions: “Why are you doing this?” “Why would you want to do this?” “What will it mean for you?” Skepticism about the value of leadership roles: “There is a fair amount of skepticism on the part of faculty, particularly successful faculty, about the value of academic leadership.” 46

47 Sources of Discouragement to Pursue Leadership Roles (Both Administrators & Faculty), Cont. Advice not to pursue leadership: – “It will keep you from promotion.” – “You need to NOT do this!” – “Are you crazy? Don’t you know that this will suck the life blood out of you?” – “The things that make you able to do research are not administrative things. The NIH doesn’t care about how many memos you are writing.” 47

48 Impact of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Age, Sexual Orientation on Pursuit of Academic Leadership  Widespread agreement: We need more women & people of color in higher ed. leadership. For most (not all) participants, these are factors in how they think about leaders. Women and faculty of color are already over- taxed in service. – Cultural taxation 48

49 Impact of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Age, Sexual Orientation on Pursuit of Academic Leadership, Cont.  Gender is a major factor for women in leadership roles. “Tremendous gender hurdles” that many men don’t recognize “I think there are tremendous gender hurdles. I think we still live in an age when people see strong women as dangerous and unappealing. So that’s a hurdle and it is one that I think male faculty are completely blind to – that they really don’t see.” Women don’t feel administrators have their backs “Step in when women are bullied by more senior male faculty” Only qualified women should be selected Women feel undercut by other women Women should ASK for leadership opportunities, not wait If first woman leader in a unit, “you have to create your own model” 49

50 Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Age and Sexual Orientation, Cont.  Race continues to be a factor in leadership in higher ed. Leaders of color face extra challenges and may need support, encouragement & guidance in navigating among many options. Faculty of color value administrative mentors of color. Women, faculty of color and other minorities in leadership roles may need support and encouragement to take care of themselves (“self- care”). 50

51 Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Age and Sexual Orientation, Cont.  Age Frequently cited as a factor in whether a person is “ready for leadership,” e.g., not having sufficient authority, experience. Tied to rank and promotion Older white men often challenged legitimacy and authority of younger women leaders.  Sexual Orientation Climate is “heterocentric, but not homophobic” 51

52 Disciplinary Differences In Leadership Roles Clinical health sciences have complex financial and billing models Cost of engagement in leadership development STEM and health sciences have responsibilities for: Labs, regulatory compliance, export control Disciplinary differences based on: External constituencies External accreditors Availability of external funding Availability of discipline-based leadership development Ability to return to faculty as active researcher after administration Reporting lines – Units that report to more than one dean – Units with many joint-appointment faculty An interdisciplinary background is helpful 52

53 A Contested Topic Whether it is productive to “protect” faculty from service and leadership roles until they have attained the rank of full professor. Productive to “Protect” Protects faculty time to enable them to do the work required to attain the rank of full professor when they will have the credibility, authority and freedom to pursue leadership and administrative roles. Counter-productive to “Protect” The unintended consequence is that faculty are socialized to think that leadership is not their job, beneath the work of faculty, and not worthy of their time and effort. By the time they are promoted, they are not willing to serve in these roles and have not developed the requisite skills. 53

54 Audience Poll Please rate the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following statement: “It is productive to ‘protect’ faculty from leadership roles until they have attained the rank of full professor.” A. Agree B. Neutral C. Disagree 54

55 Thought-Provoking Theme Several participants noted that they would not want a leader who wanted the job. “You wouldn’t want someone in the job who really wanted it.” What do you think is meant by this? What assumptions may undergird this? What are the implications for cultivating and selecting leaders? 55

56 The Perception that Going into Administration is “Going to the Dark Side” All but one participant had heard the phrase; all the rest indicated it is widely used by their colleagues and commonly believed among academics. Most administrators in this study challenged and disagreed with this perception. Only some of the faculty in this study challenged this perception. 56

57 What does “Going to the Dark Side” Mean? “Us” against “Them” “There is a tendency to divide the University into Us against Them.” Administrators forgot where they came from “Administrative work is non-intellectual” and “anti- intellectual” “There are people who feel that once you go beyond chair, you are not a faculty anymore… and that you are a traitor to your discipline.” 57

