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1 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers Generating & Testing Hypotheses.

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1 1 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers Generating & Testing Hypotheses

2 2 Some Classics!

3 3 The New Generation! BUILDING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY TEACHER’S MANUAL Robert Marzano and Debra Pickering

4 4 Consider recommendations for using these researched instructional strategies in K-12 classrooms Gain an understanding of the research on instruction, and examine the conclusions that can be drawn from that research Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers Generating & Testing Hypotheses

5 5 INTRODUCTION: Outcomes ‘n Agenda…..THE CONTEXT! I.A REMINDER! ABOUT THE CONTEXT ► Marzano’s Big 3 ! ► Means ‘n Ends ► Systems of Learning: Just a review! ► Putting It All Together: The Systems, Art & Science Q’s, Instructional Strategies

6 6 II. QUESTION # 2: Interacting With New Knowledge  Graphic Organizers  Questioning Techniques III. QUESTION # 3: Deepening Understanding of Knowledge  Constructing Support Reasoning  Analyzing Errors Thinking  Analyzing Perspectives Reasoning Definitions The Steps A Graphic Organizers Details /Practice Activities Example Tasks

7 7 IV. QUESTION # 4: Generating & Testing Hypotheses  Problem Solving Reasoning  Decision-Making Reasoning  Invention Reasoning  Investigation Reasoning  Experimental Reasoning V. CLOSING Definitions The Steps A Graphic Organizers Details & Practice Activities Example Assignments/ Tasks

8 8 School 1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Clear Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent & Community Involvement 4. Safe & Orderly Climate 5. Staff Collegiality & Professionalism Teacher 6. Instruction 7. Classroom Management 8. Curriculum Design Student 9. Home Atmosphere 10. Learned Intelligence and Prior Knowledge 11. Motivation & Interest W HAT W ORKS I N S CHOOLS

9 9 Maybe, we should write that spot down!

10 10 Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Cues, questions, and advance organizers Instructional Strategies That Influence LEARNING

11 11 School 1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Clear Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent & Community Involvement 4. Safe & Orderly Climate 5. Staff Collegiality & Professionalism Teacher 6. Instruction 7. Classroom Management 8. Curriculum Design S tudent 9. Home Atmosphere 10. Learned Intelligence and Prior Knowledge 11. Motivation & Interest W HAT W ORKS I N S CHOOLS WHAT WORKS IN SCHOOLS: Three Critical Commitments Build Background Knowledge Provide Formative Feedback Ensure Effective Teaching

12 12 Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom The Phases!

13 13 Teachers read books, attend professional development activities, and try strategies on their own. Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom The Phases! Readiness: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Teachers systematically observe master teachers and each other using the model. The school/district develops a common “language of instruction” or model. Teachers systematically interact about effective teaching using the model. The school/district monitors the effectiveness of individual teacher’s instructional styles as a form of teacher feedback.

14 14 Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom The Phases! Readiness: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Teachers read books, attend professional development activities, and try strategies on their own.

15 15 Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom The Phases! Readiness: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: The school/district develops a common “language of instruction” or model.

16 16 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning The “Meta-Cognitive” System The “Cognitive” System The “Self” System The New Taxonomy

17 17 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning

18 18 Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom The Phases! Readiness: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Teachers systematically interact about effective teaching using the model.

19 19 Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Cues, questions, and advance organizers Instructional Strategies That Influence LEARNING

20 20 PROTOCOL for (Monthly) Reflective Practice Meeting Describe what you were trying Describe how well it worked and the evidence for your conclusion Identify areas of strength Identify areas of weakness/questions Someone summarizes the data at the end of each meeting. Data is aggregated at the school level and reported at monthly faculty meetings.

21 21 FOCUS AREA: REACTION - REFLECTION: Example Reflection Log I’m going to work on the part of question 2 that deals with elaborating on what students have learned using comparison and contrast. (Nov. 5) This took more time than I thought to get through the comparison activity. It also seemed harder than it should be. (Nov 7) I’m surprised that the kids remembered what we did 2 days ago about polynomials. This might have worked better than I thought.

22 22 Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom The Phases! Readiness: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Teachers systematically observe master teachers and each other using the model.

23 23 Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom The Phases! Readiness: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: The school/district monitors the effectiveness of individual teacher’s instructional styles as a form of teacher feedback.

24 24 Teachers read books, attend professional development activities, and try strategies on their own. Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom The Phases! Readiness: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Teachers systematically observe master teachers and each other using the model. The school/district develops a common “language of instruction” or model. Teachers systematically interact about effective teaching using the model. The school/district monitors the effectiveness of individual teacher’s instructional styles as a form of teacher feedback.

25 25 Ensuring Effective Teaching in Every Classroom Let’s review our Phase 2 work Getting Our Language/Model of Instruction

26 26 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning The “Meta-Cognitive” System The “Cognitive” System The “Self” System The New Taxonomy

27 27 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning

28 28 Resources for: Ensuring Effective Teaching (Getting Our Language/Model of Instruction) Some Classics The Next Generation

29 29 The Systems of Learning & The Art & Science of Teaching Connecting

30 30 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? 2.What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge? 3.What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge? 4.What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? 5.What will I do to engage students? 6.What will I do to establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures? 7.What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures? 8.What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? 9.What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students? 10.What will I do to develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit?

31 31 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units

32 32 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning 1. Learning Goals; Track & Celebrate Progress? 5.Engagement? 8.Effective Student Relationships? 9. High Expectations? Planning Questions

33 33 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning 1.What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? 5.What will I do to engage students? 8. What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? 9. What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students? Planning Questions

34 34 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning 2.Interact With New Knowledge 3.Practice and Deepen Understanding of New Knowledge 1. Learning Goals; Track & Celebrate Progress? Planning Questions

35 35 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning 2.What will I do to help students actively interact with the new knowledge? 3.What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge? 1. What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? Planning Questions

36 36 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning 4.Generate and test Hypotheses About New Knowledge 1. Learning Goals; Track & Celebrate Progress? Planning Questions

37 37 Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning 4.What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? 1. What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? Planning Questions

38 38 6.Rules and Procedures 7. Acknowledge Adherence to (or not!) Rules and Procedures C Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning Planning Questions Classroom Management

39 39 6. What will I do to establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures? 7. What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence to or lack of adherence to rules and procedures? C Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Extend, Refine, & Use Knowledge Meaningfully Acquire & Integrate Knowledge The Systems of Learning Planning Questions Classroom Management

40 40 Three Elements of Lesson Design 1. Segments that will most likely be part of every lesson. 2. Segments that focus on content. 3. Segments that address actions that must be taken on the spot. Routine Stuff! Content Stuff! On-the-Spot Stuff!

41 41 Planning Questions for Routine Stuff! 1.Learning Goals; Track & Celebrate Progress 6. Rules and Procedures What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? What will I do to establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures?

42 42 Planning Questions for Content Stuff! 4. Generating and Testing Hypotheses 2. Interacting With New Knowledge 3. Practicing & Deepening Their Understanding What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge? What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?

43 43 Planning Questions for On-the-Spot Stuff! 5. Engagement 9. High Expectations 8. Effective Relationships 7. Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules/ Procedures What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students? What will I do to engage students? What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures? What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students?

44 44 Planning for and Designing Learning Questions About the Content

45 45 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? 2.What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge? 3.What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge? 4.What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? 5.What will I do to engage students? 6.What will I do to establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures? 7.What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures? 8.What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? 9.What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students? 10.What will I do to develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit?

46 46 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units

47 47 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 1: Learning Goals, Tracking Progress, Celebrating Success Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge Q 3: Practicing & Deepening Their Understanding of New Knowledge Q 4: Generating & Testing Hypotheses

48 48 Classroom Instruction That Works & The Art & Science of Teaching Connecting

49 49 Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Cues, questions, and advance organizers Q 2: Interacting w/K Q 3: Practicing & Deepening K Q 4: Generating & Testing Hyp.. Q 1: Learning Goals Feedback

50 50 Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Cues, questions, and advance organizers Q 3: Practicing & Deepening K Q 4: Generating & Testing Hyp.. Q 1: Learning Goals Feedback Q 2: Interacting w/K

51 51 Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Cues, questions, and advance organizers Q 2: Interacting w/K Q 4: Generating & Testing Hyp.. Q 1: Learning Goals Feedback Q 3: Practicing & Deepening K

52 52 Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Cues, questions, and advance organizers Q 2: Interacting w/K Q 3: Practicing & Deepening K Q 1: Learning Goals Feedback Q 4: Generating & Testing Hyp..

53 53 Q 1

54 54 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 1: Establishing & Communicating Learning Goals, Tracking Progress, Celebrating Success involves: Learning Goals vs Activities or Assignments Write a Rubric or Scale for Each Learning Goal Students Identify Own Learning Goal(s) Assess/Give Feedback Using a Formative Approach Students Chart Their Own Progress Recognize & Celebrate Growth

55 55 Activities are a critical part of effective teaching. They constitute the means by which the ends or learning goals are accomplished. However, they are not learning goals. Marzano:

56 56 Subj.Learning GoalsActivities Sci DK Students will understand that: - The sun is the largest body in the solar system. - The moon and earth rotate on their axes. - The moon orbits the earth while the earth orbits the sun. Students will watch the video on the relationship between the earth and the moon and the place of these bodies in the solar system. LA DK Students will be able to: - Sound out words that are not in their sight vocabulary but are known to them. Students will observe the teacher sounding and blending a word.

57 57 Subj.Learning GoalsActivities Math PK Students will be able to: - Solve Equations with one variable. Students will practice solving 10 equations in cooperative groups. SS DK Students will understand: - The defining characteristics of the barter system. Students will describe what the United States might be like if it were based on the barter system as opposed to a monetary system.

58 58 Understanding the types of knowledge within

59 59 Terms and Details Skills and Processes Know/Have Basic Understanding… Organizing Ideas and Relationships Have Basic/In-depth Understanding… Students Are Skilled at/ Have Mastered.. All explicitly taught!

60 60 (vocabulary, people, facts, places, events, titles, etc.) TERMS & DETAILS Know/Have Basic Understanding… Chastise means…. Mitosis is….. George Washington was…. World War II was started… Shakespeare wrote…. A symphony is… Simple, but Important (explicitly taught!)

61 61 Topography and natural resources influence the culture of a region. Animals have characteristics that are examples of adaptation. Equations and graphs are both ways of depicting relationships among variables. ORGANIZING IDEAS & RELATIONSHIPS Have Basic/ In-depth Understanding… Complex (explicitly taught!)

