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The opposite of Death God and the Miracle in the Andes Sources: Read, P. P. (1974; 2002). Alive. New York: Harper Perennial Parrado, N. (2006). Miracle.

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Presentation on theme: "The opposite of Death God and the Miracle in the Andes Sources: Read, P. P. (1974; 2002). Alive. New York: Harper Perennial Parrado, N. (2006). Miracle."— Presentation transcript:

1 The opposite of Death God and the Miracle in the Andes Sources: Read, P. P. (1974; 2002). Alive. New York: Harper Perennial Parrado, N. (2006). Miracle in the Andes. New York: Three Rivers Press. Rossano, M. J. (2013). Mortal rituals: An evolutionary understanding of the Andes Survivors' story. New York: Columbia University Press.

2 Rugby not Soccer In the mid 1950’s Catholic parents in Montevideo, Uruguay invite the Irish Christian Brothers order to start a boy’s school. Stella Maris College 3 manly lessons of rugby Hard work and determination Selfless individual sacrifice for the greater good of the group or team Manly character: Self discipline and the ability to repress selfish desires for the greater moral good. “Football is a game which … requires that every player of the team shall sink his individuality and, like a part of a machine, work in concert with the other parts.” Quote from H. J. Wynyard p. 83

3 The “Old Christians” Rugby Club In 1965, Stella Maris alumni form the “Old Christians” rugby club, dedicated to playing rugby on Sunday afternoons. 1968, 1970: Old Christians are Uruguayan national champions 1971: Old Christians travel to Santiago, Chile and split games with the Chilean national team. 1972: plans were made for a rematch.

4 Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 Oct. 12, 1972: 45 passengers and crew board an American built Fairchild F-227 in Montevideo, Uruguay bound for Santiago, Childe. Most are members of the Old Christians Rugby Club, families, friends, or supporters. Bad weather forces the plane to land in Mendoza, Argentina. Oct. 13, (Friday) the plane takes off from Mendoza and crashes in Andes

5 Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 Why did it crash? Crew miscalculated position. Did Colonel Farradas fail to account for headwinds? (30 th Andes crossing) Was the plane at fault? Bad safety record of Fairchild F-227, but this plane almost new.

6 The crash Crew put the plane into an emergency climb Right wing sheared off by mountain, contacted plane and cut off tail section. Left wing sheared off, remaining fuselage hit a mountain side and tobogganed down at 200 knots Crash site: an unnamed peak (later called Cerro [Mt] Seler, also known as Glaciar de las Lágrimas or Glacier of Tears), located between Cerro Sosneado (Chile) and Tinguiririca Volcano (Argentina) Fatalities: 12 died in crash; 5 died by next morning; 1 more on day 8 8 more died in avalanche on Oct. 29; low level attrition over next weeks.

7 Crash Site

8 Marcelo Perez: Team Captain Early leader: Organized rescue effort immediately after crash Organized “crews:” clean up crew, water making crew, medical crew, devised rationing scheme Midday meal – cup of wine, taste of jam Evening meal – piece of chocolate Leadership waned quickly; killed in avalanche on Oct. 29

9 The mountain social system The Cousins The LieutenantsThe expeditionaries The doctors The clean up crew The water makers The parasites

10 The “Cousins” As Perez leadership faded, increasingly a triumvirate of three cousins took over Adolfo “Fito” Strauch (first among equals) Eduardo Strauch Daniel Fernandez Parrado p. 117 “’The cousins,’ as we all called them, gave us a strong stable center that prevented the group from disintegrating into factions…”

11 Roberto Canessa Considered the “chief” doctor Important role in initial hours after crash Devised hammocks for injured Made both medical and theological arguments for eating human flesh; first to cut and eat. Along with Nando Parrado was “expeditionary” trekked out of mountains Wielded considerable influence but was never considered a leader. Why not? Roberto was something of a “head” case! Parrado p. 120 “…the brightest, most difficult, most complicated character on the mountain.” Son of the most prominent cardiologist in Montevideo Egotistical, rebellious, refused to give up his horse! Disobeyed coaches, nicknamed “muscles,” tough-minded, stubborn, impatient, but strong sense of responsibility. Roberto could act like a bully, but was not a bully, he was the real deal, a truly tough S.O.B.