58 What does “Going to the Dark Side” Mean? Cont. Administrators impede rather than support faculty “You are a gatekeeper rather than a facilitator.” “We are all Darth Vadar … and make decisions without faculty input.” 58

59 What would you say to counter the image of going into administration as “going to the Dark Side?” “Just say NO. This is not the ‘dark side.’” “It’s the ability to do good on a larger scale.” “Enables you to help people” and “to nurture talent” “Enables you to solve problems that affect you and your colleagues” “It’s service.” “It’s a collaboration between faculty and administrators.” “You get to do things you cannot do as faculty.” 59 The Case for Academic Administration

60 The Case for Academic Administration cont. “I just love all the different things I get to learn about” “If you love science, you get to work in so many different fields.” “It is the best job on campus.” “I just love it.” “If we look at students, we would want our students to be leaders. Well then, wouldn’t you want them to be taught by leaders?” “Administrators are those who can create the best possible world for the academics. There needs to be people who understand how the whole thing operates and that is not ‘Us’ against ‘Them’. It is an enterprise for everybody.” 60

61 Implications for Professional Development Supporting a pipeline into academic leadership is timely and productive. Recommendations include: Raise awareness about the need to support a pipeline into academic leadership Engage academics in a discussion of the costs/benefits of “protecting” early and mid-career faculty from administration. Help administrators learn how to identify and cultivate faculty to pursue leadership and administration. Help faculty learn how to segue from faculty roles to leadership and academic administration, if and when they wish to do so. 61

62 Productive Practices and Recommendations When time allows, review Productive Practices Sheet: Recommendations for Administrators and Faculty (Gray) 62

63 Read More About It For a summary of faculty career stages, related interests/needs/goals and challenges, and relevant professional development materials, see: “Needs/Interests/Challenges of Academic Career Stages and Relevant Professional Development Opportunities” 63

64 Q and A I invite your questions and comments. 64

65  Austin, A.E., Brocato, J.J., & Rohrer, J.D. Institutional Missions, Multiple Faculty Roles: Implications for Faculty Development. In D. DeZure (Ed.), To Improve the Academy, Vol. 16 (pp. 3- 20). Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press and POD Network.  Austin, A. E., & Sorcinelli, M. D. (Eds.) (1992) Developing new and junior faculty. New Directions for Teaching and Learning Series, No. 50. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  Baldwin, R.G. (1990). Faculty Career Stages and Implications for Professional Development. In J.H. Schuster, D.W. Wheeler, & Assoc. (Eds.). Enhancing faculty careers: Strategies for Development and Renewal (pp. 20-40). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  Baldwin, R.G., DeZure, D., Shaw, A., & Amoretto, K. (2008, Sept./Oct.). Mapping the Terrain of Mid-Career Faculty at a Research University: Implications for Faculty and Academic Leaders.” Change, (pp. 46-55). (Copy Provided)  Baldwin, R.G., & Zeig, M.J. (2012, Sept./Oct.). Making emeritus matter. Change: 44:5, 28-34.  Blackburn, R.T., & Lawrence, J.H. (1995). Faculty at Work. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.  Bland, C.J., & Berquist, W.H. (1997). The vitality of senior faculty members: Snow on the roof-fire in the furnace. Washington, D.C.: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education.  DeZure, D. (1996, February). Closer to the Disciplines: A model for Improving Teaching within the Disciplines. AAHE Bulletin, 48 (6): 9-12.  Finnegan, D.E., Webster, D., & Gamson, Z.F. (Eds.). (1996). Faculty and Faculty Issues in Colleges and Universities. 2 nd Edition. ASHE Reader Series. Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster. Related Literature on Faculty Career Stages 65

66 Related Literature on Mid-Career Faculty Buch, K., Huet, Y., Rorrer, A., & Roberson, L. (2012). Removing the barriers to full professor: A mentoring program for associate professors. Change, 43:6, 38-45. Baldwin, R. G., Lunceford, C. J., & Vanderlinden, K. E. (2005). Faculty in the middle years: Illuminating and overlooked phase of academic life. The Review of Higher Education, 29 (1), 97-118. Baldwin, R. G., & Chang, D. A. (2006). Reinforcing Our Keystone Faculty: Strategies to Support Faculty in the Middle Years of Academic Life. Liberal Education 92(4), 28-35. Bland, C. J., & Bergquist, W. H. (1997). The vitality of senior faculty members: Snow on the roof – fire in the furnace. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 25 (7). Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University Graduate School of Education and Human Development. Hall, D. T. (2002). Careers in and out of organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P.H. (1995) The new career contract: Developing the whole person at midlife and beyond. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 269-289. 66