62 62 Reading a bar graph Writing to convey meaning Reading with comprehension Adding whole numbers and fractions Finding absolute location on a map SKILL & PROCESSES Students Are Skilled at/ Have Mastered.. Simple, but Important & Complex (explicitly taught!)

63 63 TOPIC of study for a particular grade COMPLEX Knowledge for this topic SIMPLE, but Important Knowledge for this topic

64 64 TOPIC of study for a particular grade Complex Knowledge for this topic Simple, but Important Knowledge for this topic Knows: Terms and Details Understands: Organizing Ideas (generalizations, concepts, principles)

65 65 TOPIC of study for a particular grade Complex Knowledge for this topic Simple, but Important Knowledge for this topic Knows: Terms and Details (related to the skills & processes) Is able to: Skills and Processes (psychomotor and mental)

66 66 TOPIC: American Civil War Complex Knowledge for this topic Simple, but Important Knowledge for this topic An understanding of: - Civil wars can be the cruelest wars because every victory may also be a self-inflicted wound. - Civil wars can leave scars that influence all aspects of the society (political, social/cultural, economic). Recognize and recall basic terms such as: Civil War, Emancipation Proclamation, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant; union, rebels, Gettysburg Recognize/recall isolated details such as: - The American Civil War was fought from 1861… - The major causes were… Grade 8

67 67 TOPIC: Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle Complex Knowledge for this topic Simple, but Important Knowledge for this topic An understanding of: - How the water cycle processes (condensation, precipitation, surface run-off, percolation, evaporation) impact climate changes - The effects of temperature & pressure in different layers of Earth’s atmosphere Recognize and recall basic terms such as: climactic patterns, atmospheric layers, stratosphere, troposphere Recognize/recall isolated details such as: - Precipitation is one of the processes of the water cycle - The troposphere is one of the lowest portions of the earth’s atmosphere Gr. 8

68 68 TOPIC: Accessing Information Complex Knowledge for this topic Simple, but Important Knowledge for this topic Is skilled at: - Searching Internet using keywords in a Google search— focus on narrowing search Recognize and recall basic terms such as: Internet, Google, keywords, search Grade 8

69 69 TOPIC: Map Reading Complex Knowledge for this topic Simple, but Important Knowledge for this topic Is be skilled at: - Reading and interpreting symbols Recognize and recall basic terms such as: topographical map, map legend or map key, symbols….. Grade 5

70 70 Q 2

71 71 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves: Previewing New Knowledge Critical-Input ( the teaching ) for the New Knowledge Processing the New Knowledge Elaborating on the New Knowledge Representing the New Knowledge

72 72 Strategies to: PREVIEW NEW KNOWLEDGE: K-W-L, Overt linkages, Preview Questions, Teacher Summary, Skimming, Teacher-Prepared Notes Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge Some Strategies! In Small Chunks! Individually & in Cooperative Groups Strategies for: CRITICAL INPUT ( The Teaching !) Visual Instruction, Dramatic Instruction, Verbal Instruction

73 73 What I KNOW about….. What I WANT to know about…. What I LEARNED about…. Previewing

74 74 Mutualism The interaction of organisms within an ecosystem in a manner that significantly benefits both, although the resulting relationship is not critical to the continued existence of either. Critical Input

75 75 Strategies to: PROCESS THE NEW KNOWLEDGE: Reciprocal Teaching, Jigsaw, Concept Attainment, Summarizing & Note-Taking, Non-linguistic Representation Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge Some Strategies! In Small Chunks! Individually & in Cooperative Groups Strategies to: ELABORATE on the KNOWLEDGE: Inferential Questions, Elaborative Questions Strategies to: REPRESENT the KNOWLEDGE: Notes, Graphic Organizers, Dramatic Enactments, Mnemonics, Academic Notebooks

76 76 Summary: Carbohydrate eat carbs—blood sugar goes up and pancreas releases insulin in Islets of Langehans in pancreas, insulin produced to carry glucose to cells once in cells, 3 things can happen a) energy b) convert to glycogen and goes to liver and muscles for later c) or liver can store as fat Insulin—fat producing hormone What do carbs do to blood? What does insulin carry to cells? Effect on body? What does insulin carry to cells? Processing K

77 77 Processing K

78 78 Processing K

79 79 Processing K

80 80 Processing K

81 81 Elaborating on K What are some typical characteristics or behaviors you would expect of ____________? What would you expect to happen if ___________? Why do you believe this to be true? Tell me why you think that is so. Using Questioning….

82 82 Time Sequence Cause Generalization/ Principle Common Patterns Effect Cause Example Description Cause 1 2 Comparison Representing K

83 83 Using Nonlinguistic Representations Graphic Organizers Descriptive Pattern TOPIC FACT Time Sequence Pattern Event Representing K

84 84 Using Nonlinguistic Representations Graphic Organizers Cause and Effect Pattern Generalization/Principle Pattern EFFECT Generalization Principle Example Representing K

85 85 Using Nonlinguistic Representations Graphic Organizers Episode Pattern Concept Pattern EPISODE Person CauseEffect Duration Time Place CONCEPT Characteristic example Representing K

86 86 POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL When OPPRESSIONmeets RESISTANCE, CONFLICT results French Revolution American Revolution Vietnam American Civil War Representing K

87 87 There once was a cow named Georgette She was a Jersey Cow She wore yellow underwear She was sitting on top the Empire State Building She was singing Christmas carols Under her arm she had a Virginia Ham In her other hand she had a pencil She was playing connect the dots The picture was of a girl named Marilyn She was walking on a road She was going to mass

88 88 Georgia New Jersey Delaware New York North Carolina South Carolina Virginia New Hampshire Pennsylvania Connecticut Maryland Rhode Island Massachusetts

89 89

90 90 Q 3 ….for Declarative Knowledge

91 91 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 3: Practicing & Deepening Understanding of New Knowledge involves: for Procedural Knowledge: - Shaping - Practice to Develop Fluency for Declarative Knowledge: - Revisions - Error Analysis - Similarities & Differences

92 92 Strategies for: REVISION Add New Info, Correct Errors, Clarify Distinctions Q 3: Practicing & Deepening Understanding of Declarative Knowledge Some Strategies! In Small Chunks! Individually & Cooperative Groups Strategies for: ERROR ANALYSIS Analyzing Errors, Constructing Support, Analyzing Perspectives Strategies for: SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES Comparing, Classifying, Creating Metaphors and Analogies

93 93 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CLASSROOM PRACTICE for COMPLEX REASONING PROCESSES 1.Give students a model for the process. 2.Use familiar content to teach students the steps of reasoning process. 3.Give students graphic organizers for the reasoning process. 4.Guide students as needed.

94 94 For Each Reasoning Process, you will find: 1. The Definition 2. The Steps 3. A Graphic Organizer 4. Details & Practice Activities 5. Example Assignments/ Tasks

95 95 Make new connections Discover or rediscover meanings Gain new insights Clarify misconceptions

96 96 Comparing Classifying Analogy Metaphor :

97 97 About Analyzing Perspectives Reasoning

98 98 Analyzing Perspectives Reasoning is the process of describing reasons for different points of view. This is a useful skill to have when you are trying to understand your own reasons for a perspective or someone else’s reasons. AP: The Definition!

99 99 Analyzing Perspectives: The Steps! 1.What is one point of view? 2.What are the reasons for this point of view? 3.What is another point of view? 4.What might be some reasons for this other point of view?

100 100 Statement or Concept Assigned ValueReasoning or Logic Behind My Value PERSPECTIVE EXAMINATION MATRIX (when students are focused on establishing the reasons or logic for their own perspective) AP: The Graphic Organizer! A 75-mph speed limit I think this is a good idea The new rule that all students have to wear a common uniform I think this is not a very good idea

101 101 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER FOR ANALYZING PERSPECTIVES ISSUE A new mass transit system for the city Personal Perspective I think this is a good idea for the city. Reasons/logic behind my personal perspective Mass transit is a good idea because….. Different perspective Someone could think that mass transit is a bad idea for the city. Reasons/logic behind different perspective The reasons they might give are…… Conclusion/awareness From this I learned that…..

102 102 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER FOR ANALYZING PERSPECTIVES ISSUE Personal Perspective Reasons/logic behind my personal perspective Different perspective Reasons/logic behind different perspective Conclusion/awareness From this I learned that…..

103 103 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER FOR ANALYZING PERSPECTIVES ISSUE Personal Perspective Reasons/logic behind my personal perspective Different perspective Reasons/logic behind different perspective Conclusion/awareness From this I learned that….. Thesis Develop/ Support Conclusion Develop/ Support

104 104 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER FOR ANALYZING PERSPECTIVES ISSUE Disney changed the tales from the Brothers Grimm Personal Perspective Some believe this was very evil of him. Reasons/logic behind my personal perspective Different perspective Some believe this was a good thing. Reasons/logic behind different perspective Conclusion/awareness From this I learned that…..

105 105 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER FOR ANALYZING PERSPECTIVES ISSUE Iraq War Personal Perspective I believe it was wrong to get into this war. Reasons/logic behind my personal perspective Different perspective It was, and still is, the right thing to do. Reasons/logic behind different perspective Conclusion/awareness From this I learned that…..

106 106 Practice Activity: DIRECTIONS: Describe why you think someone might have the following points of view. “Why Do They Think That?”

107 107 1.Grandparents are fun. 2.Playing soccer is too hard. 3.Rabbits are very nice. 4.New York is a great city. 5.Riding a motorcycle is not a good thing to do. 6.Grading from high school is important. 7.Scientific experiments are important. 8.Video games are harmful to children.

108 108 Practice Activity: DIRECTIONS: Describe why you think someone might have a DIFFERNT point of view from the following. “Another Point of View!”

109 109 1.Being curious is a valuable characteristic to have. 2.Earning a lot of money is good. 3.It is important to make your own decisions in life. 4.It is not important to win at the games you play. 5.It is important to keep trying no matter what happens. 6.Students should be allowed to eat and drink during class. 7.Children should be allowed to stay up as late as they want to every night. 8.Students should be required to wear uniforms in schools. 9.Companies like Coca-Cola and Pepsi should be allowed to advertise on school busses.

110 110 Practice Activity: DIRECTIONS: Sometimes two people think quite differently about the same thing. One person might think that having money is very good. Another person might think that having money is very bad. Both will probably have reasons for the way they think. For each of the following set of words, identify why someone might have a positive perspective about it and why someone might have a negative perspective about it. “Seeing It Both Ways!

111 111 1.Basketball 2.Exercise 3.Travel 4.Vacations 5. School Why someone might think positively: Why someone might think negatively: “Seeing It Both Ways!

