Presentation on theme: "Book II Unit 8. Contents Text One Pre-reading I. Warm-up questions II. Background information While-reading I. Structural analysis II. Comprehension questions."— Presentation transcript:
Contents Text One Pre-reading I. Warm-up questions II. Background information While-reading I. Structural analysis II. Comprehension questions III. Language points IV. Difficult sentences Post-reading I. Grammatical items II. Translation exercises III. Oral activities IV. Writing practice Text Two I. Questions for comprehension II. Language points
Text I--- Focus On Global Warming Pre-reading I. Warm-up question 1. It is generally felt that the climate all over the world is changing; winter is becoming less cold and summer is getting hotter do you like this climatic change? Are you aware of the consequences this change causes? 2. The term ‘greenhouse effect’ is on the lips of lots of people nowadays. What do you know about it? Can you give some suggestions for tackling it?
II. Background information 1. About the author John Weier was born in Winnipeg and grew up near Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. After graduating from high school, he studied anthropology and history of religions at the University ofManitoba. In 1975 he began work as a luthier in Winnipeg, making banjos, violas and violins. He has since built about a hundred stringed instruments.
John Weiehas studied in India and England. He has worked in the Canadian book publishing industry and as a musician with the Duck Mountain Bluegrass Band. He coached for ten years in the Manitoba Fastball program and has been awarded the Manitoba Order of Sport Excellence. He is a past president of the League of Canadian Poets and past Creator Co-chair of the Access Copyright Board of Directors.
Currently a member of the CANCOPY Board of Directors. John works freelance as a violin restorer and writer. He is an avid birdwatcher. He has two children and lives in Winnipeg with his wife Susan. John began writing in his teens and has pursued this vocation professionally since 1983. His first book, a collection of poems entitled After the Revolution, was published in 1986; his tenth, Stand the Sacred Tree, a work of creative non-fiction, was published in 2004.
2. Global warming Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century was caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which results from human activity such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation
An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects include changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, species extinctions, and changes in agricultural yields.
According to the EPA, the main causes of U.S. Global Warming pollution are: Electricity Generation: 33.9% Transportation: 26.8% Industry: 18.8% Agriculture: 7.6% Residential: 7.6% Commercial: 4.7%
I. Structural analysis As the text itself indicated, the whole passage naturally falls into three parts. Part I (Para.1-2): The author tells the reason why people are now increasingly concerned about global warming. Part II (Para.3-7): The author traces the causes of global warming and discusses the consequences of it. Part III (Para.8-11): The author puts forward some suggestions on what is to be done. While-reading
II. Comprehension questions 1. Why are people increasingly concerned about global warming? ---The answer to this question can be found in Paragraph2. People’s concern with global warming is based on fear of low-lying nations being awash in seawater, frequent hurricanes and change of rain and drought patterns
2. How have humans contributed to the rising concentration of greenhouse gases? ---Refer to Parapgrph3. humans are responsible for the rising concentration of greenhouse gases for the emission of carbon dioxide from their power plants and cars, the decomposition of their trash, their breeding of cattle and use of fertilizers.
3. Data from different sources indicate that there has been a drastic increase in temperature, sea level and glaciers. ---The concentration of greenhouse gases will trap excessive heat and prevent it from leaving the Earth, hence the global warming.
4. In the process of global warming, the temperature would rise at the same rate worldwide. ---The change of climate would bring disastrous consequences to humans. An increase in heat and rain would cause more diseases in equatorial regions. More intense rains would bring about severe flooding and more deaths. And even a moderate rise in sea level could threaten the low-lying islands and nations. And high temperature could lead to more cases of heart disease and respiratory problems.
5. To combat global warming, we have to depend on new technologies to produce clean cars. ---A number of actions should be taken. In the short term, we should reduce the emission of heat-trapping gases, mitigate the impacts of global warming through careful planning. In the long run, we should adopt policies that encourage the use of alternative and clean fuels, and stop deforestation.
