Presentation on theme: "Rocks and Minerals SC.4.E.6.1 Identify the three categories of rocks: igneous, (formed from molten rock); sedimentary (pieces of other rocks and fossilized."— Presentation transcript:
Rocks and Minerals SC.4.E.6.1 Identify the three categories of rocks: igneous, (formed from molten rock); sedimentary (pieces of other rocks and fossilized organisms); and metamorphic (formed from heat and pressure). SC.4.E.6.2 Identify the physical properties of common earth- forming minerals, including hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak color, and recognize the role of minerals in the formation of rocks.
How are ROCKS formed? ADD Two or more minerals Once-living animals Organic plant matter ROCKS
CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS TYPES OF ROCK DEFINITION Metamorphic Rock rock formed from extreme heat and pressure Igneous Rock rock formed from the cooling of magma or lava Sedimentary Rock rock formed from many layers of sediments that become pressed and cemented together
M E T A M O R P H I C R O C K S. Formed when igneous and sedimentary rocks are exposed to extreme heat and pressure. QuartziteMarbleSlate E X A M P L E S
I G N E O U S R O C K S. Formed when molten rock is cooled. GraniteObsidianBasalt E X A M P L E S
S E D I M E N T A R Y R O C K S. Formed when smaller pieces of rock and fossilized organisms are pressed and cemented together. LimestoneShaleCoal E X A M P L E S
T H E R O C K C Y C L E.
C O M M O N M I N E R A L S Talc Pyrite Graphite Quartz Feldspar Mica Calcite
COMMON CHACTERISTICS USED TO CLASSIFY MINERALS HARDNESS To determine hardness, one mineral is rubbed against another to see if it will result in being scratched. HARDNESS FACTS Quartz and feldspar can scratch both glass and steel and are considered hard minerals. Diamond is the hardest natural substance on Earth, while talc is the softest mineral. Talc is so soft that your fingernail can easily scratch it.
HARDNESS SCALE OF MINERALS AND OTHER OBJECTS HARDNESSMINERAL 1Talc 2Graphite 3Calcite and Mica 4Fluorite 5Feldspar 6Pyrite 7Quartz 8Topaz 9Corundum 10Diamond HARDNESSOTHER OBJECTS 2.5Fingernail 3Copper Penny 5.5Glass 7.5Concrete Nail
COMMON CHACTERISTICS USED TO CLASSIFY MINERALS COLOR Many minerals exist in different colors and some minerals have identical colors to others. Pink ROSE QUARTZ GRAPHITE Steel Grey
COMMON CHACTERISTICS USED TO CLASSIFY MINERALS LUSTER A mineral's luster describes the way light is reflected from its surface. EXAMPLE GLASSY DULL BRILLIANT WAXY PEARLY Pyrite is the classic "Fool's Gold“ It is commonly mistaken for gold. METALLIC ADJECTIVES DESCRIBING LUSTER
COMMON CHACTERISTICS USED TO CLASSIFY MINERALS CLEAVAGE Occurs when a mineral breaks along a smooth definite line. CLEAVAGE IMPERFECT GOOD PERFECT POOR GOOD CLEAVAGE PERFECT CLEAVAGE MICA CALCITE
COMMON CHACTERISTICS USED TO CLASSIFY MINERALS STREAK The powder color of a mineral left behind when the mineral is rubbed against a streak plate or a porcelain tile. STREAK PLATE
COMMON CHACTERISTICS USED TO CLLASIFY MINERALS STREAK COLOR CHART MINERALSTREAK COLOR QuartzWhite FeldsparWhite MicaWhite CalciteWhite TalcWhite PyriteBlack GraphiteBlack to Steel Gray