112 112 Analyzing Perspectives: Examples! Students gathered information about the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park, identified various perspectives about the issue and described the reasons that each group holds its particular views. Students then selected another current issue that interested them and applied a similar process. In the study of music, students were asked to use criteria to analyze possible perspectives on whether “rap” should be considered music that should be taken seriously as an art form. The criteria: quality, e.g., use of elements that create unity, tension/release; and effectiveness, e.g., expressive impact. Students had to offer reasons and logic that reflected their understanding of the criteria.

113 113 Analyzing Perspectives: Examples! Scenario: Guests at dinner visiting from England expressed bitter opposition to bringing England into the unification efforts in Europe. One perspective is that the guests are just stuck in their old ways. Students were asked to prepare at least two perspectives on the issue of whether England should be brought into unification efforts. Their job was to show that the guests’ position was not simply irrational or emotional. Students needed defensible reasons and logic to support their perspectives.

114 114 Analyzing Perspectives: Examples! One perspective: New England Patriots owner Bob Kraft is having a good laugh over the international incident sparked by Russian President Putin’s decision to pocket his Super Bowl bling. According to a source, Kraft was forced to do the graceful thing after the ring was in Putin’s pants! Kraft released a statement saying he gave the ring as a symbol of the admiration he has for the Russian people. Another perspective: In my position as world leader, I was given a ring as a gift. I was at a meeting of business executives when a man handed me the ring. Not wanting to be rude, I tried it on. The next moment, pictures were being taken so I took the ring off and slipped it into my pocket.

115 115 About Constructing Support Reasoning

116 116 Constructing Support Reasoning is about building systems of support for assertions. More simply, it is the process of providing support for statements. CS: The Definition!

117 117 1.Am I stating a fact or opinion? 2.If I am stating an opinion, do I need to offer support? 3.What will I include (Facts? Examples? Evidence? Appeals?) when I provide my support? Constructing Support: The Steps!

118 118 1.I am the best, most qualified, candidate for the job. 2.I have been serving in the legislature for six years. 3.My opponent has not served in a public office before this. 4.My opponent is too inexperienced to be ready to do the job on day one. 5.President Bush was wrong to go to war in Iraq. 6.My opponent voted for the war. 7.The wealthy should pay higher taxes than they do now. 8.10% of the people pay 65% of the income taxes in this country. 9.Global warming is being caused by human activity. FACT or OPINION??

119 119 Devices Used to Develop Persuasive Arguments 1.FACTS 2.EVIDENCE 3.EXAMPLES 4.APPEALS (4 Types): - Personality, - Tradition or accepted beliefs, - Rhetoric, - Reason (see common components of)

120 120 PERSUASIVE APPEALS PERSONALITY Be persuaded because you like me… RHETORIC Be persuaded because I SOUND good…” TRADITION Be persuaded because it is the patriotic/American/ LOGIC AND REASON Be persuaded because I make have sound arguments…

121 121 4 TYPES OF APPEALS PERSONALITY: speaker or writer tries to get you to like him; use of personal stories; congeniality. TRADITION OR ACCEPTED BELIEFS: “doing the right thing;” power of the argument comes from t the fact that there is a general acceptance of the beliefs or values alluded to; “the American way….” RHETORIC: persuade through beauty and style of language, relies on the use of impressive phrases, idioms, and even gestures. REASON: appeal to logic; speaker makes claims and systematically provides evidence for those claims

122 122 Opinion Appeal through personality Appeal through tradition or accepted beliefs Appeal through rhetoric Appeal through Reason Evidence: CS: The Graphic Organizer!

123 123 Constructing Support: Fact or Opinion? REMEMBER : Constructing Support Reasoning is the process of giving support statements. We only use this process when the statement is an OPINION. It is important to know the difference between fact and opinion. A fact is a statement that can be proven by looking it up in various resources. Let’s Practice!

124 124 DIRECTIONS: For each of the following statements, think whether it is a fact or an opinion. Some statements might be a little of both. However, try to decide if the statement is more of a fact or more of an opinion. “Fact or Opinion?” Practice Activity: (for students)

125 Tigers have pink eyes. 2. Carmine finished putting materials away after the art project. 3. Jessie would do a great job as captain of the team. 4. Fewer people talk during movies because of the message on the screen that says, “Please be quiet.” 5. Becky is a good writer. 6. When its sunny outside, clothes hanging on a line dry quickly. 7.There were too many children playing on the jungle gym at recess. 8. Ben & Jerry’s is the best tasting ice cream. 9.Most students eat the school lunch instead of bringing a lunch from home. 10. Studying for a test the night before the test is not a good idea. 11. Pianos are the most beautiful sounding musical instrument.

126 When it rains, the soil gets soaked and worms come out of the ground. 13. All office buildings in San Francisco are over four stories high. 14.Ramon would do an excellent job as president of the Student Council. 15. There were too many people in line at the movies. 16. The “No Littering” signs along roads have resulted in less trash along the sides of streets and highways. 17. Raspberries are the sweetest fruit in the world. 18. Most people who buy pizzas buy thin-crust pizzas. 19. Celia finished the race before anyone else. 20. Hiking makes your legs very strong. 21. Eating too much fat makes people gain weight. 22. Fernando is one of the top-rated artists in the country.

127 127 Using Constructing Support Reasoning effectively can be useful to us in many situations. There are times in all of our lives when we feel strongly enough about something to try to influence or persuade someone else. To develop a persuasive argument, we might use facts, evidence, examples and/or appeals. The following activity will focus on the use of appeals. REMEMBER : There are four different types of appeals: 1. Personality2. Tradition or accepted beliefs 3. Rhetoric4. Reason “Using Appeals” Practice Activity: (for students)

128 128 DIRECTIONS: For each of the arguments that follow – both historical and from everyday conversation – determine which type of appeal the argument primarily relies upon. 1.Simone is the best dancer in the group. She is simply the most expressive, powerful, and truly graceful artist the world has ever known. When she dances, I am reminded of a beautiful butterfly floating in the gentle breezes of a warm, summer morning. 2.Phil would make the best president. I know because I am one of you. I empathize with the kinds of hardships you face. I was born and raised here and love this place as much as you do. I believe Phil would serve you well. 3.We need this new air-quality bill. Last year our city had a higher number of pollutants in the air than any of the past five years. 4.We should spend as much as possible on the space program. Ever since the early 1960’s when President Kennedy challenged our nation to send a man to the moon, American citizens have been committed to exploring outer space.

129 129 5.Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech: “Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quick sands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood……..” 6.This detergent will get your dishes cleaner than any other detergent on the market right now. Studies conducted by Independent Labs, Inc., show that 35 % more food and grease was removed from dishes with this detergent than was removed from dishes cleaned with the other three leading brands. 7.President John F. Kennedy’s inaugural address in 1961: “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” 8.I think students should not be allowed to use calculators on math tests. Today’s students need to continue the long tradition in the United States of learning to calculate by hand.

130 130 “Complacency to Apathy” Directions: Take a position. Agree or disagree with the following passage. Support your position. Practice Activity: (for students) “Bar Stool Economics” by David R. Kamerschen, Ph.D. Professor of Economics University of Georgia

131 131 Bar Stool Economics Suppose that every day, ten men go out for beer and the bill for all ten comes to $100. If they paid their bill the way we pay our taxes, it would go something like this: The first four men (the poorest) would pay nothing. The fifth would pay $1. The sixth would pay $3. The seventh would pay $7. The eighth would pay $12. The ninth would pay $18. The tenth man (the richest) would pay $59. So, that’s what they decided to do. The ten men drank in the bar every day and seemed quite happy with the arrangements, until one day, the owner, threw them a curve. “Since you are all such good customers,: he said, “I’m going to reduce the cost of your daily beer by $20.” Drinks for the ten now cost just $80.

132 132 The group still wanted to pay their bill the way we pay our taxes so the first four men were unaffected. They would still drink for free. But what about the other six men – the paying customers? How could they7 divide the $20 windfall so that everyone would get his “fair share?” They realized that $20 divided by six is $3.33. But if they subtracted that from everybody’s share, then the fifth man and the sixth man would each end up being paid to drink his beer. So the bar owner suggested that it would be fair to reduce each man’s bill by roughly the same amount, and he proceeded to work out the amounts each should pay. And so…. The fifth man, like the first four, now paid nothing (100% savings). The sixth now paid $2 instead of $3 (33% savings). The seventh now paid $5 instead of $7 (28% savings). The eighth now paid $9 instead of $12 (25% savings). The ninth now paid $14 instead of $18 (22 % savings). The tenth now paid $49 instead of $59 (16% savings).

133 133 Each of the six was better off than before. And the first four continued to drink for free. But once outside the restaurant, the men began to compare their savings. “I only got a dollar out of the $20,” declared the sixth man. He pointed to the tenth man, “but he got $10!” “Yeah, that’s right,” exclaimed the fifth man. “I only saved a dollar, too. It’s unfair that he got ten times more than I!” “That’s true!” shouted the seventh man. “Why should he get $10 back when I got only two? The wealthy get all the breaks!” “Wait a minute,” yelled the first four men in unison. “We didn’t get anything at all. The system exploits the poor!” The nine men surrounded the tenth and beat him up. The next night the tenth man didn’t show up for drinks, so the nine sat down and had beers without him. But when it came time to pay the bill, they discovered something important. They didn’t have enough money between all of them for even half of the bill.!

134 134 And that, boys and girls, journalists and college professors, is how our tax system works. The people who pay the highest taxes get the most benefit from a tax reduction. Tax them too much, attack them for being wealthy, and they just may not show up anymore. In fact, they might start drinking overseas where the atmosphere is somewhat friendlier. For those who understand, no explanation is needed. For those who do not understand, no explanation is possible. Agree or Disagree? Support your answer…….

135 135 Constructing Support: Examples! Students studying the foreign policy of the U.S. during the 20th century were divided into two groups and given the following tasks: 1) President Woodrow Wilson has just asked you to give him your opinion as to whether the U.S. should join the League of Nations. As a nonpartisan foreign policy advisor, you are to give a speech stating your position at the next foreign policy meeting, including the changing role of the U.S. in world affairs in the early 20th century. 2) It is The new Secretary of State has taken a position against the policy of isolationism. The President wants to hear your perspective. Take a position for or against isolationism and clearly articulate your reasons.

136 136 Constructing Support: Examples! Take a position on lengthening the school year. Students in life skills class were researching different occupations that might be entered directly upon graduation from high school. As part of their study, they researched the types of preparation and training needed for these occupations and the educational opportunities available to prepare for these occupations. Students were asked to take a position on whether or not a traditional college education is important to one’s future ability to function and experience success in the world of work.