III. Language points peruse vt.: to read through something, especially in order to find the part you are interested in ---He opened a newspaper and began to peruse the personal ads. Derivation: perusal n.
periodical n.: a publication that appears at fixed intervals, esp. one of a serious kind---She has written for several legal periodicals. Derivation: period n. periodic a. occurring or appearing at (esp. regular) intervals 定期的，周期的 periodically ad.
attest vt. / vi.: to demonstrate, to declare to be true ---The luxurious furnishings attested to the family’s wealth. ---The child’s good health attestshis mother’s care. Collocation: attest (to) sth.
consciousness n. a.the condition of being awake and understanding what is happening ---When will the patient regain his consciousness? b. all the ideas, thoughts, feelings, etc. of a person or people ---This experience helped to change her social consciousness. Collocation: consciousness of sth. / that … awareness of sth. / that … ---Her consciousness that she’s different makes her feel uneasy.
regain / recover consciousness 恢复意识，恢复知觉 lose consciousness 失去意识，失去知觉 Comparison: subconscious a. 潜意识的 conscience n. 良心 conscientious a. （指人或行为）认真的，尽责的
threat n.: a strong possibility that something very bad will happen ---She left the country under threat of arrest if she returned. spew vt.: to pour out, esp. quickly and violently ---One engine of the plane caught fire and spewed black smoke. Collocation: spew sth. up: to vomit
harbinger n. : something that indicates or foreshadows what is to come ---Frost is a harbinger of winter. decompose v. a. (cause to) decay ---The meat began to decompose after some time in the sun. b. to separate into components or basic elements ---Microbes decompose organic waste into a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
breed a. vi. (of animals) produce young ---The blackbird, like most birds, breeds in the spring. vt. a) to keep animals for the purpose of producing young animals in a controlled way --- His main income comes from breeding cattle. b. to cause something to happen, usually something bad --- Unemployment breeds social unrest.
Collocation: born and bred: born, brought up and educated (in a specified place or manner) --- He was born and bred a gentleman.
excess a. : extra or additional (to the usual or permitted amount) ---A company which makes high profits must pay excess profits duty to the government Collocation: excess fare 补票费 excess baggage / luggage 超重的行李
Comparison: excessive a.: greater than what is normal or necessary; extreme 过分的，过度的 ---Excessive exercise can sometimes cause health problems.
recession n. a. (of water, glacier, etc.) the process of moving back from an area that it was covering ---The rainfall is likely to delay the recession of the floodwater. b. temporary decline in economic activity or prosperity ---During severe recession, companies are often forced to make massive job cuts in order to survive. 在严重的经济萧条期，公司通常会被迫大规模裁员以维 持运转。
fend vi. : to defend oneself from a blow, attack, or attacker ---So long as the local people work hard and take effective steps, they will fend against poverty. 只要当地人民埋头苦 干并采取有效措施，就一定能战胜贫困。 Collocation: fend sth. / sb. off 抵御或抵挡 fend for oneself 照顾自己；独立生活 --- You are 22 now. It is time you left home and learnt to fend for yourself.
combat vt. / vi.: fight (against) ---The president emphasized the importance of combating international terrorism. Collocation: combat against / with sb. / sth.: fight or struggle against sb. / sth.
vulnerable a.: to be weak and easily affected by illness ---Elderly people, living alone, are especially vulnerable. Collocation: vulnerable to sth. / sb. mitigate vt.: to make an unpleasant situation or its effect less serious and less difficult to bear ---We need to do everything we can to mitigate the distress caused by the disaster.
With the possible exception of another world war, a giant asteroid, or an incurable plague, global warming may be the single largest threat to our planet. ---Global warming will probably be the most serious threat to our Earth, if we do not take into account of some other possible disasters, such as another world war, collision of our Earth with some small orbiting planet, or spread of incurable disease. IV. Difficult sentences
In essence, these gases are trapping excess heat in the Earth’s atmosphere in much the same way that a windshield traps solar energy that enters a car. ---In essence, excess heat is kept in the Earth’s atmosphere by these gases; this phenomenon is just like solar energy is kept within a car by a windshield Much of the available climate data appear to back these fears. ---There is plenty of climate data which could support these fears.
As far as human health is concerned, those hit hardest will probably be residents of poorer countries that do not have funds to fend against changes in climate. ---In terms of human health, it is those who live in the poorer countries who will suffer most, because they do not have money to protect themselves as climate changes.
I. Grammatical Items The present perfect tense vs. the simple past tense Connectives (because, as, since, seeing that, for, because of) Post-reading
The simple past refers to the definite past. The present perfect refers to “the past with present relevance.” The action or state denoted by the present perfect tense, though referring to some indefinite happening in the past, has some connection with the present. Hence, if an action or state happened in the past and has no connection with the present, it will have to be expressed by the simple past. ---His father has been a teacher all his life. (His father is still alive.) ---His father was a teacher all his life. (His father is now dead.)