12 Nando Parrado Knocked into a coma in crash, thought dead (putting him outside may have saved his life!). Unconscious first three days. Mother, sister, best friend died in crash (sister after a few days). Most insistent on trekking out of mountains. Became leader of expeditionaries. Most popular, well-liked, respected person among crash survivors. Motivated by love of father. P. 201 “In my despair, I felt a sharp and sudden longing for the softness of my mother and my sister, and the warm strong embrace of my father. My love for my father swelled in my heart, and I realized that, despite the hopelessness of my situation, the memory of him filled me with joy. It staggered me: The mountains, for all their power, were not stronger than my attachment to my father. They could not crush my ability to love. … Death has an opposite, but the opposite is not mere living. It is not courage or faith or human will. The opposite of death is love. “

13 The Hardest Choice Parrado p. 93: “One morning near the end of our first week in the mountains, I found myself standing outside the fuselage, looking down at the single chocolate- covered peanut I cradled in my palm. Our supplies had been exhausted, this was the last morsel of food I would be given, and with a sad, almost miserly desperation I was determined to make it last. On the first day, I slowly sucked the chocolate off the peanut, then I slipped the peanut into the pocket of my slacks. On the second day I carefully separated the peanut halves, slipping one half back into my pocket and placing the other half into my mouth. I sucked gently on the peanut for hours, allowing myself only a tiny nibble now and then. I did the same on the third day, and when I’d finally nibbled the peanut down to nothing, there was no food left at all.”

14 The Hardest Choice Late night conversation, Nando Parrado and Carlitos Paez (Parrado p.96) NP: We are going to starve here. I don’t think the rescuers will find us in time. CP: You don’t know that. NP: I know it and you know it. But I will not die here. I will make it home. CP: Are you still thinking about climbing out of here? Nando, you are too weak. NP: I am weak because I haven’t eaten. CP: But what can you do? There is no food here. NP: There is food. You know what I mean. Carlitos shifted in the darkness but said nothing. NP: I will cut meat from the pilot. He’s the one who put us here, maybe he will help us get out. CP: [expletive] Nando. NP: There is plenty of food here. But you must think of it only as meat. Our friends don’t need their bodies anymore. Carlitos sat silently for a moment before speaking CP: God help us. I have been thinking the very same thing.

15 The Hardest Choice Oct. 22: Discussion before the decision (p Alive; 96-7 Miracle) Canessa: medical argument – our bodies are consuming ourselves Fito: high altitude increases energy demands Canessa, Fito, Zerbino: its our only hope. Theological argument – the moral obligation to survive. Eating their friends was like communion Marcelo: What have we done that God would now require us to eat the dead bodies of our friends? Liliana Methol: As long as there is chance for rescue, I could not. Others: OK for others, but I can’t; Could God forgive us? Canessa: The souls of dead are gone. They are only meat. Zerbino: If I die and you do not use my body to help you live, I’m gonna come back and kick your [expletive]. Concludes with affirmation and pact: Any who die from here on grant permission to survivors to consume them.

16 The Hardest Choice p. 81 in Alive At last a group of four – Canessa, Maspons, Zerbino and Fito Strauch – rose and went out into the snow. … With no exchange of words, Canessa knelt, bared the skin, and cut into the flesh with a piece of broken glass. … he … cut away twenty slivers the size of matchsticks. He then stood up, went back to the plane, and placed them on the roof. Inside there was silence. The boys cowered in the Fairchild. Canessa told them … the meat was … on the roof, drying in the sun, and … those who wished … should come out and eat it. No one came… Canessa took it upon himself to prove his resolution. He prayed to God to help him… [but] the horror of the act paralyzed him. His hand would neither rise to his mouth nor fall to his side while the revulsion which possessed him struggled with his stubborn will. The will prevailed. The hand rose and push the meat into his mouth. … He was going to survive.