137 137 Constructing Support: Examples! Students protested when the teacher introduced them to the process of long division. They thought it was a waste of time to learn the process, arguing that “everyone” has calculators and that “no one” ever does long division by hand. Some students added that they did not need to know the multiplication facts for the same reason. The teacher decided to have students take a position for or against the importance of learning the computation processes, and present their arguments, which were to include an appeal to reason. Students studying French were asked to identify a current issue in the French culture, take a position on the issue, and then develop and present a persuasive argument in French to the class.

138 138 About Analyzing Errors Reasoning

139 139 Analyzing Errors Reasoning is the process of finding & describing errors in thinking. It is a thinking skill that can help us to make better choices, whether as consumers or citizens, as we see or hear advertisements, political messages, and other claims that are designed to influence our beliefs or actions. AE: The Definition!

140 140 Analyzing Errors: The Steps! 1.Is the information I am receiving important or does it try to influence my thinking or my actions? 2.Does something seem wrong with any of the information? 3.What is wrong? 4.How can I get more or better information?

141 141 TYPES OF ERRORS IN THINKING 1. Faulty Logic 2.Attacks 3.Weak References 4.Misinformation

142 142 Arguing from ignorance “My claim is justified because you can’t prove the opposite.” Arguing against the person “You are wrong because you are stupid and unethical.” Appealing to emotion “Agree with me because of this ‘sob story’.” Appealing through force and fear “Agree with me or else you will be sorry.” FALLACIES

143 143 Reasoned Argument Evidence: Last night five crimes were committed within two blocks. Claim: Something must be done about the escalating crime rates. Elaboration: That dramatic increase can be seen by examining the documents…. Other cities have been able to reduce crime rate, such as… Qualifier: Any of our actions must not infringe on personal freedoms.

144 144 ABOUT “FAULTY LOGIC” 1.Contradiction : when someone presents conflicting information (e.g. a political flip-flopping on an issue) 2.Accident : when someone fails to recognize that an argument is based on an exception to a rule (e.g. concluding that the letter e always comes before the letter i after observing the spelling of: neighbor and weigh) 3.False Cause : when someone confuses an order of events with causality or when someone oversimplifies a very complex causal network (e.g. acknowledging only one cause of the Civil War – when the reasons were numerous and complexly related) 4.Begging the question: (circularity): making a claim and then arguing for the claim using statements that are the equivalent of the original claim (e.g. Claim: “That product is not very useful.” Back up assertion: “You can’t do anything with it.”)

145 145 5.Evading the issue : sidestepping the issue by changing the topic (e.g. when asked about a country’s involvement in arms trade to foreign countries, a leader changes the topic to the necessity of weapons.) 6.Arguing from ignorance: arguing that a claim is justified simply because its opposite cannot be proven (e.g. no intelligent life beyond Earth because we cannot prove that extraterrestrial life exists) 7.Composition: asserting about a whole something that is true of its parts (e.g. everyone in the Ewy family must be smart because Robert is) 8.Division: asserting about all of the parts something that is true of the whole (e.g. a specific city in Washington receives a lot of rain simply because the state as a whole is noted for its rainfall) ABOUT “FAULTY LOGIC”

146 146 1.POISONING THE WELL : being so committed to your position you explain away everying offered in opposition; signaled by an unwillingness to listen to or consider anything contradictory to her opinion. 2.ARGUING AGAINST THE PERSON : rejecting a claim on the basis of derogatory facts (real or alleged) about the person 3.APPEALING TO FORCE : use of threats to establish validity of a claim ABOUT “ATTACKS”

147 147 1.USING SOURCES THAT REFLECT HABITUAL AND CONFIRAMTORY BIASES: Habitual biases: unconsciously built into our thinking and are specific to certain people, places, things, and events. (e.g. bias toward rejecting ideas from a specific radio talk show host) Confirmatory biases: only accept info that supports what we already think or feel 2.USING SOURCES THAT LACK CREDIBILITY : source is known to be biased; reputation for communicating false info or rumors; or has little knowledge of the topic ABOUT “WEAK REFERENCES”

148 148 3.APPEALING TO AUTHORITY : involving authority as the last word on an issue 4.APPEALING TO THE PEOPLE : attempt to justify a claim on the basis of its popularity 5.APPEALING TO EMOTION : using a “sob-story,” as proof for a claim ABOUT “WEAK REFERENCES”

149 149 6.CONFUSING THE FACTS: distorting or modifying or omitting the facts 7.MISAPPLYING A CONCEPT OR GENERALIZATION: errors can be made when a concept or generalization is misunderstood and inappropriately applied to explain a situation. ABOUT “WEAK REFERENCES”

150 150 INFORMATION Is this information important or intended to persuade? NoYes Stop analysis Does anything seem wrong? No Yes What is wrong with the thinking underlying the information? Faulty logic? Weak references? Attacks? Mis- information? Ask for more information Analyzing Errors: The Graphic Organizer!

151 151 Analyzing Errors: Credible Source or Not? KEY POINT : Sometimes you read or hear something, but the person who wrote it or said it is not someone that you should believe. This does not mean that the person does not tell the truth. It just means that he or she is not a good source of information for that topic. A person who can be relied on as a good source of information for a certain topic is sometimes called a “credible source.: For example, imagine that the manager at the grocery store tells you that the company that makes Beanie Babies is going to stop making them. You probably would doubt whether that’s true because the is not a credible source for information about Beanie Babies. However, if he told you that the store was all out of ice cream, you would probably believe him because he should know that kind of information. Let’s Practice!

152 152 Practice Activity: DIRECTIONS: For the following claims, indicate the name or title of someone who WOULD and who WOULD NOT be a credible source for the topic. “Credible Source of Not?”

153 153 1.Twenty-seven percent of your high school graduating class is planning to attend college. 2. Ford Motor Company has increased its profit margin in the last year. 3.Mary Kay Cosmetics has the finest line of eye shadow on the market today. 4.You were a delightful, happy baby. 5.The city you live in has had an increase in population of 10,000 people in the last year. 6.On the average, crocodiles live to be about 6 years old. 7.No longer will private citizens be allowed on space shuttle flights.

154 154 8.Your neighbor on the corner has never been to a garbage dump. 9.Japanese exporters are cutting back 27 percent on the number of televisions they will send to Canada. 10.Your brother (or sister) has the messiest room in the house. 11.Your grocery store is the second largest in the city. 12.Your best friend doesn’t keep his room neat. 13.Your class is the finest in the school. 14.Your family’s car needs a tune-up. 15.There have been fewer fires in your city this year than last year.

155 155 Practice Activity: DIRECTIONS: Practicing the steps of the process is important because it increases our ability to recognize situations in which the process of analyzing errors is needed. For the following statements, identify the obvious as well as the subtle errors in thinking. “Identifying Errors”

156 156 1.This screwdriver isn’t very good because I can’t get it to work. 2.I don’t agree with Ben’s ideas about the school play because he wears weird clothes to school. 3.I should be allowed to go to the concert this Thursday night; everyone I know gets to go. 4.If you don’t come to my birthday party, I’m going to tell everyone the secret you told me. 5.I’m sorry I don’t have my homework with me today, but I fell on the way to school and twisted my ankle, which really, really hurts right now. Oh, the pain! 6.I think your questions about my views on a tax increase is interesting, but I think the more pressing issue is whether we should designate another 10,000 acres of land in Utah as a national forest. 7.I know that the new mall is going to ruin business for the surrounding stores because our basketball coach says it will.

157 157 8.I haven’t heard from Nilda, so she must not want to come to our picnic. 9.We lost the game because the pitcher was not very good. 10.You should vote for Becky for class president because she has had a rough summer. 11.Sometimes students don’t do well on tests because they don’t understand the questions. 12.If you don’t help me clean up this mess, I’m not going to be your friend anymore. 13.The car crashed because the roads were wet.

158 158 Students were learning practices concerning injury prevention and safety in health education. The teacher created scenarios for teaching refusal skills (strangers, peer pressure). In one scenario a group of children was trying to convince “Sam” to eat earthworms. What are the errors in thinking that Sam should identify? A) “Earthworms are good for you. Cool things happen to you when you eat earthworms.” B) “We won’t hang out with you if you don’t eat earthworms.” C) “Everyone should eat earthworms because the captain of the high school football team ate worms.” (Beg the question) (Appeal to force) (Appeal to authority, Sources lacking credibility) Analyzing Errors: Examples!

159 159 Students were learning about the factors that contribute to artwork becoming valuable in the marketplace. Students were asked to examine the advertising campaign of a local technology institute. The institute’s ads claimed that computer-generated artwork had become as valuable as individually created artwork. Students were asked to consider what they had been learning in class to analyze this claim and expose any errors in the thinking that the institute used in its argument. Analyzing Errors: Examples!

160 160 Students were learning about using scientific information and valid reasoning to understand their world and the degree to which they base their conclusions about their world on faulty information or flawed reasoning. As a culminating activity... Do you believe that life exists on other planets? Why do you believe this? Examine the reasons for your beliefs and analyze your reasoning. Interview several people regarding their beliefs and analyze their reasoning. Determine what is scientific information, credible sources, faulty reasoning, weak sources, and misunderstandings. Draw some conclusions about valid vs. invalid reasoning and support your conclusion with as many examples as possible. Analyzing Errors: Examples!

161 161 Q 4

162 162 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 4: Generating & Testing Hypotheses involve: Effective Support (grounds, backing, qualifiers) Experimental Inquiry Tasks (generating & testing a hypotheses) Problem-Solving Tasks (a situation that provides constraints) Decision-Making Tasks (select among equally appealing alternatives) Investigation Tasks (test hypotheses about past, present, or future events)

163 163 About Decision Making Reasoning

164 164 For Each Reasoning Process, you will find: 1. The Definition 2. The Steps 3. A Graphic Organizer 4. Details & Practice Activities 5. Example Assignments/ Tasks

165 165 Decision Making is the process of generating and applying criteria to select from among seemingly equal alternatives. More simply, decision making is developing and using criteria to select from choices that seem to be equal. Decision Making Reasoning: The Definition!

166 166 1.Identify a decision you wish to make and the alternatives you are considering. 2.Identify the criteria you consider important. 3.Assign each criterion an importance score. 4.Determine the extent to which each alternative possesses each criterion. 5.Multiply the criterion scores by the alternative scores to determine which alternative has the highest total points. 6.Based on your reaction to the selected alternative, determine if you want to change importance scores or add or drop criteria. Decision Making Reasoning: The Steps!

167 167 1.What am I trying to decide? 2.What are my choices? 3.What are important criteria for making this decision? 4.How important is each criterion? 5.How well does each of my choices match my criteria? 6.Which choice matches best with the criteria? 7.How do I feel about the decision? Do I need to change any criteria and try again? Decision Making: The Steps! More simply

168 168 Decision Making Reasoning: The Graphic Organizer! Choices Criteria TOTALS

169 169 Decision Making Reasoning A Non-linguistic Representation!

