JAMES MONROE 5 TH PRESIDENT Two terms, Republican, from VA Two terms, Republican, from VA Fought at Battle of Trenton with Washington (Monroe was 18) Fought at Battle of Trenton with Washington (Monroe was 18) Wounded & musket ball stays in his shoulder for life Wounded & musket ball stays in his shoulder for life Unopposed in 2 nd term but not elected unanimously…. Unopposed in 2 nd term but not elected unanimously…. One of 3 Presidents to die on a 4 th of July One of 3 Presidents to die on a 4 th of July
NATIONALISM HIGH!! Republicans are only party –Unity in nation symbolized by restored friendship of Jefferson & Adams Era of Good Feelings Focus on America; lack of serious conflict
Economic Nationalism Prevails Congress passes protective tariffs to protect American industry Congress passes protective tariffs to protect American industry “Revenue tariffs” are taxes on imported goods designed to raise $ for the government “Revenue tariffs” are taxes on imported goods designed to raise $ for the government “Protective tariffs” are high taxes on imported goods designed to protect American industry (makes it cheaper to buy American than foreign goods) “Protective tariffs” are high taxes on imported goods designed to protect American industry (makes it cheaper to buy American than foreign goods) But, which SECTION of the country primarily benefits? But, which SECTION of the country primarily benefits?
Clay’s American System: More economic nationalism Sectional compromises for the good of the nation as a whole Interdependence of the sections – for ex.: East should support federal construction of internal improvements and, in return, would get Western support for protective tariff 3 parts:[B I T] 1. 1. Strong banking system – provides good credit 2. 2. Protective Tariff – protect eastern manufacturing 3. 3. Internal improvements (roads & canals) to be paid for by funds from tariff
SECTIONAL ISSUES CONFLICT OVER WESTERN LAND West: 1819 depression – mostly caused by over- speculation in frontier lands in West West hit the hardest by this depression Poor classes created will soon be the “common man” Democrats of Andrew Jackson WHY would manufacturers in NE be opposed to the West’s desire to promote rapid settlement by selling land cheaply? Feared that immigrants would be drawn to the West and the North would lose its supply of cheap labor. WHY would Southern planters likewise be opposed? Concerned about W competition.
PROTECTIVE TARIFFS High tax on imports intended to protect domestic products from foreign competition THE NORTH FAVORED Would allow their factories to compete successfully with foreign manufacturers THE SOUTH OPPOSED Don’t produce manufactured goods Caused them to pay higher prices for imported goods & left them at the mercy of the North
SLAVERY 1 st state created from LA Purchase – MO Threat to sectional balance in Senate with 11 free and 11 slave states House was already controlled by free states Tallmadge Amendment Tallmadge Amendment – passed by House of Reps (defeated in Senate) No more slaves to MO & gradual emancipation of children of those already there (age 25)
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE Henry Clay’s plan Henry Clay’s plan Missouri admitted as a SLAVE state Missouri admitted as a SLAVE state Maine admitted as a FREE state Maine admitted as a FREE state In rest of the Louisiana Purchase area: In rest of the Louisiana Purchase area: ◦ slavery forbidden north of the 36 30’ parallel (EXCEPT MO) ◦ slavery allowed south of line WHY would Southerners accept this deal? WHY would Southerners accept this deal?