67 Related Literature & Resources on Mid-Career Faculty Cont. Karpiak, I. (2000a). Over rocky roads and stepping stones; women academic in mid- career. Initiatives the journal of NAWE, 59 (2), 1-8. Karpiak, I. (2000b). The ‘second call:’ Faculty renewal and recommitment at midlife. Quality in Higher Education, 6 (2), 125-134. Newton, P. M. (1983). Periods in the adult development of the faculty member. Human Relations, 36, 441-458. Nottis, K. E. (2005). Supporting the mid-career researcher. Journal of Faculty Development, 20 (2), 95-98. Tenure status of full-time faculty members by type of institution (2003-4). The Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac 2006-7. Retrieved May 5, 2007, from Wilson, R. “Associate Professors: Academe’s Sandwich Generation,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 24, 2011. MSU, Advancing Diversity through the Alignment of Policies and Practices, NSF Advance Grant - 67

68 Related Literature on Cultivating the Next Generation of Academic Leaders Appadurai, A. (2009, April 10). Higher education’s coming leadership crisis. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 54 (29). Retrieved from Http:// Barden, D.M., & Curry, J. (2013, April 8). Faculty Members Can Lead, but Will They? The Chronicle of Higher Education, Run Your Campus. Retrieved from Lead-but/138343/ Lead-but/138343/ Barrett, E., & Cullinan, M. (2013, April 3). Professor or Administrator? The Chronicle of Higher Education, Manage Your Career. Retrieved from Betts, K, Urias, D., Chavez, J., & Betts, K. (2009, Spring). Higher education and shifting U.S. demographics: Need for visible administrative career paths, professional development, succession planning and commitment to diversity. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal, 7 (2). Retrieved from Braun, S., Nazlic, T., Weisweiler, S., Pawlowska, B., Peus, C. & Frey, D. (2009). Effective leadership development in higher education: Individual and group level approaches. The Journal of Leadership Education, 8, 195-206. Buffone, N. (2009). Leadership Continuity: Enhancing the Cycle of leadership in Academic Departments. Open Access Dissertations, 35. DeZure, D., Shaw, A., & Rojewski, J. (2014, January/February). Cultivating The Next Generation of Academic Leaders: Implications for Administrators and Faculty. Change, 6-12. (Copy provided.) Kezar, A. (Ed.) (2009). Rethinking Leadership in a Complex, Multicultural, and Global Environment. Sterling, VA: Stylus Press. 68

69 Related Literature on Cultivating a Pipeline into Academic Leadership Cont. Kezar, A. (2009). Leadership development on campus within the corporate new marketplace. In J. Knapp & D. Siegel (eds). The Business of Higher Education. (pp. 53-73), Westport, CT. Praeger Press. Kezar, A., & Lester, J. (2009). Leadership in a world of divided feminism. NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education, 1 (1), 49-73. Mansbach, J. (2012, August). Early Career Faculty and Leadership Development: An Intersection. Independent Study. Michigan State University. Unpublished Manuscript. Leubsdorf, B. (2006, September 1). Boomers’ retirement may create talent squeeze. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53 (2). Retrieved from Http:// Luna, G. (2012). Planning for an American higher education leadership crisis: The succession issue for administrators. International Leadership Journal, 56. Maxwell, D. (2009). Engaging the Next Generation of Faculty. Presidency, 12(1), 3. Prigge, G.W. (2010). Traits and Development Needed by Leaders for Success in the Complex World of Higher Education. The Journal of Higher Education Management, 25 (1), 3. Reille, A., & Kezar, A. (2010). Balancing the pros and cons of community college “Grow-Your- Own” Leadership Programs. Community College Review, 38 (1), 59-81. Wergin, J. (2007). Leadership in Place. Boston: Anker Publishing. Zemke, R., Raines, C., & Filipczak, B. (2000). Generations at work: Managing the clash of veterans, boomers, xers, and nexters in your workplace. NY: AMACOM. 69

70 To Connect… Deborah DeZure 517 432-5125 70

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