170 170 Decision Making ? Criteria Nutritious Tasty Inexpensive

171 171 Decision Making ? Criteria Nutritious Tasty Inexpensive Has Pepperoni

172 172 Two weeks in London $ 5,150 Two weeks in Hawaii $ 5,900 Two weeks in a Cabin In the Adirondacks $ 2,400

173 173 Some Thoughts About Decision Making Decision making is the process of developing and using criteria to select from choices that seem to be equal. Whether we realize it or not, decisions that we make every day are affected by criteria, or things we consider to be important. For example, if you decide to buy a new pair of skates, you might consider: (1) the price of the skates, (2) the colors they come in, and (3) how well they fit as you try to decide which skates to buy. These three things are the criteria you use to make your decision. (When you chose which vacation to go on, you were using the steps to decision making….You actually zoomed through those steps.)

174 174 Alternatives Criteria Importance Scores Decision-Making Matrix

175 175 Used Yugo Camry DurangoLexus 350 Cost MPG Roomy Safety Style x 4x 2x 2x 2x 4x 1x

176 176 Used Yugo Camry DurangoLexus 350 Cost MPG Roomy Safety Style 4x 4x4x4x 2x 2x2x2x 4x4x4x4x 1x1x1x1x Approx $18,000 Approx. 15 in city Room for 3 surly teenagers Consum. Report How I look IN the car

177 177 4x 4x4x4x 2x 2x2x2x 4x4x4x4x 1x1x1x1x Used Yugo Camry DurangoLexus 350 Cost MPG Roomy Safety Style Approx $18,000 Approx. 15 in city Room for 3 surly teenagers 2x4 2x42x2 2x0 2x2 4x0 4x44x24x1 1x0 1x21x31x 4 Consum. Report How I look IN the car 4x4 4x44x24x

178 178 4x 4x4x4x 2x 2x2x2x 4x4x4x4x 1x1x1x1x Used Yugo Camry DurangoLexus 350 Cost MPG Roomy Safety Style Approx $18,000 Approx. 15 in city Room for 3 surly teenagers 2x4 2x42x22x2 2x0 2x22x22x2 4x0 4x44x24x1 1x0 1x21x31x 4 Consum. Report How I look IN the car 4x4 4x44x24x0 2x4=8 2x4=82x2=4 2x2=4 4x4=164x4=164x2=84x0=0 2x0=0 2x2=42x2=4 2x2=4 4x0=0 4x4=164x2=8 4x1=4 1x0=0 1x2=21x3=3 1x4=

179 179 4x 4x4x4x 2x 2x2x2x 4x4x4x4x 1x1x1x1x Used Yugo Camry DurangoLexus 350 Cost MPG Roomy Safety Style Approx $18,000 Approx. 15 in city Room for 3 surly teenagers 2x4 2x42x22x2 2x0 2x22x22x2 4x0 4x44x24x1 1x0 1x21x31x 4 Consum. Report How I look IN the car 4x4 4x44x24x0 2x4=8 2x4=82x2=4 2x2=4 4x4=164x4=164x2=84x0=0 2x0=0 2x2=42x2=4 2x2=4 4x0=0 4x4=164x2=8 4x1=4 1x0=0 1x2=21x3=3 1x4= Approx. $51,000 Color- Harvest Gold = 4

180 180 Decision Making Task: “Time Magazine” It is You are on the board of Time magazine. For the cover of the December issue, you want to select a Person of the Decade. Your job is to decide which person should be selected and justify your decision to the publishers by listing the people that were considered, the criteria you used, and how each person was rated under each criterion. Report on: 1. The criteria you used and the weights you applied to each; 2. The individuals you considered and the extent to which they met your criteria; and 3. Your final selection.

181 181 Martin Luther King Jr. by student… Martin Luther King Jr. lost his life trying to better the lives of African-American people. He was one of the greatest American Civil Rights leaders of the 1960s. He should be person of the decade. He was born in 1929 in the city of Atlanta, Georgia. His father was a minister at the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. At fifteen Martin Luther King Jr. was enrolled at Moorehouse College. He graduated from there in 1948, and, like his father wanted to become a minister. Martin Luther King Jr. married Corretta Scott in 1953 while doing graduate work at Boston Graduate School. They had four kids and they were together until his death. In 1955, he completed his work at Boston Graduate School and got his PHD. By this time Martin Luther King Jr. was a well-known Civil Rights Activist who was attempting to get rid of discrimination and to overthrow the unfair segregation laws in the South.

182 182 Martin Luther King Jr. by student… Martin Luther King Jr. lost his life trying to better the lives of African-American people. He was one of the greatest American Civil Rights leaders of the 1960s. He should be person of the decade. He was born in 1929 in the city of Atlanta, Georgia. His father was a minister at the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. At fifteen Martin Luther King Jr. was enrolled at Moorehouse College. He graduated from there in 1948, and, like his father wanted to become a minister. Martin Luther King Jr. married Corretta Scott in 1953 while doing graduate work at Boston Graduate School. They had four kids and they were together until his death. In 1955, he completed his work at Boston Graduate School and got his PHD. By this time Martin Luther King Jr. was a well-known Civil Rights Activist who was attempting to get rid of discrimination and to overthrow the unfair segregation laws in the South.

183 183 Thesis Develop/Support Conclusion

184 184 Practice Activity: (for students) DIRECTIONS: The following slide contains some criteria you might consider if you were going on a vacation. One of the thing that we do when we try to make a decision is to think about how important each of our criteria is. This is called weighting the criteria. For each of the criteria, write in the blank spaces provided how important it would be to you if you were going on a vacation. Think about how much weight you want to give to each criterion. Use numbers from 1 to 3 to indicate how important the criterion is to you. Use a “3” if you consider it very important, a “2” if you think it is somewhat important, and a “1” if it is “not very important.” “How Important Is It?”

185 185 Practice Activity: (for students) “How Important Is It?” (continued) Criteria Importance Score (1,2, or 3) 1. How crowded the place will be 2.How many people of my own age will be there 3.How many activities for young people will be available 4.How much horseback riding will be available 5. How much swimming will be available

186 186 Practice Activity: (for students) DIRECTIONS: Think about all the decisions that you make each day. For one day, keep a journal of decisions that you make during the day. You should have at least three decisions. For each decision, describe the alternatives you were considering and the criteria you used to make your decision. “Keeping a Decision-Making Journal”

187 187 Practice Activity: (for students) (continued) “Keeping a Decision-Making Journal” Decision # 1: Alternatives I was considering: Criteria I used: Decision # 2: Alternatives I was considering: Criteria I used: Decision # 3: Alternatives I was considering: Criteria I used:

188 188 Criteria Tele- phone Tele- graph Wire- less phone FaxInter- net chat What is most important communication mechanism invented?

189 189 Alternatives Criteria Romeo & Juliet Of Mice & Men Scarlet Letter Harry Potter & ___ People still read it today Broad appeal— speaks to many Meaningful message about life Extends, breaks, or creates techniques with the form A Classic or Not?

190 190 DECISION MAKING EXAMPLES 1.The Greatest American 2.The best national leader, from past or present, if the entire world were at peace 3.Funding Columbus’ ocean voyage (using only information available to Queen Isabella) 4.Most common factors that influence immigration to the United States and patterns over time 5.Different ways to count money using characteristics to decide which way is best

191 191 Decision Making Task: “Career Fair” Students attending their annual high school Career Exploration Fair typically took notes, but it was unclear how useful these notes had been. The Planning Committee decided to have all students use a decision-making matrix. The matrix form (filled out with session titles, criteria, and importance scores) was each student’s ticket to the Fair sessions. As a result, students asked better questions and teachers reported that the matrix helped students to reflect on what they learned.

192 192 CONTENT AREA: Civics KNOWLEDGE: Knows that a good leader puts the interest of the people ahead of personal interests Knows the characteristics of a good leader (e.g., experience, determination, confidence, desire to be a leader, ability to solve problems creatively) Knows opportunities for leadership and public service in the student’s own classroom, school, community, state, and the nation; and, understands why leadership and public service are important to the continuance and improvement of American democracy Knows main characters and their roles in a variety of familiar literary passages and texts Decision Making Task: “Role Models”

193 193 Decision Making Task: “Role Models” Imagine you are going to create an imaginary community. The citizens will all be characters from stories you have read. Your first decision is going to be to decide which character is going to be the leader of the community. There are many characters that you have read about from fairy tales, folk tales, legends, and fables that might be good choices. Some students have suggested Winnie the Pooh, Pinocchio, and Alice from Alice in Wonderland. Use these three characters, or think of your own. When we use the decision-making process, we must be sure to think of choices that are somewhat equal.

194 194 Decision Making Task: “Role Models” Follow the steps of decision making that we have been learning. One of the steps is to identify the criteria. To do this, think about things that make someone a good leader. What are the qualities that he or she has? Make sure your criteria show that you understand the characteristics of leadership that we have been studying. These qualities are the criteria you will use as you follow the other steps of the process. Use a blank decision-making matrix to help you decide who would make the best leader.

195 195 CONTENT AREA: World History and Geography KNOWLEDGE: Understands influences on European migration, immigration, and emigration patterns throughout the world between 1846 and 1932 Knows the human and physical characteristics of place Decision Making Task: “Finding a New Home”

196 196 Decision Making Task: “Finding a New Home” People emigrate to other countries for a variety of reasons. Imagine that you live in Ireland in the late 1800s. Your family is thinking about leaving Ireland because of the potato famine. They are considering moving to one of three places: (1)the northeast section of the United States; (2) London, England; or (3) Australia. Use the steps of the decision-making process to help them decide which place would be the best place to move.

197 197 Decision Making Task: “Finding a New Home” One of the steps of the process is to identify criteria for making this decision. Given what you understand about what was happening in Ireland during this time period, what are the qualities of a new homeland that would be important? For example, one thing that might have been important for an Irish family leaving Ireland during this time was “opportunities for employment.” What else might have been important? Identify three other criteria to use. Then, following the other steps of the decision-making process, fill out a decision-making matrix. After you leave reached a preliminary decision, remember to review your criteria and the importance scores you gave to each. Be ready to discuss your decision and what you learned in the process of considering this “move.”

198 198 TIME Person of the Year U.S. Scientists John R. Kennedy Pope John XXIII Martin Luther King Jr. Lyndon Johnson General Westmoreland The Young Generation Lyndon Johnson Apollo Astronauts (Anders, Borman, Lovell) Middle Americans

199 Machine of the Year 1989Man of the Decade Personal Computer Mikhail Gorbachev

200 200 About Problem Solving Reasoning

201 201 Problem Solving is the process of overcoming constraints or limiting conditions that are in the way of pursuing goals More simply, problem solving is overcoming limits or barriers that are in the way of reaching goals Problem Solving Reasoning: The Definition!