John Marshall, the Great Chief Justice Judicial Nationalism! Judicial Nationalism! Will serve 34 years Will serve 34 years Decisions strengthen power of the federal government Decisions strengthen power of the federal government Marbury v. Madison!! Marbury v. Madison!! - JUDICIAL REVIEW McCulloch v. Maryland McCulloch v. Maryland [“power to tax is power to destroy”] State of Maryland tried to tax the Baltimore branch of the newly rechartered Bank of the U.S. State of Maryland tried to tax the Baltimore branch of the newly rechartered Bank of the U.S. McCulloch (cashier at the Bank) refused to pay the tax McCulloch (cashier at the Bank) refused to pay the tax Supreme Court issued 2 rulings: Supreme Court issued 2 rulings: FEDERAL SUPREMACY: Federal gov’t is supreme over state gov’ts - therefore, no state may tax a federal agency FEDERAL SUPREMACY: Federal gov’t is supreme over state gov’ts - therefore, no state may tax a federal agency IMPLIED POWERS: Bank of the U.S. is constitutional based on the implied powers granted to Congress in the elastic clause IMPLIED POWERS: Bank of the U.S. is constitutional based on the implied powers granted to Congress in the elastic clause
Gibbons v. Ogden, The Steamboat Case NY granted a monopoly to steamboat operator Ogden; monopoly was extended across the Hudson River to NJ In an earlier action, Congress required all vessels in coastal, interstate waters to have a federal license. [Gibbons] The issue of the case is whether a state’s power can extend across state lines…can a state license conflict with a federal license? Marshall said NO - ANYTHING that crosses state lines (such as the steamboat in this case) becomes “interstate commerce” which is controlled by the federal gov’t. NY cannot control commerce in NJ and cannot conflict with a federal license.
British American Agreements War of 1812 taught BR to respect Americans so able to work out peaceful solutions to old problems: War of 1812 taught BR to respect Americans so able to work out peaceful solutions to old problems: Rush-Bagot Agreement – naval arms limitations on Great Lakes, 1817 Rush-Bagot Agreement – naval arms limitations on Great Lakes, 1817 Convention of 1818 Convention of 1818 49 th parallel as northern boundary of LA Territory and joint control of OR country for 10 years 49 th parallel as northern boundary of LA Territory and joint control of OR country for 10 years Settled disputes over use of Canadian fisheries – US sharing them with Canada Settled disputes over use of Canadian fisheries – US sharing them with Canada
ACQUISITION OF FLORIDA Was a base for British & Indian operations against U.S. during War of 1812 (Spain was ally of British) Indians attacked Americans & then fled back into FL Andrew Jackson sent to put down Indians - came after Seminoles & then seized Pensacola area for U.S. Spain furious - but Monroe issued an ultimatum: –either govern FL effectively OR –surrender FL to the U.S. Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 -- U.S. receives FL –Paid $5 million (a/k/a Transcontinental Treaty of 1819)
THE MONROE DOCTRINE Actually authored by John Quincy Adams (Sec. Of State) U.S. declared it would not allow any European countries to further colonize anywhere in the Americas –--Western Hemisphere is off limits to Europe Any attempts to do so would be seen as? And would cause?
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1824 John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson
ELECTION OF 1824 ELECTION OF 1824 The Sectional Election The “Favorite Sons” Henry Clay, Kentucky (W) Andrew Jackson, Tennessee (W) John Quincy Adams, Massachusetts (N) William Crawford, Georgia (S) Very low voter turnout JACKSON won popular vote But, did not have a majority in electoral vote so…. Adams CANDIDATES: THE VOTES:
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES DECIDES! Under the 12th Amendment: ◦ Each state gets one vote ◦ Must choose from top 3 candidates Clay eliminated (he came in 4th) ◦ [What position is he serving in at the time?] Crawford dropped out due to illness Choice was between Adams & Jackson JOHN QUINCY ADAMS WINS
THE ADAMS/CLAY SCANDAL His influence helped Adams win in the House of Reps vote. After Adams is President, he appoints Clay as Sec. Of State. So what?-Why important? Jackson accuses them of a “corrupt bargain.” Clay was Speaker of the House & supported Adams over Jackson
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS PRESIDENT #6 - 1825-1829 Son in the first father-son Pres. team in history Not popular - very cold & reserved; unable to accomplish much as P 1st P of whom a photograph exists Responsible for Smithsonian Museum Elected to the House of R after being President His greatest legacy there Brilliant statesman leading an unending fight against slavery Literally died while serving …..