Exercises A: Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb forms. 1. He (invent) hundreds of things. He is one of the most productive inventors of our generation. 2. A: Is your father at home? B: No, I’m afraid he (go) out. A: When exactly (he, go) out? B: About ten minutes ago. 3. Since Mr. Hassan (become) president, both taxes and unemployment (increase).
4. The minute I (get) the news about Sue I telephoned my parents. 5. I’ll contact you the minute I (get) my exam results. 6. It won’t be the first time she (vote) against the government in her long career. 7. Our English teacher (correct) all the exercise books last Friday evening.
Because is generally used when the reason is the most important part of the sentence. As and since are used when the reason is already well known, or is less important than the rest of the sentence. Since is a little more formal than as. As and since clauses often begin the sentence. Clauses of cause-result are introduced by because or as. Seeing that means the same as since. It is used only in informal speech.
For suggests that the reason is given as an afterthought. For clauses never come at the beginning of the sentence. The phrase because of is a prepositional phrase, and should be followed by a noun or a noun phrase.
Exercise B: Fill in the blanks with because, as, since, seeing that, for or because of. 1. I’m very sorry but I can’t come to work today I’ve caught a very bad cold. 2. there is considerable evidence that violence on television may be a contributory factor in the increase of hooliganism, the Independent Television Authority has withdrawn its serial on famous crimes.
3. Just I’m lending you my dress for tonight doesn’t mean you can borrow it whenever you want to. 4. In the past insurance companies were often criticized by the public delaying payment on claims. 5. The train was delayed bad weather.
II. Translation exercises 全球性的气候变化也许是造成恐龙灭绝的原因。 （ global ） Global climate change may have been responsible for the extinction of the dinosaur. 患有不治之症的病人经常会寻求不同的疗法，诸如顺 势疗法。 (incurable) Patients with incurable illness often seek alternative treatments such as homeopathy.
经济理论预言，商品降价会引起消费上升。 (lead to ) Economic theory predicts that a fall in the price of a commodity will lead to an increase in consumption. 对于集团犯罪问题，人们要求国会采取有力的行动 （ take action ） The congress is expected to take strong actions on the problem of organized crime
始终存在的失业威胁使得工人不太愿意罢工。 (threat) The ever-present threat of unemployment makes workers less willing to go on strike. 老年人会面临一些由于失去了独立性而产生的心理问题。 (result from) Elderly people may face some psychological problems that result from their loss of independence.
汽车业和绝大多数其他工业一样正在感受到衰退的影响。 (effect) The car industry, like most other industries, is feeling the effects of the recession. 在大学能否成功部分取决于你如何适应新的环境。 (adapt to ) Your success at college partly depends on how well you can adapt yourself to the new environment.
II. Oral activities Discuss with one of your classmates on the following topics. Scientists are convinced that human actions are causing global warming. If this is so, it stands to reason that our own actions can also help reduce this threat. Discuss: What You Can Do about Global Warming
Ideas for reference: Take Personal Action --- using less gasoline, natural gas, oil, and electricity in your daily life. ---Your choices about energy and transportation are especially crucial. --- Household energy savings really can make a difference --- Plant trees --- Let policymakers know you are concerned about global warming.
III. Writing practice Write a 250-word composition about the environment in China. In the first part, make clear what you think is the most serious environmental problem in this country. In the second part, analyze the causes of this problem. In the last part, make some suggestions as to how to solve the problem. 海南大学外国语学院基础英语研室
Text II--- The Villain in the Atmosphere Lead-in questions 1. What, in your opinion, contributes to global warming? 2. What can we do to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions?
II. Questions for comprehension 1. Following the author’s analysis, what is the key factor of the problem? ---The author seems to suggest that “the villain,” i.e. what is behind the immediate causes of global warming, is humanity itself. 2. What do you think the author really wants to say when you read between the lines of the last paragraph of the passage? ---What the author really wants to say is that humanity should spend more time, work, and money to improve the environment rather than support competing military machines that can destroy us all.
II. Language points Less heat is lost at night, …than would be : the subject in the dependent clause after ‘than’ is often omitted. ---it obviously opens up the possibility of a university education to a much wider section of population then has hitherto received it.
Even worse might be in store: Something worse might happen in the near future. Runaway greenhouse effect: It means such greenhouse effect as develops quickly and cannot be controlled.
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