202 202 1.Identify the goal you are trying to accomplish. 2.Identify the constraints or limiting conditions. 3.Determine exactly how these constraints or limiting conditions are preventing you from reaching your goal. 4.Identify different wasy of overcoming the constraints or meeting the limiting conditions. 5.Select and try out the alternative that appears to be the best. 6.Evaluate the effectiveness of the alternative yo have tried. If appropriate, try a different alternative or identify additional ways of overcoming the constraints or limiting conditions. Problem Solving Reasoning: The Steps!

203 203 1.What am I trying to accomplish? 2.What are the limits or barriers that are in the way? 3.What are some solutions for overcoming the limits or barriers? 4.Which solution will I try? 5.How well did it work? Should I try another solution? Problem Solving: The Steps! More simply

204 204 Problem Solving: The Graphic Organizer! Goal: Constrain/Limiting Condition: Possible Solution: Possible Solution: Possible Solution:

205 205 Problem Solving Reasoning A Non-linguistic Representation!

206 206 The Picture of Problem Solving Thinking Constraints Limiting Conditions “Brick Walls!” Possible Solution Possible Solution Possible Solution The Goal SELECTED SOLUTION Worked well Problem Solved Did not work well Try Another Solution SOURCE: Marzano & Pickering, Dimensions of Learning

207 207 Goal Problem Solving Goal

208 208 Goal Problem Solving

209 209 Goal Problem Solving Goal Achieved

210 210 Practice Activity: (for students) Problem solving is needed when you have a goal but something is stopping you from achieving your goal. These things that are stopping you might be called limits or barriers. Sometimes you think carefully about the situation, you might discover that you can figure out several ways of overcoming the limits or barriers. But before you work on these alternatives solutions, you might want to think about alternative goals. In other words, before spending a lot of time on solutions, make sure that you hae carefully considered your goal. You might decide that you need to change your goal or that you have not really defined your goal very well. “What’s the Goal?”

211 211 Practice Activity: (for students) An Example: Problem: You are a pioneer trying to get to a certain town before it gets dark. There is a river between you and the city, but the bridge over the river has been damaged by a storm. Goal: To get to the town Barriers, limits: Broken bridge Some solutions: Try to fix the bridge, build a new one, try to cross the river without the bridge, etc. “What’s the Goal?” (continued)

212 212 Practice Activity: (for students) But, wait. Maybe your goal is not really to get to a certain town. Perhaps it is simply to get somewhere safe for the night. When you think about it, there are a number of other towns on your side of the river that would provide you with safety. Now the process looks like this: Alternative goal: To get to safety for the night Barriers: None “What’s the Goal?” (continued)

213 213 Practice Activity: (for students) DIRECTIONS : Follow these steps for each of the situations on the following slides: 1.State the goal. 2.Identify the barriers or limits that will make it difficult to achieve the goal. 3.Brainstorm some solutions. 4.Think of alternative goals that could relate to the situation. Sometimes there night be other goals, sometimes there won’t be. 5.Decide if there are barriers or limits to achieving the alternative goal. “What’s the Goal?” (continued)

214 214 Practice Activity: (for students) THE SITUATIONS for PROBLEM SOLVING : 1.You want to be on a certain soccer team, but you do not have the skills. 2.You want to go to a party, but you discover that what you wanted to wear is dirty. 3.You want to play in the school band but your mother says that there is just not enough money to buy you a tuba, your favorite instrument. 4.You are about to leave with a friend for a school play when you find out you don’t have a ride after all. “What’s the Goal?” (continued)

215 215 Practice Activity: (for students) THE SITUATIONS for PROBLEM SOLVING : 5.You are a sales manager for a big company. Your boss is yelling at you every day to increase the sales in your department. You are already working as hard as you can. There is no more time and you have no money to hire any more salespeople. 6.You have a new puppy and you love him. He is adorable, but he barks all night. You have read books on puppy training and tried all the suggestions, but he still barks. The neighbors are complaining and threatening to call the police. You cannot afford obedience school for your dog. “What’s the Goal?” (continued)

216 216 Practice Activity: (for students) DIRECTIONS: Practicing the process of problem solving with day-to-day problems helps us to more effectively use the process – both in our daily lives and in the classroom with academic content. Over the next few days, practice using the problem-solving process. Below is a form for you to copy and use on your own paper. First identify a number of problems that you see – in school, in your neighborhood, around town, etc. Then use the steps of the process to identify effective solutions to the problems. “Everyday Problems”

217 217 Practice Activity: (for students) A problem I see: The goal: The limits or barriers that are in the way: Solutions for overcoming the limits or barriers: The solution I think is best: “Everyday Problems” (continued)

218 218 Practice Activity: (for students) DIRECTIONS: Sometimes there are a number of possible solutions to a problem, but usually some will work better than others. The trick is to choose the one you think will work best. In order to make this choice, you have to consider a number of things. For example, you might consider which will solve the problem the quickest, which is the safest, which will require the fewest number of tools, or which will not only solve the problem but will help make sure that the problem doesn’t occur again. For each of the following problems, list some possible solutions. Then pick one and identify the things you consider when selecting the one you think will be the “best” solution. “Finding the Best Solution”

219 219 Practice Activity: (for students) Problem # 1: You are supposed to leave for a birthday party in five minutes, and you realize you forgot to buy a present. There’s no time to get to the store. (continued) “Finding the Best Solution” Problem # 2: It’s time to go to bed. You just remembered that you forgot to do your homework. That means you’ll have to stay in from recess tomorrow. You mother won’t let you stay up any later.

220 220 Problem Solving Task: “Constructing a Vehicle” Students are expected to construct a vehicle with only specified materials. Goal restated: I want to construct a vehicle with the acceptable materials. Constraints: Materials that can and can not be used. How constraints are limiting: Effect on strength, power, or aerodynamics of the project. Possibilities and pluses and minuses of each: Ideas include which materials to use in construction and impact of each on effect.

221 221 Problem Solving Task: “Salt & Food” Salt has been used for centuries to cure meat, fish and other foods because it kills microoganisms. How can the same effect be produced without using salt and keep the food at room temperature? Goal restated: I want to treat meat, fish and other foods with something that will kill the microorganisms even when it’s kept at room temp. Constraints: Salt can’t be used and room temp. How constraints are limiting: Salt kills microorganisms, and dropping the temperature of meat below freezing stops the organic processes that produce microorganisms. Therefore, I must either think of different ways of killing microorganisms or stopping the processes that allow their growth. Possibilities and pluses and minuses of each: Ideas include vacuum packing or a drying process and pluses and minuses of each.

222 222 Problem Solving Task: “Mandatory Drug Testing” Some people are calling for mandatory drug testing in many job settings and other areas of life (for example, in sports). Yet mandatory testing is rare. What is behind the call for mandatory drug testing? That is, what benefits are there to mandatory drug testing? Imagine that you have been hired by a group that supports mandatory drug testing to solve the problems that have prevented mandatory testing from becoming a more widespread reality. You are also charged with designing a campaign that will encourage more people to institute mandatory drug testing.

223 223 Problem Solving Task: “Mandatory Drug Testing” Use a variety of resources to learn about the issue and plan your presentation, which you will make to a group of your choice. You will be assessed on and provided rubrics for the following: Science & Social Studies: Your understanding of the effects of drug use on society. Your understanding of the interplay of individual rights and societal protection. Life Long Learning: Problem Solving Your ability to accurately identify viable and important alternatives for overcoming the constraints or obstacles.

224 224 CONTENT AREA: Health KNOWLEDGE: Knows the nutritional value of different foods, and understands how food-preparation methods affect their nutritional value. Problem Solving Task: “Turkey Day Challenge”

225 225 Problem Solving Task: “Turkey Day Challenge” It’s Thanksgiving. Most families simply buy a turkey and a few cans of cranberry sauce, make some mashed potatoes, and bake some pies. But your family is different. Your dad has to eat as little sugar as possible; your sister can’t drink milk or eat ice cream or cheese; your brother eats no meat or fish; your mom is on a low- fat diet. How can you create a meal that has the traditional Thanksgiving foods, that meets all of the needs of your family members, but still is high in nutrition? (continued)

226 226 Problem Solving Task: “Turkey Day Challenge” Use the steps of the problem-solving process you develop a menu for your Thanksgiving feast. Think about the dishes that you might serve and whether these meet all of the needs you have identified. If a good you were planning to serve does not meet these needs, think about the dishes you could serve instead. Consider a few different foods or recipes and determine which ones might be the most flavorful and nutritious. Continue to try different alternatives until you have come up with a menu that meets your goals. (continued)

227 227 CONTENT AREA: Language Arts KNOWLEDGE: Use descriptive language that clarifies and enhances ideas (e.g., establishes tone and mood, uses figurative language) Problem Solving Task: “Choose Your Words Carefully”

228 228 Problem Solving Task: “Choose Your Words Carefully” Writers who are trying to express their appreciation or enthusiasm for something – whether an idea, a person, a film, an experience, etc. – sometimes rely too heavily on adjectives. Of course, adjectives have their place in any written piece, but there are a variety of ways of using the English language to describe. (continued)

229 229 Problem Solving Task: “Choose Your Words Carefully” Your task is to write a rave review of a movie or book. You may select any book or film. You may use the articles – a, an, the, - freely. However, you may use adjectives only four times. The purpose of this task is to stretch your writing skills and to enhance your vocabulary. Feel free to use a thesaurus and a dictionary as you write this review. (continued)

230 230 Problem Solving Task: “Bravo!” You have been given a job by a small theater company to design the sets for its next production. The budget is tight, but their facility has one strength: the lighting capabilities. The producer wants you to use your understanding of the visual and aural elements of an environment (place, time, atmosphere, and mood) to design the sets using only lights.

231 231 About Investigation Reasoning

232 232 Investigation Reasoning is the process of identifying and resolving issues about which there are confusions or contradictions. More simply, investigation reasoning involves suggesting and defending ways to clear up confusions about ideas or events Investigation Reasoning: The Definition!

233 233 1.Clearly identify: * the concept to be defined (Definitional Investigation), or * the past event to be explained (Historical Investigation), or * the hypothetical event to be defined or explained (Projective Investigation). 2.Identify what is already known or agreed upon. 3.Identify and explain the confusion or contradiction. 4.Develop and defend a plausible resolution to the confusion or contradiction. Investigation Reasoning: The Steps!