17 The Church’s Judgment After their rescue, the survivors where taken to St. John of God hospital in San Fernando, Chile. Upon hearing that the survivors had sustained themselves on human flesh, the doctors called in Fr. Andres Rojas, from the nearby parish of San Fernando Rey. As the survivors explained to Fr. Rojas what they had done, a few asked for the sacrament of reconciliation. Fr. Rojas rejected their request, not because they could not be forgiven but because they had committed no sin. Church doctrine affirms that anthropophagy in extremis (eating the bodies of the dead under extreme circumstances) was permissible. A few days later a Uruguayan Jesuit theologian from Catholic University in Santiago Chile (Fr. Rodriguez) affirmed this judgment to a gathering of survivors and their families. He did however, disclaim any strict connection between communion and anthropophagy. Eucharist is not equal to a dead, soulless body, even though one might draw a connection between Christ sacrificing his body for others and dead giving their bodies so others might live Fr. Andres Rubio (Aux. Archbishop of Montevideo), “communion” best describes the inspiration behind their action, but not the action itself.

18 The daily rituals Sustaining the spirit: Faith, teamwork, ritual “They were still cold, wet, dirty, and hungry, and some were in great pain, but in the last few days a degree of order seemed to have been imposed on the chaos. The different teams for cutting, cooking, melting snow, and cleaning the cabin were working well … They ate at midday; by half past four … the sun went behind the mountains … and … it became bitterly cold. They filed in groups of two into the hulk of the plane in the order they were to sleep – Juan Carlos Menendez, Pancho Delgado, Roque, the mechanic, and Numa Turcatti entered last, for it was their turn to sleep by the entrance. Each boy, as he entered, took off his shoes and put them up on part of the hat rack on the right-hand side. … Carlitos Paez said the rosary out loud, and some of the boys talked quietly among themselves (Alive p )”

19 The daily rituals 1.Raphael Eschavarren’s announcement 2.“Crews” and their daily tasks: Cabin clean-up Water-makers “Doctors” Food preparers (cousins – lieutenants) 3.Line up for meals (portions by rank; work) 4.Line up for night in the plane (pairs; rotate by position; Carlitos Paez tapiador ritual leader 5.Discussion/nightly rosary lead by Carlitos (usually) Rosary ritual had lost its symbolism, it had become real: “…poor banished children of eve – mourning and weeping in the vale of tears…” Rosary prayer had different meaning for different people. Prayer for a miracle, for strength, mental relaxation, maintaining sanity, getting sleep.

20 The last expedition On the morning of Dec. 12, Parrado, Canessa, and Vizintin set out to the west (they misunderstood their location) on the final expedition. It was the 8 th expedition, last only because it was successful. In three days they neared the summit of Mt. Seler (named by Parrado), over 15,000 ft high (note: Alive p. 395, 13,500) Canessa: road to the east Parrado: up over the summit Vizintin: whatever P&C decide Delay: Parrado to the summit and report back Parrado sees valley to summits not covered in snow Decision: send Vizintin back, but which way to go? The next morning Canessa relents: Parrado p. 203 “Roberto stood before me. I saw the fear in his eyes, but I also saw courage and I instantly forgave him all the weeks of arrogance and bullheadedness. … “You and I are friends, Nando, he said. “We have been through so much. Now let’s go die together. “

21 Last expedition: Day by day Day 7: descent into the valley Day 8: trees and soup can (Parrado p. 217) Canessa: People have been here. Parrado: …maybe it fell from a plane Canessa: You stupid [expletive]. Airplane windows don’t open. They find cow dung Canessa: Do you want to explain how cow [expletive] might have fallen from a plane? Parrado: Keep walking. When we find a farmer, then I’ll get excited. Gallows humor – they are slowly dying of exhaustion. Day 9: Canessa is overcome by exhaustion and diarrhea. P. 219: “I took his pack and set off down the path, giving him no choice but to follow. He fell behind quickly, but I kept an eye on him. He was hunched over, limping and in great discomfort and suffering with every step. “Don’t give up muscles,” I whispered to myself… He was forcing himself forward now though stubbornness and the sheer power of his will.

22 “I see a man” Day 9 early evening. Canessa spots a man on a horse in the distance. Their shouts are drown out by the rushing of nearby river. Parrado falls to his knees and begs the man for help. Sergio Catalan: “Tomorrow”

23 Postscript: March 2005 Arturo Nogueira’s last letter “… Life is hard, but it is worth living. Even suffering. Courage” “Excuse me, good man,” … “but we are lost again. Can you help us out one more time?”

24 Happy 60 th Birthday Gilbert!


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