234 234 1.What event or ideas do I want to clear up? 2.What do people already know? 3.What confusions do people have about the idea or event? 4.What suggestions do I have for clearing up these confusions? 5.How can I defend my suggestions? Investigation: The Steps! More simply

235 235 Investigation: The Graphic Organizer! Concept/Scenario Known or Agreed Upon Confusions or Contradictions Resolution: ****** ******

236 236 THREE TYPES OF INVESTIGATION Definitional Investigation: Constructing a precise definition of a concept for which there is no generally agreed-upon definition (e.g. civil disobedience) Cue Questions: What are the important features of……………? What are the defining characteristics of……….? Historical Investigation: Constructing a scenario for an event/situation from the past for which there is no agreed-upon explanation or sequence of events (e.g. determine Columbus’s route to the New World) Cue Questions: What really happened? Why did this happen? Projective Investigation: Constructing a scenario for a future event or for a hypothetical past event (e.g. if Mahatma Gandhi or President Lincoln had not been assassinated or what if genetic engineering continues on its present course) Cue Questions: What would happen if…..? What would have happened if……..?

237 237 Practice Activity: (for students) Investigation is the process of suggesting and defending ways to clear up confusions about ideas or events. It is a process that is used by investigative reporters and detectives but also by people in their everyday lives. The investigation process is different from the research process. The key difference is that topics for investigation are only those that fit one or more of the following criteria: There are concepts that seem to have no agreed-upon definition. There are historical events about which there are confusions or contradictions. There are hypothetical past events or future scenarios that might be constructed. “What Needs Investigating?”

238 238 Practice Activity: (for students) Identifying topics for investigation sometimes can be difficult, primarily because it is not something we are accustomed to doing. However, the more we practice identifying topics, the more easily we will look for and notice them in the world around us – both in the classroom and in our everyday lives. DIRECTIONS: Over the next few days, practice identifying topics that could be investigated. Use the following questions to stimulate your thinking. “What Needs Investigating?” (continued)

239 239 Practice Activity: (for students) # 1 DEFINITIONAL INVESTIGATION “What Needs Investigating?” (continued) Are there concepts for which people seem to have differing definitions or for which there seems to be no agreed-upon definition? Be careful. We aren’t just looking for topics about which people have different opinions. We are looking for topics that don’t really seem to have a definition. What concepts do people use that might be good topics for investigation? Examples: “civil disobedience” “Third World”

240 240 Practice Activity: (for students) # 2 HISTORICAL INVESTIGATION “What Needs Investigating?” (continued) Are there events from the past about which people have disagreements or confusions? Is there something that happened in the history of our country or another country, for example, about which people have different versions of what happened? Examples: Was John F. Kennedy assassinated? Who wrote the plays that have been attributed to Shakespeare?

241 241 Practice Activity: (for students) # 3 PROJECTIVE INVESTIGATION “What Needs Investigating?” (continued) Are there hypothetical past events that should be investigated? In other words, is there a past event that was so significant that the present would be quite different if this event had not occurred or if it had happened differently? Are there future events that could be investigated? Would it be beneficial to explore some behaviors in the present and predict what would happen in the near and distant future if the behaviors were to continue? Examples: What would happen if the U.S. dropped the nuclear bomb to end World War II? What will happen if scientists are allowed to clone human beings?

242 242 Practice Activity: (for students) DIRECTIONS: Practicing the process of investigation helps us to use it more easily and effectively in the future. Pick one question from each list of questions under Definitional Investigation and under a Projective Investigation. Follow the directions under Historical Investigation to think of your own question. Then for each question, practice using the steps of the investigation process. Use a blank graphic organizer for the process ofinvestigation. “Practicing the Process”

243 243 Practice Activity: (for students) DEFINITIONAL INVESTIGATION 1.What is a friend? 2.How do weather forecasters decide whether it is a partly sunny day as opposed to a partly cloudy day? 3.What does it mean to be in shape? 4.What is a religion? 5.Think of another word about which people have different definitions. “Practicing the Process” (continued)

244 244 Practice Activity: (for students) HISTORICAL INVESTIGATION Try to think of something that has happened recently about which people have different versions of the series of events. For example: Did something happen in school recently and different people have different versions of what happened? Has there been an event in your community about which peole have different versions? “Practicing the Process” (continued)

245 245 Practice Activity: (for students) PROJECTIVE INVESTIGATION 1.What would happen if I skipped ahead three grades in school? 2.What would happen if everyone’s car stopped working at the same time? 3.What would have happened if television had never been invented? 4.What would have happened if it rained every day last summer? “Practicing the Process” (continued)

246 246 Research Topic Investigation Topic Porpoise The confusion over the extent to which porpoises use language & the controversy surrounding the benefits of swimming with porpoises Tennis How did the strange scoring system of tennis evolve? The Exodus Why do some sources refer to the Red Sea and some to the Reed Sea? Money Why do quarters and dimes have ridges while nickels and pennies do not? Hitler The conflicting stories surrounding Hitler’s death. Middle East How did the reference to the “Third World” countries begin and what does it mean? Columbus What if he had landed on American’s West Coast? THERE’S A BIG DIFFERENCE!!!!

247 247 CONTENT AREA: Language Arts KNOWLEDGE: Understands that qualities and themes of particular pieces of literature appeal to people across cultures and across time. Investigation (Definitional) Task: “What’s a Classic?”

248 248 The school librarian has decided to create a section of the library that will be devoted to the classics. She has asked each class to submit a list of titles to be considered for inclusion in this section. But what is a classic ? Many people use the term when talking about literature, but what does it mean? Some people think that a defining characteristic of a classic is that it is old. But how old? Others think that a classic is a piece of literature that is of “high quality.” But what is meant by “high quality?” There doesn’t seem to be an agreed-upon definition of the term classic. Your task is to try to remedy this obvious contradiction by working to craft a definition of a classic in literature. Then, based on your definition, put together a list of 3-5 titles that fit your definition and that you think should be included in the library’s classics section. (continued) Investigation (Definitional) Task: “What’s a Classic?”

249 249 CONTENT AREA: World History KNOWLEDGE: Knows significant inventions and inventors in 19 th century Europe and America; Understands the impact of new inventions and technological developments in various regions of the world, for example: How new inventions transformed patterns of global communication, trade, and state power; How new machines, fertilizers, transport systems, and commercialization affected agricultural production; Investigation (Historical) Task: “What Really Happened?”

250 250 Exploration and invention are ongoing processes that involve many people. It is rare that one day a person suddenly experiences “Eureka! I’ve done it!” Throughout history, there have been many discoveries and invention. However, there are many disagreements about the specific events surrounding these discoveries and inventions and even about who made the discoveries or created the inventions. (continued) Investigation (Historical) Task: “What Really Happened?”

251 251 Working in groups, select a topic from the following list or select a topic of your choosing, and conduct a historical investigation. You will be given access to some resources and a list of others that you might want to use. Your task is not so much to craft the perfect resolution to the disagreement or misconception as it is to focus on why there are disagreements and misconceptions. Pretend you are producing a movie that would explain the reasons for the disagreements or misconceptions about the topic and offer a resolution (much like Oliver Stone did in the movie JFK). (continued) Investigation (Historical) Task: “What Really Happened?” Did Columbus discover America? Did Vasco Nunez de Balboa discover the Pacific Ocean? Did Admiral Peary discover the North Pole? Did Eli Whitney invent the cotton gin? Did George Pullman invent the sleeper car? Did Henry Ford invent the assembly line?

252 252 CONTENT AREA: Geography KNOWLEDGE: Understands the possible impact that present conditions and patterns of consumption, production, and population growth might have on the future spatial organization of Earth Investigation (Projective) Task: “Too Many People?”

253 253 Latin American countries currently are experiencing rapid population growth. Statistics suggest that some of these countries will double their current populations within years. It is likely that this population growth will have a severe impact on employment, education, housing, poverty, and land use within these countries. To investigate the possible future effects of this enormous population growth Latin American countries have established a special investigative committee. As a member of this committee, you have been asked to select a specific Latin American country and identify what is already known about the current problems it faces related to rapid population growth. Identify any questions or confusions regarding how these current problems may relate to future population growth problems in this country. Based on the information you have gathered, project how this country might be affected by a population twice its current size. Construct a scenario of the future in which you clearly describe the effects of overpopulation on the country. Be prepared to support your scenario with evidence from your research. (continued) Investigation (Projective) Task: “Too Many People?”

254 254 CONTENT AREA: Social Studies Understand that recorded history is influenced by the perspective of the historian Understand the events surrounding Columbus’ “discover” and settlement of the New World. LIFELONG LEARNING: Historical Investigation Is skilled at identifying and explaining confusion, uncertainty, or contradiction surrounding the past event Is skilled at developing and defending a logical and plausible resolution to the confusion, uncertainty or contradiction surrounding the past event Investigation (Historical) Task: “Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain?”

255 255 (continued) Investigation (Historical) Task: “Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain?” In recent years, controversy has arisen over the status of Christopher Columbus. Was he a hero or a villain? As we study Columbus, we will read from a number of resources penned by different historians. In cooperative groups, choose at least two resources that describe conflicting reports of events that took place upon Columbus’ “discovery” of the New World and during its settlement. Discuss the contradictions you find and try to determine why the historians reported events differently. Using the resources available, develop a clear explanation of the reasons for the contradictions or present a scenario that clears up the contradictions. Your group will explain to the class why historians seem to report the same events differently and present a dramatization, panel, discussion, or debate that focuses on ideas for resolving the contradictions.

256 256 Investigation (Historical) Topics: Students studying the World War II investigate why the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Some say President Roosevelt intentionally provoked the Japanese. Others disagree. Students had the impression that many authors write great things because they lead interesting if not bizarre lives (in comparison to the students’ lives). The assignment: select an author, identify points of disagreement or misconception about the author’s life, and then try to clear these up.

257 257 Investigation (Historical) Topics: Students read in their textbook that the dinosaurs died because of severe changes in climate. Students were assigned to come up with other reasons, but their answers had to take into account other explanations and they must describe why their answer is the best. Newton and Leibniz both claimed to have discovered calculus. Leibniz appealed to the Royal Society who accused Leibniz of plagiarism. Newton was president of the society and some say he wrote the report himself. Find out and defend the truth.

258 258 Investigation (Projective) Task: “Is There Another Way?” Select a major movement from the ’60’s that involved civil disobedience. Consider what would have happened if there had been no civil disobedience as part of the movement. Identify a different method of seeking change. Describe 1) how the movement during the decade might have played out differently, and 2) how the present would be different if there had been no civil disobedience and, instead, the method of change you identify had been used exclusively.

259 259 About Experimental Inquiry Reasoning

260 260 Experimental Inquiry is the process of generating and testing explanations of observed phenomena. More simply, experimental inquiry is developing and testing explanations of things we observe. Experimental Inquiry : The Definition!

261 261 1.Observe something that interests you and describe what has occurred. 2.Explain what you have observed. What theories or rules could explain what you have observed. 3.Based on your explanation, make a prediction. 4.Set up an experiment or activity to test your prediction. 5.Explain the results of your experiment in light of your explanation. If necessary, revise your explanation or prediction or conduct another experiment. Experimental Inquiry: The Steps!

262 262 1.What do I see or notice? 2.How can I explain it? 3.Based on my explanation, what can I predict? 4.How can I test my prediction? 5.What happened? Is it what I predicted? Do I need to try a different explanation? Experimental Inquiry: The Steps! More simply

263 263 Experimental Inquiry: The Graphic Organizer! Observation: Relevant Theory/Rule: Possible Explanation: Relevant Theory/Rule: Prediction: Activity/Experiment: Results:

264 264 Experimental Inquiry A Non-linguistic Representation!

265 265 EXPERIMENTAL INQUIRY People who were in high school and college during the 1960’s are now in their fifties and sixties. Consider this population. Some would say that it is interesting that there seems to be no lasting effect of the ’60’s on these people. One possible explanation for this is that the effect is there, but it is very subtle. Try to determine if their experiences during the ’60’s have had any lasting effect on these people. Test your hypothesis and report on… OR

266 266 EXPERIMENTAL INQUIRY---Continued During the late ’80’s, there was a renewed interest in the Vietnam War (movies, books, documentaries). Hypothesize a possible explanation for this. Set up an experiment or other activity to test your hypothesis. Report on… a)your hypothesis and how you tested your hypothesis b) your findings c)your conclusions

267 267 Experimental Inquiry If I am right, then… I think that the explanation for this is…

268 268 Experimental Inquiry If I am right, then… I think that the explanation for this is…

269 269 Practice Activity: (for students) Experimental Inquiry is the process of developing and testing explanations of things we observe. Many people mistakenly think that this process is one that only scientists use, but in reality it is a process that anyone can use – at any age. “What Might Explain It?”

270 270 Practice Activity: (for students) For example, imagine that your family has a picnic in the backyard one night and forgets to bring the hamburger buns into the house. The next day when you walk outside, you see only a few pieces of hamburger bun – with bite marks in them – laying on the ground. The marks look too big to be made from a bird or a squirrel. You notice a hole has been dug under your fence from the neighbor’s backyard. Your neighbor has a Toy Terrier. You decide to set up a little experiment over the next few nights. One night, you block the hole from your neighbor’s yard. The next night, you open it. You alternately open and close the hole over the next week. At the end of the week, you review the results of your test. By following these steps, you have used process of experimental inquiry. “What Might Explain It?” (continued)

271 271 Practice Activity: (for students) DIRECTIONS: Over the next few days, observe things that interest you. Use the cue questions below to describe what occurred and then to explain what you observed. Then think about the theories or rules that could explain what you have observed. 1.Something I observed that interests me: 1.Theories or rules that could explain what I observed: “What Might Explain It?” (continued)

272 272 Practice Activity: (for students) Experimental Inquiry is the process of developing and testing explanations of things we observe. Many people mistakenly think that this process is one that only scientists use, but, in fact, it is a process that anyone can use – at any age! Setting up an experiment is one of the most important – and hardest – steps in the process of experimental inquiry. Practicing this step can help you to think of good experiments more easily in the future. “Setting Up An Experiment”

273 273 Practice Activity: (for students) DIRECTIONS: For each of the following items, try to think of an experiment that you could set up to test the prediction. Answer these two questions for the each of the three scenarios: “Setting Up An Experiment” (continued) Scenario # 1 You notice that if you stand by the heat vent in your second-floor bedroom, you can hear the voices of your friends talking in the basement. Question # 1: What would you need to understand to be able to explain this? Question # 2: What type of experiment might you set up to test your explanation?

274 274 Practice Activity: (for students) “Setting Up An Experiment” (continued) Scenario # 2 You want to plant some flowers in your garden. You notice that certain types of flowers do better in your neighborhood than others. Question # 1: What would you need to understand to be able to explain this? Question # 2: What type of experiment might you set up to test your explanation?

275 275 Practice Activity: (for students) “Setting Up An Experiment” (continued) Scenario # 3 Whenever you are at the corner ice cream store, you notice that men seem to buy flavors like blueberry, raspberry, and mint and that women seem to buy flavors like chocolate, fudge marble, chocolate chip. Question # 1: What would you need to understand to be able to explain this? Question # 2: What type of experiment might you set up to test your explanation?

276 276 CONTENT AREA: Economics KNOWLEDGE: Understands the concepts of supply and demand and consumers and producers Experimental Inquiry Task: “Going, Going Gone!” When a company makes a product – whether it is a loaf of bread, a specific book, or a game – the number of copies that the company makes of that product is called supply. Demand is another term that is often used when people talk about economics. Demand refers to the people who want to buy a product who also can afford to buy it. Companies that make products are called producers. People who buy products are called consumers.

277 277 Experimental Inquiry Task: “Going, Going, Gone!” Sometimes limited supply can increase demand. Over the past few years, certain toys have been so popular that some people who wanted to buy them couldn’t because the toys were all sold out. This has happened with a number of toys, including the Tickel Me Elmo doll and Beanie Babies. In fact, sometimes companies make it difficult for people to buy certain products so that people will want them even more. Working with other students, think of an experiment you could set up to see what happens when people perceive that there is a limited supply of an item. Specially, think of a product that you might sell in a way that would help you to learn more about supply and demand. For example, you might designate one type of a products as “Almost Sold Out” or “Only 3 Left.” (continued)

278 278 Experimental Inquiry Task: “Going, Going, Gone!” Here are a couple of product ideas to get you started, but feel free to think of your own idea: 1.Selling cookies after lunch at school 2.2. Selling pencils right before finals. Using the steps of the process, make a prediction and then explain how you would set up an experiment or activity to test your prediction. Over the next few days you will set up your experiment and explain the results. (Note to teachers: If it’s more appropriate for your setting, students could be given a limited number of plastic chips, which would take the place of real money. They could then use these to “buy” products.) (continued)

279 279 CONTENT AREA: Science KNOWLEDGE: Understands that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form to another Experimental Inquiry Task: “Dead Battery?” You have just dashed into Leo’s Auto Shop to purchase a new battery for your car when you overhear a man in the store talking about an experience he once had with a battery. The man tells his buddy that he once purchased a new battery for his car, but it went dead before he could install it because he left it sitting on the concrete floor of his garage. You are concerned because it will be a week or so before you will be able to install the new battery in your own car, so you decide to ask Leo about this when you pay for the battery.

280 280 Experimental Inquiry Task: “Dead Battery?” Unfortunately, Leo is not in the best of moods this afternoon, and he only growls to you that with today’s batteries you don’t have to worry about that happening anymore. As you leave the store, you become more curious about the whole idea of a concrete floor causing a new battery to lose its charge. You decide to inquire a little further into the matter. Based on your understanding that energy can never be created or destroyed, how might you explain the fact that a battery lost its charge just by sitting on a garage floor? Conduct some research, if necessary, to familiarize yourself with how batteries work. Review any theories or rules we have learned that might explain how this could happen. Then come up with your explanation, and make a prediction based on that explanation. Design and conduct an experiment to test your prediction. Confirm or revise your prediction based on the results of your experiment, and be prepared to report your findings to the class. (continued)

281 281 Experimental Inquiry Task: “The Sixties!” People who were in high school and college during the Sixties are now fifty-something. Consider this population. Some would say that it is interesting that there seems to be no lasting effect of the Sixties on these people. One possible explanation for this is that the effect is there but in a very subtle way. Try to determine what effects the experiences of the Sixties are having on lives of these people in the Nineties. Test your hypothesis and report on: A. Your hypothesis; B. How you tested your hypothesis; C. Your findings; D. Your conclusions.

282 282 Q 5

283 283 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 5: Engaging Students involves: Using Games That Focus on Academic Content Using Inconsequential Competition Managing Questions and Response Rates Physical Movement Using Appropriate Pacing Demonstrating Intensity & Enthusiasm for the Content Engaging Students in Friendly Controversy Opportunities for Students to Talk About Themselves Providing Unusual Information

284 284 Q 6

285 285 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 6: Establishing & Maintaining Classroom Rules and Procedures involves: Organizing the Classroom for Effective Teaching and Learning Establishing a Small Set of Rules and Procedures Interacting With Students About the Rules and Procedures Periodically Review Rules and Procedures. Make Changes as Necessary. Use Classroom Meetings

286 286 Q 7

287 287 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 7: Recognize and Acknowledge Adherence or Lack of Adherence to Classroom Rules and Procedures involves: ACKNOWLEDGING ADHERENCE TO RULES AND PROCEDURES : Use Simple Verbal and Nonverbal Acknowledgment Use Tangible Recognition When Appropriate Involve the Home in Recognition of Positive Student Behavior ACKNOWLEDGING LACK OF ADHERENCE TO …….. Be With-It Use Direct Costs Consequences Use Group Contingency Use Home Contingency Have a Strategy for High-Intensity Situations Design an Overall Plan for Disciplinary Problems

288 288 Q 8

289 289 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 8: Establishing & Maintaining Effective Student Relationships involves: COMMUNICATING CONCERN AND COOPERATION: Knowing Something About Each Student Engaging in Behaviors That Indicate Affection for Each Student Bring Student Interests into the Content/Personalize Learning Engage in Physical Behaviors That Communicate Interest in Students Use Humor When Appropriate COMMUNICATING GUIDANCE AND CONTROL: Consistently Enforce Positive and Negative Consequences Project a Sense of Emotional Objectivity Maintain a Cool Exterior

290 290 Q 9

291 291 The Art & Science of Teaching: Planning Questions 1.Learning Goals – Track and Celebrate Progress 2.Interacting With New Knowledge 3.Practicing and Deepening Their Understanding 4.Generating and Testing Hypotheses 5.Engagement 6.Rules and Procedures 7.Acknowledging Adherence (or not) to Rules and Procedures 8.Effective Relationships 9.High Expectations 10.Developing Effective Lessons – Cohesive Units Q 9: Communicating High Expectations for All Students involves: Identify You Expectation Level for Students Identify Differential Treatment of Low-Expectancy Students Make Sure Low-Expectancy Students Receive Verbal and Nonverbal Indications That They Are Valued and Respected Ask Questions of Low-Expectancy Students When Low-Expectancy Students Do Not Answer a Question Correctly or Completely, Stay with Them

292 292 REFLECTING on the DAY An idea I had… A feeling I experienced.. A step I will take...


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